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V 1826. 

- / 

[bntered in stationers' hall.^ 




' /en 

The object, in the following Work, is to trace the descent of English words ; their affinity 
with the different dialects of Gothic spoken in Europe ; and the connexion between our own 
and some other tongues both of Europe and Asia, without introducing any remarks where the 
general meaning is obvious. Evident derivations from the Latin and Greek are often omit- 
ted, because sufficiently understood by all literary persons. 

Grothic words from five dialects of that language are introduced as concurrent etymons ; to 
which the Russian and Irish vocabularies, in the proportion of at least one third, bear evident 
affinity, either by cognl^tion or adoption ; although so much disguised, by a different ortho- 
graphy, that they could not be usefully added without explanations too difiuse for the present 
object The plan, as the reader will observe, is studiously concise ; being intended rather as 
an Index than a Glossary. The cursory observer will find it sufficient for his purpose ; and 
those who are inclined to deeper research must apply to the under-mentioned sources of infor- 

The Index of Vereleus contains nearly all the Gothic roots employed in English ; and an 
improved arrangement of that valuable record, with considerable additions, has been prepared 
for publication. The Glossaries of Ihre, of Schertz and Oberlin, the Thesaurus of Hickes, and 
the Dictionary of Lye, exhibit the variations that occur in the Swedish, Teutonic, Mceso- 
Gothic and Anglo-Saxon dialects ; and to them the inquisitive reader must have reference. 
He will do well to consult also the Scottish Etymology of Dr Jamieson. 

The contractions employed to indicate difierent languages are to be understood thus : 

A. Arabic. 
Arm. Armoric. , 

B. Belgic. 
Chald. Chaldaic. 
D. Danish. 

F. French. 
O. Gothic. 
Heb. Hebrew. 
Hind. Hindoostanee. 

I. Irish. 

Isl. Islandic. 

It. Italian. 

L. Latin. 

L. B. Barbarous Latin. 

O. £. Old English. 

P. Persian. 

Pol. Polish. 

Port Portuguese. 

Russ. Russian. 
Sans. Sanscrit. 
S. Saxon. 
Scot. Scotch. 
Sp. Spanish. 
Swed. Swedish. 
T. Teutonic. • 
Turk. Turkish. 
W. Welsh. 

* Teutonic words are generally written according to the orthography of the middle ages ; which is somewhat different from that now used in 
upper Germany ; but the connexion with English is more obvious. 


Ths English Language is derited from the Grothic and Celtic, chiefly through the Anglo- 
Saxon and French dialects. The object now in contemplation is to trace the probable origin of 

its words, to Qiark their adventitious changes, and indicate their principal analogies. 


The utility of etymological inquiries has been disputed on the ground, that, a precise 
meaning being once affixed to words, it avails little to know whence they originated. This, 
abstractedly, may be true ; but, linked so intimately as they are with the Arts and Sciences, 
their variations must correspond with the progressive improvement of the human mind, and 
therefore assume some considerable importance in the History of Man. Even the puerile 
attempts of this kind whicb^J[iave been admitted4nto our dictionaries, create a national concern 
that means should be tried to avert the sneer of foreigners, and remove at least some erroneous 
ideas, which are always pernicious. The difficulty of such correction is sufficiently evident. 
Few literary men would be disposed to tread in this hiunble path ; and fewer still, if any, 
possess knowledge of the ancient and modern languages of Europe adequate to the pursuit. 
Many years of labour, and no small portion of fortune must be devoted, in this way, without 
any certainty of success, amidst the numerous contingencies which exclude all rational calcula- 
tion of pecuniary advantage. Fame, the aerial recompense of authors, cannot be expected. 
If the etymons be at all natural, the difficidties of selecting and compiling them will become 
less obvious. They offer, at the same time, so wide a scope to the shafts of criticism, that 
those who choose to exercise it candidly, will at least, distinguish between the cursory and 
amusing analysis of particular ly ords, and the toil of wading through a whole vocabulary with 
no choice of evasion. 

The task, here prescribed, extends much beyond the usual practice of referring, merely to 
some cognate term, in German or French, for an English etymon, without pointing further 
toward a common source ; which is little more satisfactory than adducing some difference of 
pronunciation at York and in London. 

It is impossible to conceive, without painful experience, what obstacles must be encountered 
during the investigation, not only of corrupt expressions, but numerous omissions, mutations, 
and transpositions of letters, by which nations, as they became more refined, endeavoured to 
please the ear by euphony. This confusion has been increased, in many cases, by the intro- 
duction of a foreign alphabet unadapted to the organic sounds of particular languages ; such as 
the Sclavonian and Irish, where several consonants are put together for what might be expressed 
by a single letter. And still more provoking, if possible, is the barbarous articulation of such 



conquerors as those who have changed Constantinople, Athens, and Nicaea, into Stambul, 
Settines, and Isnie. 

The Gallic Celts were more remarkable for their variable pronunciation and mutation of 
letters than even the Welsh and Irish. The I«atin verbum was with them berf, werv, which 
the Welsh converted into gwerv, geirb, and gair ; while barba, the beard, was barf, varef, 
barv, parw, warf ; the Gascons were Vascons, Wassones, Bascons and Biscayans. In many 
instances, however, imperfections of this nature were productive of some advantage, in the 
same way that the Latin flavus, fulvus, helvus, and gilvus, although originally perhaps the 
same word, served afterwards to describe different shades of colour. H, g, and c, when initial 
letters, were generally confounded among the Celts, by indistinct guttural sounds, to produce 
energy ; but k has fluently taken their place, in modem days, since they became ot^ection- 
able for their harshness. 

The intermutations of p, q, c, h, and k, are very extraordinary. P, reversed, appears to 
have formed q, which probably was introduced into the alphabet at a later date. The Osce 
or Oscans, whom we now call Toscans, used p where the Latins had q. The Welsh and Ar- 
moricans adhere to the mode of the Osce, while the Irish incline generally toward that of the 
Latins ; and, allowing for such singularities, the affinity of European language is observable 
in the qui, quce, quod of the Latin, which takes cui in the dativ^e case ; the Irish ci, ce, ciod ; 
the Greek to7o^, ^a, to7op\ the Molic zdso^^ «oia, xo7o¥\ the Armoric and Welsh, pi, pa, piad, 
or pibeth; the Grothic huo, hua, huad; Saxon hwa, hwe, hwat ; Danish hwo, hwilk, hwad ; 
Belgic wie, wilk, wat. And in our ancient quho, quhich, quhilk, quhat, together with the 
modem who, which, what, seem to be included both the Celtic and Gothic pronunciations. 
The Grothic huilk, our which, is contracted from who like, forming the feminine gender ; but 
used occasionally for both the masculine and neuter. In the same way e like became our 
each, and so like, such. That the Greeks, as well as the Armorican, British and Irish Celts, 
had p in one dialect for q and k in another, may ,be further instaliced orog and oKxog ; while 
the Latins have changed >jiVa» into linquo liquid Toraof or rixrw into coquo, KvKog into lupus ; 
and their- Columbus andpalumbus had no original difference. Similar mutations have crept into 
French, as escume for spuma ; echine for spina ; while English cod, a husk, is pod ; and our 
term peep in all the northern dialects is keek, from the Gothic ge auga, Islandic eiga, to eye. 
The Gothic or Saxon name for a grasshopper is lopust, the leaper, from which the Latins seem 
to have formed locusta ; and our lobster is their sea-locust. This perversion extended to 
other remote nations ; for the Christians of Abyssinia, or more properly Habish, say Ketros 
tor St Peter. 

, Among many peculiarities, the Irish, having no H in their alphabet, frequently substitute the 
letter T, as the Russians do Th, at the beginning of words ; by which it becomes difficult to 
detect their source. Thus tulla or tulloch, which is of the most common use throughout Scot- 
land and Ireland, in forming the names of places, could not readily be recognised as the Gothic 
hola and Saxon hyla, our hill or hillock ; but when we know that taip is a heap, talla a hall, 
toll a hole, teth heat, and tocsaid a hogshead, there can be no doubt of the fact. 

Some races of men discover unaccountable aversion to particular letters, and predilection for 



others; of which R and L are examples. The former is. entirely excluded in favour «of the 
Utter by the Chinese, who say Fu Ian sy, and vulgarly Plance, for France. JTwo American 
tribes, evidently from one stock, have, the.same speech, except that these letters are their shib- 
boleth. The one cannot express R, nor the other L, so that they call themselves Cherakies 
end Chdakies. The Latins, as well as the ancient Goths, preferred the softer sound of L, 
which the Italians, French and English, frequently in the middle of words, pronounce like a 
vowel ; the Grothic fiol or fior is four, and Tsm^^sop is the Latin lilium. The Portuguese gene* 
rally introduce R instead of L ; but sometimes they absurdly transpose them in the same 
word, as-milagre for miracle ; while the Latin lusdniola isthe Italian rosignuolo, a nightingale, 
and the French orme is the Latin ulmus. This disposition militates against the opinion that, 
nati(»is were naturally inclined to appropriate the first of these letters to express energy 
and harshness, and the other softness and liquidity. Fortuitous deviations of this sort, as well 
as mutations which are sanctioned by general use, will be noticed more properly at the head 
of each letter in the body of the work. But, in such an extensive undertaking, many things 
must be omitted ; and a claim for great indulgence toward instances of misconception and inad- 
vertence cannot be lightly rejected, where so much is to be explored among the relics of dark 
and distant ages, or unravelled from the barbarous distortions of elocution, so prevalent in 
more modem times. 

The Celtic language, including the Hellenic and Latin dialects, is supposed to have been 
general throughout Europe, prior to the irruptions of those hordes named Pelasgi, from 
TUkouryJi, the neighbouring country, or Pelasgeotae, perhaps ^KIIayfiTTjy the Gothic tribe, who 
were called by the Asiatics the red-haired people ; and its affinity to the Arabic, Hebrew, and 
Phcenician, like that of the Gothic to the Sanscrit and the ancient Persian, has been generally 
admitted. The first establishment of those invaders was said to have been Argos, the white, 
or perhaps town of fair men ; and the name afterwards extended to the whole of Greece, al- 
though the Greeks are supposed to have been^called Argives, fromlargeo, fire. That particu* 
lar race may still be distinguished in Swedw, Saxony, Hanover and some smaller districts, 
such as Darmstad, whose lofty stature and fiiaxen hair indicate a different descent from the 
cross-made, swarthy inhabitluits "of Hesse Cassel, Bavaria and Suabia ; while an evident mix- 
ture is observable among the English, Belgians, Danes and Prussians. 

Concerning the derivation of Celt, properly Kelt, little can be said with certainty, since His- 
tory is almost silent ; and Etymology, unless founded on some basis of that nature, is no more 
than conjecture. FaXia, in compound words, denoted belonging to the country. The inha- 
bitants of the continent adjacent to Britain called their's Gall or Gaul, and themselves Galiods 
or Gallouets, by the addition of liod, Welsh lyeod, Gothic 1yd, Saxon leod, Greek Ae^;, Ao^^, 
which alike signify the people or nation. The Gothic ha 1yd or ghalyd, and Greek FahUitigy 
landsfolk, might readily -be conjectured as having produced the Greek synonimes FaXaro/ and 
K^roi, for Celts ; but the latter term has more the appearance of being horn the Doric KfXtn), 
for TfXfn), a boundary. This meaning corresponds exactly with xoira, the Gothic kant, a di- 
vision, side or boundary ; so that Celtiberia and Cantiberia would imply the borders of the 
Iberus, without any allusion to the Celts, who were probably never considered as a distinct 
nation any more than the Tartars. KjvKnrot, however, would correspond with the Welsh and 
names Guithil, Gwylt and Gwyddel, for inhabitants of the woods. Gothic kylt, kyld. 

Saxon cild, a child, offspring, might have been applied in the sense of Gentile to the ancient 
inhabitants of any country. 

It may observed, that the Hebrew galat and galeel signify an adjacent territory, or different 
nation. Gaul, however, can with more probability be traced to the Persian Gaw, Arn^oric 
Gwale, Welsh Gwal, Gothic Wall, WoU, Velle, Bala, Swedish Wall and Scotch Wala, a plain, 
low or champaign country ; by which designation the low districts on both sides of the Alps 
woiild have been clearly distinguished from those of the mountains ; and such was probably 
the origin of the Wallis or Valais of Switzerland. The same indefinite term might readily 
have included afterwards the different regions to the very confines of the Gk)ths, who, at all 
times, have given the name of Wals or Walsk to the French and Italians. Val, in old French, 
was low, and avalar, to abase. The Gauls almost uniformly, at the beginning of words, used 
G where the Groths had W, as guard, ward ; guile, wile ; guise, wise ; by which Wal and Gal 
or Gwal would be the same word. Lower Brittany, in the Armoric dialect, is Gwelled, the 
low country, which equally well applies to Guelder or the Netherland, where the people were 
once called Gwalons or Walloons, Waldes and Celtes, prior to the invasion of the Gothic Bel- 
gians. Thus the Gothic Flalander, Flat landers, is Flanders ; and the inhabitants Flamen or 
Flamensk, men of the flat or plain, Flemmings. The Gothic Walsk, however, denoted also 
what was foreign, and in this sense may be the Gothic Uala for Utala, outborn or outlandish. 

The Gothic gauw or gow, a district or region, although sometimes used, like the Hebrew 
gai, Persian gaw, for a vale. Mad perhaps no connexion with the word Gaul. It became the 
Latin govia, in the names of many places bordering on streams of water, such as Brisgaw, 
Turgaw, in Germany ; and Glasgow, Linlithgow, in Scotland. 

Of the three distinctions, Comati, Togati, and Bracchati, applied by the Latins to the Gauls, 
the last seems to have been given to Goths, «ither through mistake or from their having 
fixed themselves in what was considered a Gallio<territory. Brik, brok, bracca, adopted by the 
Greeks and Latins, is Gothic, and signifies the break, breach, division, or fork of the body ; 
and also the clothing called breeches : but the Gothic brek or bragd, from bregda to divide, 
change, variegate, and Danish brogges, Swedish brokug, Arabic buruk, abruk, Celtic brie or 
brek, Scotch braikit, denote what is ornamented, variegated or striped. Birkbenar, the an- 
cient name of a class of Gothic warriors, was probably corrupted from brikbenar, the soldiers 
with striped hose, the same perhaps who in Irish history were called red shanks. The tartan 
dress worn by the Highlanders of Scotland, is bryc and breacan, in Welsh and Irish : like 
them too the Galli Braccati or Helvetii may probably have followed this mode of marking 
their genealogical descent and family connexions ; and the checkered cealt of the Irish, the 
Gothic kiolt, Danish kilt, Teutonic kiolt, a lap or fold, being thus variegated and tucked 
round the thighs or loins, was readily confounded with breeches. Diodorus says that braccae 
were sundry coloured clothes ; and the same costume is known to have obtained among the 
Scythians and Persians, who were also called Braccati by the Romans. 

Heraldry, 2?jM^a, probably originated in such disposal of colours, combined with the usage 
ot the Goths in wearing on their armour the figures of beasts and birds ; although it received, 
no doubt, much improvement during the crusades, since gules, rose ; sable, black ; azure, blue ; 

diapre, damask; and goihu, a gusset, are tenns borrowed from the Anlnc and Persian. The 
Gothic bre^ or brahe, gallant, noble, brave, ornamented* produced braghett, or, as we would 
tepnss it, bravehood, which was an honorary dress, according to Ferrarius, among the ancient 
HelveUi, known still in Sweden as steendser hus, the Gothic stanid hot, stained hose. Thus, 
to wear the breeches is to possess an emblem of superior rank and authority. This parti- 
coloured clothing was also called heden by the Goths, from hdd, honour, splendour ; and not,, 
as some have supposed, from Heathen. The plud of the Highland Scots, which they like- 
wise call breacan, corresponds with the Gothic Hot, Swedish let, sttuned or spotted, and the 
Saxon bliod or gebliod, coloured, striped, variegated ; all of which seem to have the same root 
with our blow, blush, and bloom ; but plaid, a doke, in Moeso-Gothic, was the Islandic^oi/ ; 
perhaps corrupted from Jald, a fold or wrapper. The word tartan is the French tiretain, pro- 
iiably from the Latin traho and tingo, signifying drawn or woven in colours. This "invention 
was obviously an improvement on the rude staining practised in very ancient times. That 
worn by women was known among the Goths as stanidsa, stained or striped cloke. Even the 
sporan, in Erse or Irish, a purse used as a decoration in dress, has no verbal connexion in that 
language: but thebriki beltis spom, (the breeches belt sporan) of the Goths, Swedes and 
Danes, has the same root with our word spare, to save, from which the French have derived 
espargne, a treasury. 

In the time of Julius Cssar no vestiges of Celtic erudition or monuments of ancient archi- 
tecture appear to have existed either in Gaul or Britain. The bards frequented the wicker 
halls or camps of chieftains ; and the druids practised their mysterious devotions in sacred 
groves, like the idolatrous Hebrews, or among the gloomy recesses of the forests. Those rude 
fabrics of huge stones which have been*considered too ligbUy as remains of their temples, are 
generally Gothic. Some encl<feure of that kind was usually erected by the Normans and 
Saxons, to the memory of a chief slain in battle; of which many examples are found in Spain 
and well as England. Stonehenge, constructed exactly in the same style, but of 
greater dimensions, evidently signifies the stone circle for popular conventions, called in Swe- 
den allgemennehgit thing oc ring, " the general council and ring for the people.'* Our court 
of hustings is the Gothic hus thing, the aulic forum; and the Yorkshire riding, rett or ried 
thing, a justiciary meeting. Thing contracted into hing and ing by the Saxons, corresponded 
with the Latin res, a cause at law, and may b« traced in the names of many places, such as 
Iteading, Lansing for landsthing ; and our lath, a district, is merely the Saxon leth contracted 
from lathing, a law court with the portion of territory within its jurisdiction. 

. The Goths denominated themselves Gaut or Gautr, Got, Jot or Jotun, which they consider 
as a mere difference in pronunciation, meaning, like riess or russ, powerful men, giants or 
warriors. The formation of their name may be traced with some probability from the Gothic 
A, to have or possess, which produced aud, out, Swedish od, Saxon ead, Teutonic od and ot, 
Welsh <m2; all of them signifying wealth, power, happiness, nches, beatitude, Jot, fortune, 
fate ; and hence were apparently derived the Gothic Gaud or God, our words God and good : 
the Latin Ikhius signified good, rich; dives, divus, opulence and divinity, ccnresponding with 
Aw( and £v(. The Greek UkoSne, also, was wealth and Pluto, known to the Goths as Audin 
or Odin, the Syrian Mammon. The Persian Aydun. Hebrew Adoni, the I.iord, the Almighty, 
Tartar, Aidin, light, ^lendour. may be connected with Persian ade, ader, Saxon ad^ Coptic 

Aden, Welsh odyn, fire, and the first Odin was probably the Sun. The chief who conducted 
the Goths into Scandinavia appears by his Gothic names Odin, Oten, Wodan, and Godan, to 
have been confounded with the Deity, because hid name, like the Persian Udu, the Gothic 
Aud, Welsh Udd^ denoted power, and produced the Odo and Oto of more modem times. 
The Bodh, Voda or Bogd of the Indians, Tartars and Russians, the But, Bud, Wud, of the 
•Persians and idolatrous Arabs, the Qud or Khoda of all the tribes from Turkey throughout 
Tartary, the Godami of the Malays and Ceylonese, appear to be merely different prcMiunda- 
tions of Wodan, especially as bodh or boodh, in Sanscrit and the common dialects of Hin- 
doostan, is used for our Wednesday or Odin's day. 

Whether the Aud of the Gk)ths produced their Auskia and As, may be doubtful : but they 
also were names for God, Jupiter and Odin. Odin and his followers were known as Asia- 
men ; i£si were Phrygian Gods of the Tyrrheni ; and according to Gothic authors, Asgard, in 
Media, the ancient capital of our forefathers, now pronounced Chasgardia, is called Aderkind, 
Azerkind, by the Persians, and Adir kerdt by the Turks ; meaning the city of fire. Kind in 
the Persian name is the Sanscrit kund, and Tartar kerd is the Gk)thic gard, Russian gorod, 
Wendish grad, an enclosure. Zoroaster probably had his iiame^from this object of his adora- 
tion. Azoor, fire, in Persian, is the name of Abraham's father and of Ezra. The Dragon 
with the Scythians was the emblem of fire ; and the story of St George and the Dragon ap- 
pears to have been a metaphor of the triumph of Christianity over Magism. The Hebrew 
esh, Syrian as, the Persian atash, azish, Gothic eysa, Swedish aesa, EJera, '£^/a, signified fire, and 
hence the Gothic and our word ashes : The Auska of the Goths was the goddess of sunbeams ; 
Astar, the As'agrg of the Syrians, Hebrew Ashtaroth, Venus ; whence the Persians had thdr 
Ashtee or Love Feast, which is our Easter : as diisa, the moon or Diana, was the sister of 
that great luminary worshipped in the east as Boodh, called Adonis in the heathen mythology 
of the west, and still consecrated by name in our Sunday. 

It IS remarkable, that boars were sacrificed at the winter solstice by the Goths, whose ol, J ol 
or Jula, from ala, to parturate, is our yule, the nativity, anciently of the new year, and now of 
Christ. Those animals were before known as sunnu golt and jula golt, sun or yule boars, suf- 
ficiently indicating the time and purpose of a worship so natural to the ignorant inhabitants of 
a rude climate. ^ 

The etymon already assigned for Odin is congenial with the Gothic synonimes for God : , 
Har or haer, high, is their herr, the Lord ; ofur or over, above, having the article J prefixed as 
usual, became their Jofur, Persian Zufur, Zubur, the superior or Jove, which the Latirts adopt-*^ 
ed as more declinable than Jupiter. The Gothic negative reversed the meaning of this term, 
and na ofur is the Irish Nufur, signifying the devil, or literally the infernal, which is the op- 
posite of Jofur, the supreme. The Goths' equalled the Greeks, Romans and Hindoos in the 
number of their idols. In Gothland one hundred of them were exhibited in the great temple 
dedicated to Thor. Their belief in a trinity of the Godhead had been adopted in Asia, and it 
prevented their conversion to Chriistianity until the introduction of the Athanasian creeds 
several centuries after the death of Christ. 

The name of Goths or powerful, may have been assumed, subsequently to their emigra- 

tioiit from the pride of conquest ; but th6y are said to have been once known as Jaette or 
Hiaette, Saxon Geataay signifying both Geta^ and giants. This njight be derived from their 
own word lastt, the progeny, the dan; or more probably, their ha or gj^, Greek Fa^ the land, 
had been piefixed to cett; by which Haette, Biastte or Ghaette, F^^^ would mean descendants 
of the land, ^ants. It was in thii sense th«t J&schylus calls Pelasgus,«who probably was a 
Goth, son of the earth-botn. In sacred history the children of the land are described as giants ; 
the Greek Tsyoeg has both significations ; and, in Roman mythology. Terra was the mother of 
all giants. The 6y tones of Tacitus may have been Fcuroi^g. 

The Goths, not merely in name, but fibm speech, miners, coimtry, and their own tradi- 
tion, were the Gretas of ancient authors, better known to us with the article prefixed, as Sgetas, 
Scacas, or ^ythians. The Massagetas were so named fix)mi»their own word Massa, Sanscrit 
Maha^ Moeso-Gothic Maiza, great, mighty, powerful, or perhaps from Saxon Masthas, the 
Medians ; and the Moeso-Gretae were those who inhabited Moesia. Scandinavia, the Skanisk 
or Scaniza of Jornandes, the Skagan of the Goths, signifying a shelving shore, promontory, c^ 
isthmus, is applied to the extremity of Jutland at the entrance into the Baltic sea ; and the 
modem Scania, the southernmost coast of ^w^en, may have been Skagen idun, to which the 
Latin termination was annexed- There they distinguished themselves after their relative po- 
sitions, as Normen, Sudd^men, Austrgautr, Westrgautr, Danen, and Saxen, which in our 
language would be northmen, southmen, east-Goths, west-Goths, islanders and sea borderers. 
The Groths used sun as well as sud for the soi^th, and called the Swedes Suens or Soenski, the 
XiAtin Sueones. The Dae, like the Cimerii, a Scythian race, may have given name to the 
Danes and the Dadans ; but the Gothic eyna, on, Danish oen, islands, with the article de, our 
the, would be de oen, the islands, and denote the aquatic territory of the Danes, called Daen- 
mark in Saxon ; the Gk)thic mark, Persian marz, being our march, a boundary. / on, the 
island, is Jona ; and mi on, Mona. The Islandic code is called still the lonsbok. 

The inhabitants of Germany were in speech Goths, including the Teuton, whose proper 
name was Thiuden, from the Gothic thiod or tiod, folk, subjects, people : Tha, was the land, 
and jod, a child; and thus Suithioden, the south nation, or Sudermannia, was Sweden. 
Thiodsk, now pronounced Teudsh or Teutch, throughout Germany, Tudeschi in Italy, and 
by us Dutcl^ means strictly belonging to the nation. Tiod mot, a national meeting, has been 
contracted into diet, and Theodoric, rich in subjects, was a name totally different from the 
Greek Theodore. The Gothic language must therefore have been long used by the Teutons 
before the beginning of our era. 

Sigg, segr, sigsman, in Gothic and Saxon, is a warrior and a conqueror. The North Ame- 
rican savages, nearest to Europe, call their captains Sachems, and their great chieftain Saga 
more ; which is almost purely Gothic. Sax, or, as we say, Saxony, might appear to be con- 
nected with this word ; but generally, throughout the Gothic tongue, sea a3g was the sea side 
or edge, the German shore, along which Saxony anciently extended. The Gothic sax, from 
ax, an edged tool, has been fancifully suggested by some who were willing to believe that 
most nations assumed names from their favomite weapon in war, particularly as sax was a 
short sword, and also the sharp beak or prow of a galley. 


Those Saxon's, from whom we have obtained the name of English, inhabited Angria or 
Angermanland. The Gothic angur, or more frequently angul, from *he disposition ah^eady 
noticed to change R into L, is the Danish angul, the Saxon enge,^ hook or strait ; and al- 
though Anglia, the ancient capital of which is said fo have been Harthaby near Sleswick, ex- 
tended in latter times as far as the Weser, it ix)naisted properly of what now is called Angelen» 
being a narrow part of the isthmus between the broad domain of Saxony and the Jutes. The 
latter were the Saxon Ytas or Eotas, Belgic Uitas, and the Gothic Utts, Jutts, or inhabitants 
of that jut of land forming the entrance into the Belt, which is the Gothic baelt, Scotch belth, 
a passage for ships, a channel, giving name to the Baltic sea. Utt in Gothic, Swedish udd, 
Saxon eot, is an isthmus, and Eotol^ in Saxon, signified both Jutland and Italy. 

The English had their name^from angl, and the Scottish from scot, by the addition ^ the 
Gothic termination sk, which is the origin of our ish, the Saxon isc, Teutonic isch, Gretk Xro^, 
signifying assimilated, identified ; and the term is used in all dialects to the very shores of 
China. Thus, in Russia and Tartary, Tobolsk, on the river Tobol, Uralsk belonging to the 
Ural, are followed by Ochotsk and Yukutsk bordering on the Pacific Ocean. 

The Saxon chiefs, who led their countrymen to the conquest of Britain, were called Hen- 
gbt and Horsa from their military insignia ; for those are alike names for a stallion or horse ; 
the figure of which, emblematic of the sun, with Massagetae, is still retained in the armorial 
bearings of their relatives, the illustrious house of Hanover. The Gothic Ulp, Hulp, Hialp. 
Whialp, Teutonic Helf, Saxon Ulf, Olpb, signified help, succour, protection ; and served to 
form many distinguished names besides Adolphus. It is pronounced Guelph by the Gauls 
and Italians. 

To conclude the observations relative to Anglo-Saxony, it may be observed, that the princi- 
pal part of its territory, when most extended, is now included in the dominions of Prussia ; a 
word formed from the Gk>thic bo, a colony or settlement, and russe, which was the ancient 
name of the river Niemen ; and thence originated the barbarous Latin Borussia, the German 
Preussen ; unless the po of the Sclavonians, adopted by the Danes, be the prefix, by which 
the word would signify upon the russe. Pomerania is, no doubt, the Sclavonian po moeri, on 
the sea ; and in the same language Pol is an open country, a plain, Poland. 

Continual warfare with the Gauls and Romans must have attracted all the military force of 
the Goths, from the east and west, toward the fix)ntier rivers and mountains which were their 
natural barriers. Those individuals who possessed extraordinary spirit of enterprise could in- 
dulge it there in what was deemed legitimate spoliation ; while the peaceable cultivators of 
the soil, in the more northern countries, enjoyed a state of tranquillity which could not fail to 
produce an excess of population. These military bands, who, according to Ccesar and Tacitus, 
had annually a new distribution of territorial property, maintained among themselves almost 
entire independence, and were at times even hostile to each other, unless when united under 
some chief against the common enemy, or with a view to conquest. It happened frequently, 
that an aspiring military character taking the lead, was joined from every quarter by those 
who disdained a state of repose ; and this assemblage, as with the Tartars, bore the name of 

that people from whom he descended ; although far from being the most numerous of his fol- 

The Suevi or Suabians were so called from the Gothic swefia, Teutonic schwaben, to asso- 
ciate tumultuously, to swarm ; and the Almanni may have been either Allmen, or more pro- 
bably the Gothic Allmagn ; which, like Gior or Germagn, signified the entire might or main 
force, and would include all the warlike borderers of every denomination along the Dnieper, 
the Danube, and the Rhine, to the German ocean. 

Switzerland was named Schweitz, Swedsk, a Swedish colony ; and Swecia anciently denoted 
Sweden and Helvetia. 

The Ukrain, Persian kran, a limit, as in Krain and Krainth, now Camiola and Carinthia, 
had apparently the same root with our word rand and the Gothic gran or graentz, signifying 
the border ; being probably considered as part of the Gothic Langobard, from lango, extensive, 
and bard, a border, which at one time may have comprehended Dada and reached to the 
Black Sea. But when the Langobardi, defeated and dispersed, were forced to seek refuge for 
several centuries in the interior countries, the limits of Almagna became contracted to the 
Danube and the March. That river called Moraw and Moera, from the Gothic maer, Persian 
marz, Greek fMn^\ our meer, a boundary, gave name to the Marcomani, men of the marches, 
and afterwards to the country called Moravia.* Next to them came the Catti, or Kanti of 
the Goths, derived from their att, jat, jad and ghatt, a border ; whence the low Latin Gades 
and Getia, now called Hesse ; and Frizeland for Fri sae land, was the country of the Frisones. 
The Gothic bala, a plain or flat, and ha or gha, the Greek 7a or yij, a territory, may have been 
confounded with Wala or Guala, a plain, and corrupted into the Latin Belgae, with whom 
terminated the primary list of borderers. Alain signified the progeny, people, from Gothic 
Ala, to bear young ; but Alin in the Mogul language is a mountaineer. 

The Vandals apparently were not known till a later date. Their name originated in the 
Gothic vanda, from which we have our verbs to wend and to wander, pronounced Vandel by 
the Saxons and Teutons, to designate some hordes of emigrants, compelled by over-population 
to leave their native soil in quest of new possessions ; but these people were totally different 
from the Sclavonian Vendi, Wends or Vandals, in whose language wend is the sea coast 
Venice was also called *£ysr/a by the Greeks, and Hungary, Vengaria by the Russians ; but 
Hun in several of the Tartar dialects, particularly the Sar madain or Sarmatian, signifies a 

Most of the tribes here enumerated were afterward included in the more general names of 
Burgund and Frantz. The former, probably from Gothic bor, bord, and gun, people or war* 
riors of the borders, were also called Urgundi from the Gothic ur, over, exterior or separated ; 
and their code of laws was called Gunbade or Gundebade, what the nation bade. Borgund- 
holm, in Sweden, is now Bomholm. The Rhetian Alps seem to have been named firom the 
Gothic ra astti, mountain-limit ; but this ra became the German gera, and produced the mo- 

* Our ancient Mercia was also named from beiog bounded by the other Saxon kingdoms* 


dern names of Grausons and Grisons for Ge-raetians. The Eth in Tirol, if formed from aett, 
would mean the boundary river. No root enters more into Gothic composition than ra, 
Swedish ra, Persian rayah, Saxon rawa, Teutonic rah, Greek ogia, Latin ora, demarcation or limit 
The name of France or Franconia, is supposed by some authors to be the Gothic frack or 
frank, fierce, which was applied to a tribe of the Alans who settled in lower Germany ; 
others pretend it was from frank, free. 

The initial letters B, F, V, and G, however, were common prefixes of nearly the same pur- 
port with the Goths, who said frewa, froa, groa, to grow ; frid, grid, peace ; so that ren, from ra 
or ran a border, became their bryn and brun ; whence our word bourn, and the French borne, 
a limit or boundary. Ran, with G prefixed, is the Gothic gran, graens or grans, Danish 
granse, Teutonic gran, grantz, vran or vrantz, changing to the Moeso-Gothic fera, the Saxon 
feran, which produced Granda and Francia in low Latin. In Scotland this etymon may be traced 
in Grantz ben or Grain pen, now pronounced Grampian, the boundary mountain ; and Grains 
dike, converted into Graems dike, the boundary rampart. The Teutonic france, French frange, 
and our fringe, a border, appertain to this general meaning ; and the Gothic brin, already no- 
ticed as a variation of the same term, was also brenk, our brink, a margin, from which the an- 
cient names of Brenks or Brensk, as well as Franks and Fransk, were given to the same people. 

It would appear from similar investigation that Pharamund, the Gothic Ramund and Fra- 
mund, signifying protector of the border, must have had that title before he led the Franks 
into Gaul. The Gothic mund, or munt God, was the war-cry of the Goths, which the French 
pronounced Mount-joye, because God, Islandic Gkiud, sounded like the Latin gaudium, their 
and our joy. This mund, in the same sense, formed the termination of many Persian words, 
being apparently the Sanscrit wunt or want ; and from it are derived the names Sigismund, 
patron of victory or conquest ; Edmund, defender of power ; Gundamund, support of battle ; 
Efrimund, high warden ; Rosamund, endowed with praise, and not rosy-mouth, as some have 
supposed, which is totally inconsistent with the dignity of Gothic names, both male and fe- 
male. P. Rajes, G. Rosa, the Swedish roos, Danish roes, Scotch roose, produced rosary, divine 
worship, and beroose, praise. The Goths, and Greeks also, prefixed B to the initial R; 
and in this way the ancient racing at weddings, in the portion of Britain northward of the ri^ 
ver Humber, for the bride's praise or favour, has become broose, without any connexion what- 
ever with brose, brewis, or broth. 

In the later periods of the Greek empire the predatory Goths, who called themselves Va?- 
ringe or Vaeringer, which signifies in their language, military or pretorian bands, became the 
terror of friends and foes on the shores of the Mediterranean sea. It was they who under 
Hast Tbegnus, the high Thane or Maire du Palais, are said to have founded the town of Hast- 
ings : and from them the Russians received their sovereign Rourick, rich in peace, whose de- 
scendants were called the Warger or Waringer dynasty. The depredators known to us as 
Normans were these Vaeringi, the Beringi and Veringi of the Greeks and Latins, whose valor- 
ous achievements as Furungee, when associated with the Franks during the Crusades, are ce- 
lebrated to this day, in eastern romance, throughout Persia and Hindoostan. They were of 
the same stock with those chiefs who had obtained the dominion of France, whom they assisted 


in defending and desolating the Greek empire. When joined to the Italians and English, with 
multitudes of other military pilgrims, their common jargon produced the modem commercial 
language called lingua franca ; and thence all Europeans are known as Furungee, by the Asia- 
tics. Among the changes arising from such corrupt pronunciation may be here instanced thoee 
which have occurred in the name now generally assumed by the sovereigns of France. The 
Gothic Lud wig, renowned warrior, was Hludivig or HI u wig in Saxon, and formed the low 
Latin Chlodovicus or Ludovicus, which became successively Cloud, Clovis, and Louis, with 
the French. 

Various etymons have been assigned for Britain without any advertence to the word bro, so 
universal among the Celts of our islands and of Gaul, where it is also pronounced bru or broed; 
which, like the Persian bar, Syriac baro, Gothic byr, signifies a fruitful or populated country. 
The Armoricans now call England bro saos, the land of the Saxons ; and the Welsh and Irish 
have the term in common use, saying bro aeg, a country accent, or brogue ; br^dh, a compa- 
triot ; and broed dyn, a countryman or Briton. Tan, in both Irish and Welsh, is an extended 
or flat territory ; so that broed tan, like Gaul, might have served to distinguish the plain from 
the mountainous country, until time had rendered the name general to the whole island. 
Other districts on the adjacent continent, besides Brittany, were known from circumstances of 
locality, which the Celts were apt to observe ; and thus Armorica is composed of ar mor, on 
the sea. The Welsh braidd, Swedish bredd, and Danish bred, the shore, correspond with the 
Armoric and Gothic bordd or bord ; but dd being usually pronounced like z or th, by the 
Gallic and Cambrian Celts, Brittany became Breiz, the maritime district, the chief port of 
which is Brest. The Welsh Prydan, for Britain, from pryd, the Gothic prydd, beautiful, 
adorned, was only used poeticaUy. 

The modern name Wales originated with the Saxons, who, after the Goths, so pronounced 
Gaul, in which they included Italy, and considered the Britons, who took refuge in their 
mountains, as Roman subjects. The Celtic Gual, Galle in French, produced Gualbech, little 
Gaul, and hence Perkin Walbeck, the heir of Wales. The name Cimnui, inhabitants of 
Cambria, being the regular plural of cym bro, the united country, might not have been pe- 
culiar to the people of Wales. But the northern Cimbri, perhaps Kynfirei, from the Gothic 
kynfer, a kinsman, were certainly Goths inhabiting the whole of the territory now included in 
Denmark. Gothland was also called Kynaland. A powerful nation of Asiatic Sarmatia, 
however, called Cimmerii or Cimbri, became allied at one time with the Goths. 

The Hebrew pinnah, ^upog modem Greek bouno, and Celtic pen signify a mountain or clifF; 
and the Latin pinna, in some cases, has the same meaning ; while the Portuguese penha is 
more particularly applied to a serrated ridge or hill. Albion may therefore have been the 
albse pinnae or white cli£fs ; unless confounded with Albany, which, as it would seem, denoted 
exclusively the Highlands of Scotland. The Welsh al pen and Irish al ben correspond with 
the Latin alta pinna, high mountain, Alpennine, Alp. Breadalbane, from the foregoing 
etymons, is therefore the Irish bruaidh al ben, the region of lofty hills ; and Hispania miay 
thus have been Hispena, a corrupt pronunciation of Cispinna, by the Latin colonists on that 
side of the P3rrennees. Cale was the ancient name of Oporto ; and the surrounding district, 
being formed into a soverdgnty, was called Porto Cale, corrupted into Portugal. 


The Soots and Picts were no doubt originally the same people ; but a considerable change 
in their language and manners was afterwards effected by fortuitous circumstances and dif- 
ferent pursuits. It is well known that, ever since the eariiest ages of our history, adventurers 
from the shores of Scandinavia made annual excursions into Ireland and Scotland, to plunder 
cattle for their winter subsistence. On such predatory warfare, continued after some of the 
clans had received Gk)thic chiefs, were founded the poems ascribed to Ossian or O'sian ; a word 
which, in Irish and Gothic, is the man of song. Homer also signified the hymner, poet or 
psalmist, Hesiod, 'Haiohg (for^Heri; and 'Aoiiog) the delightful singer; and all three, apparently, 
were imaginary persons, to whom the genuine poetry of the times was ascribed by traditionary 
consent These Grothic freebooters, called Scouts or Scots, from the nature of their visits, 
gave occasion to the Irish, who still understand Scuite as a wanderer or pillager, to extend 
the name to adventurers from Spain or whatever other country. Their boats were also 
known in Gothic as skiota, Islandic skuta, Swedish skiut or skuta, Belgic schuit, Saxon 
skyte, a scout boat ; and the Welsh evidently considered the Scots and Picts as the same 
race, for with them Peithas (Pictish) signified also a scout boat. 

In Ireland, which, according to Bede and the Saxon Chronicle, was first called Scotland, 
it would appear that the Scouts or Scots, by superior management and intermarriages, 
must have succeeded to many chieflainries among the Celtic inhabitants, without the sup- 
port of any great population from their own tribes. For, although mucii of their language 
pervades the Irish or Erse, where the very terms of family descent, such as Mac and O, 
are apparently Gothic, the people adhere to a dialect called the Celtic tongue. On the 
contrary, very extensive and numerous emigrations of Goths, for the express purpose of 
colonization, seem to have been directed to all parts of Britain northward of the river 
Humber, where the Gk)thic speech and character have consequently been preserved with 
much less variation than in the south. 

The Gothic bygd, bigt, Swedish bygd, Danish biggit, Scotch bigget, a cultivated district, 
are derived from bua, to inhabit or colonize; and the Gothic construction of that verb 
into bygga is little known in the Teutonic dialects, although their bau is tillage, and bauer, 
a boor. From the Gothic abor or abauer, a cultivator, we had the £bori, whose name 
corresponds in meaning exactly with Picts. The Boii, whencesoever they came, were pro- 
bably so denominated from the Sclavonian Bogi, boyards, or the Gothic and Swedish b/, 
bau, abo, a colony ; and thence their place of settlement is Boheim or Bohemia, where 
most of the present inhabitants are undoubtedly Sclavonians. Bayern, the German for 
Bavaria, Bern, in Switzerland, and our ancient Bernicia, may be traced also from the 
Gothic baur and baer, which belong to this prolific root. 

The Picts, therefore, according to etymology, were the Gothic Bigts, Saxon Pyhtas, 
Scotch Pights, the Petes of the Orkneys, and Peithe of the Welsh, whose peu, like the 
Gothic bau or by, is a habitation. This appellation may have served to distinguish them 
from the roving Scouts or Scots, of the Baltic and of Ireland; who afterwards, to oppose 
the common enemy, joined them with such hordes of Celts as were induced to follow 
their banners. The first establishment of the latter in Britain is said to have been Argyl,. 


which signifies the land of the Gwithel or Irish, whose Gothic chiefs seem to have as- 
sumed the name of Kampoel, Saxon Campoel, good in war. Montrose was the Irish and 
Welsh, Munt ar euse, the fort on the river Ease. 

The Norwegians called their two colonies in Greenland the East and West Bygts ; and 
other circmnstances are powerful in support of the opinion that the Picts were husbandmen. 
The Irish continue to call wheat cruithneachd, the corn of the Picts, or red com ; and in the 
northern counties of England, as well as in Scotland, are still seen many ruins of ancient 
granaries known by tradition as Pictish houses. The Gothic byg, a country community, a 
cultivated district or village, converted by us into by, in Appleby, Whitby, Selby, Grimsby 
and other places, has sufficient resemblance with the Armoric paig, which is the Greek and 
Latin pagus, to indicate their common origin ; and hence Poictu, Pictavia, where a colony of 
Picts, according to Cassar, actually resided, may have obtained their names in the same sense, 
either from a Gothic or Celtic source. It is almost superfluous to observe, that the Germans 
usually pronounce b like p, which anciently did not appear in the Gothic alphabet. In Irish 
the term cruithneach, or cruinath, denoted the Picts ; and cruinath tuath, the northern or 
Pictish country. Tuath signified the left hand and the north, because the former had that 
direction when the face was turned toward the east in adoration. The Irish Cruithen or 
Cruinath, probably from cruin, red, Welsh and Armoric Gwridian, yellow or fair men, may 
therefore have been the Corotani or Coroniad, who, in Welsh tradition, are said to have settled 
in Wales long prior to the invasion of the Romans, and were really Picts according to Vege- 
tins and Sidonius Apollinaris. 


These inquiries concerning Scotland may be concluded with noticing that the Gothic Kail 
idun, district of the mountains, or Gothic KuU, Persian and Sanscrit Kool, Kul, progeny, 
Gothic KuUidon, clans of the Highlands, may be Caledonia, otherwise called Du Caledon, 
black or north Caledon, to distinguish it from countries which bore the same name ; and the 
latter portion of that word, so common to many places in the united kingdoms, is now gene- 
rally known as dun, a hill. The Gothic ida, P. Dah, a cliff, seems, indeed, to have been so 
widely applied with this sense, in ancient geography, that the mind is pleased to recognise its 
remote affinities. 

Troy had also its celebrated mount Ida, and Troja or Torja with the Goths was a fortress. 
They seem to have been intimately acquainted with the works of Homer, to whose Trojans 
they gave the name of Tyrki. The Arabic, Persian and Chaldean Tur is a high rock, mound, 
or rampart, the origin of our tower ; and likewise of Tyre, from the hill in its vicinity. The 
Hebrews, Persians and Chaldeans, frequently converting t into z, say Zur for Tyre, and their 
Zuria is Syria. The Goths are known to have extended themselves from very remote times 
along the shores of the Euxine sea, where their language partly exists at the present day : and 
St Jerome, after having resided at the Germioi town of Treves about the middle of the fourth 
century, visited Galatia, and found at both places the same speech. It is therefore possible 
that Mneas might really have conducted a colony of fugitive Goths into Italy ; and the Etrus* 
cans, Tyrosce, Tyrrheni osce are known to have been Phrygians. 

The name Ireland probably did not obtain till the arrival there of the Goths ; because land. 


although now used by the Irish, has no connexion in their language. The Saxon Ira and 
Latin leme may have been adopted from the Irish iar or iarain, the western island. lar sig- 
nifies the back, and figuratively the west, from the position of those who worshipped the rising 
sun ; and ler, in Belgic, is Ireland and an Irishman. The Hindoos, in the same way, distin- 
guish the four quarters of the globe : with the Arabs and Jews, yaman or iemin, is the south 
and the right hand. The remains of that once universal observance are common in every 
country, and particularly in the construction of Roman Catholic and our own churches, where 
the altar must invariably face the east to admit of consecration. The Irish iarin, to the Welsh 
would resemble their y wyrin, verdant, the Greek 'Eag iwy, vernal, the Erin of the Irish. Er in, 
the noble or ancient island, was used by the Irish poeticaUy : but their ibh signifies an island ; 
and from ibh iarin, western land, the Saxons were likely to form their Ihbem and the Latins 
Hibemia. Among the Gothic invaders of that country, mentioned in Irish history, were the 
Firbolgs, from the Gothic fir or vair, Irish fiir, Latin vir, man, and Bolg, Belgian. 

London, in both Welsh and Armoric, is Ijm din, the lake or pool city. The word din or 
dinas, in this composition, is the Hebrew dun, Gothic tun, Irish dun, a town ; and lin in near- 
ly all the Gothic and Celtic dialects is a pool. The latter seems to have denoted, more parti- 
cularly, a place deepened by the confluence of tides or agitation of torrents, than the Celtic 
leoch or lag, and Gothic laug ; which prefixed to dun, became Lugdunum, the Latin name 
for both Leyden and Lyons. 

Edinburgh, according to the etymon already noticed for Caledonia, is evidently the Gothic 
idun, a mountain or precipice, and burgh, a city. 

Dublin, the Irish dubh linne, or black pool, corresponds exactly with its Welsh name of 
Du lyn, from dubh or du, Hebrew deio, Gothic dauk, Saxon doh, Teutonic duh, black, and 
lin, as in the formation of London, a pooL 

The history of Europe and its ancient inhabitants affords little aid to the philologist ; but 
the foregoing explanations, together with the cognate etymons in their vocabularies, tend to 
confirm what has been remarked by many intelligent writers, relative to the number of our 
Celtic and Gothic words so perfectly similar, in sound and meaning, that there is much dif- 
ficulty in ascertaining to which of the two they originally belonged. This circumstance, how- 
ever, might partly arise from the eagerness with which those who differed almost entirely in 
speech would catch, from each other, such terms as had any resemblance to their own ; al- 
though precision must have been injured, by warpings of meaning, in those rude efibrts to 
produce some rays of mutual understanding. 

It may be suggested, that many apposite derivations might be obtained by the junction of 
words which have been known only as monosyllables in their original language. But the 
sober rules of etymology will not admit of much latitude, at this day, in the artificial con- 
struction of ancient elementary particles into polysyllables, however aptly their component 
parts may accord with the purpose. Scientific terms, indeed, have been so fabricated with 
advantage ; although equally barbarous with those of the monks, physicians and lawyers, of 
the lower ages, which, from long use, cannot now be conveniently rejected. But, were such 


license fully admitted into etymological research, there would be no difficulty in deducing any 
word from what is now called Celtic, on account of its extraordinary flexibility, indistinct pro* 
nunciation, and those mutations of letters which lead the imagination so readily into error. 
Resemblance, in meaning and sound, is therefore not always sufficient to constitute an ety-i 
mon. On the contrary, our verbs to lease and to glean, originating from one Gothic root, dis* 
cover to the ear little or no affinity ; and those who are conversant in the Latin, Italian and 
French languages, will admit that our words to beautify and to embellish are both derived 
from the Latin bellus. 

Occasion will be taken hereafter to explain, that (rothic and Celtic particles cannot be unit- 
ed in compound words without bearing signs of distortion. The two languages differ gener* 
ally in the construction of sentences, and particularly in giving precedence to the adjective or 
substantive noun. In the Gothic the former mode was dmost invariable, while the contrary 
and more convenient arrangement prevailed with the Celts. *^ The horse, white, stately and 
swift," by bringing the principal object first to notice, and its relative qualities in regular suc> 
cession, produces better effect than ** the white, stately and swift horse," where the mind is 
held in suspense to the end of the sentence. 

Adam Smith was not aware that, by the same course of ideas, the auxiliary verbs in Greek 
and Latin formed the terminations which constituted the mood and tense. The Gothic con- 
struction, being generally different, appeared to him more simple, because the component 
parts were more distinct and obvious. His own quotation of amavero leads to this convic- 
tion, as it was anciently written amau ero, and the French aurai aim^ transposed into aim^ 
aurai would be nearly similar. Indeed it matters no more than to say loved, love did or did 
love. In the Arabic and its dialects, so averse to compound words, the parts of speech afford 
clearer views of origin and practice than those of the Sanscrit, Persian, Gothic, Greek and 
Latin, which admit of the most extensive composition. The Gothic, besides, in common with 
the Greek, possesses a facility of connecting substantive nouns to great advantage. Horse- 
man is much more concise than man on horseback, ^* homme k cheval ;" but foreigners, who 
conceive from their own idiom that an adjective must exist in such phrases, are betrayed into 
even greater blunders than those we so readily commit by mistaking the genders of their 
nouns. The stranger, who, in broken English, complains of being treated as if he were a black 
shoe, instead of a shoeblack, has acquired the vocabulary, but mistakes the phraseology of our 
language, and excites laughter among the vulgar, who also mock the Welsh for converting the 
pronoun he into her, because the former happens to be the Celtic, as well as the Arabic, femi- 
nine gender of the same pronoun. Such incongruities, although unavoidable among illiterate 
people, whose speech is fundamentally different, and abounding with inflexions unknown in 
that of the Goths, may have given cause to remark, that the descendants of the latter are more 
prone than others to ridicule foreigners who speak their language imperfectly. 

In a work founded on etymology, there can be no rational inducement to adopt any hypo- 
thesis in favour of national precedence on claims of antiquity. The crossings of the Celts and 
Goths have been too advantageous to physical and intellectual improvement to admit of tlje 
least regret that the two races should become blended and indistinct Whatever therefore may 
appear like preference, ammg the cognate etymons, must be attributed generally to conveni- 


ence of arrangement Many of our ooUoquial terms were equally in use among the Greeks, 
Latins and Goths firom their former intimacy : but, excepting those peculiar to the sciences, 
they have reached us more immediately from the latter, whose construction of them we have 
also closely retained. Where they igre common to the Gothic and the Welsh, Irish or Ar- 
morican Celtic, it ought to be recollected, that no record or tradition alludes to any ancient emi- 
gration from the south or west of Europe toward the north ; while history, since its earliest 
period with us, has noticed those swarms of men from the shores of the Baltic who continu- 
ally infested France and the British islands. 

It is not probable that these people would carry back to their own country, where it would 
be unintelligible, any great portion of a foreign language ; and there is still a better criterion 
that the Celts were generally the borrowers from the Gothic, in that repugnance to amalga- 
mation which is notorious in words of heterogeneous origin. To form legitimate alliance, 
they must be of the same family or caste ; and thus the terms adopted from the Goths appear 
isolated and sterile in the Celtic vocabulary, while abundantly prolific in their own. The 
numerous Arabic particles and phrases introduced into Persian, in the same manner, continue 
to preserve their extraneous rank and character. This disposition is still more remarkable in 
our own tongue ; because it possesses a sufficiency of Gothic and Celtic materials for almost 
two distinct propagations, which, contributing to the general stock without being entirely 
blended, constitute its richness and excellence. 

Instances, however, do occur where Gothic terminating particles coalesce with Latin words, 
either because the latter were deficient in expression or could not otherwise be reconciled to 
the idiom of our language. The Gothic adjunct, JiiU, employed in converting substantives into 
adjectives, as rueful, manful, hateful, has been extended to joy, scorn, cheer, use, which belong to 
another source ; and we have substituted the Gothic adverbial termination ly, for the French 
merit, in adverbial derivations from the Latin. Gtothic adjectives became substantives by the 
addition of ness, such as coldness, sadness, brightness ; and our Latin words tedious, tardy, neat, 
plain, rude, apt, have followed the same construction ;* but all substantives used adjectively by 
the aid of y final, like hearty, handy, filthy, witty, are Gothic, except gaudy, balmy and rosy. 
Adjectives which end in some, as wholesome, gladsome, handsome, are generally Gothic. Sub- 
stantives ending in head or hood, from Gothic het, Teutonic heit, state, condition, like God- 
head, maidenhood or maidenhead, manhood, childhood ; which, added to adjectives, is contract- 
ed into th, as breadth, width, health, dearth, sloth ; together with verbs rendered frequentative 
by the termination er, of which, among many others, are waver, chatter, clamber, wander, from 
wave, chat, climb, wend ; and all those that admit of the prepositions, for, fore, up, y or be, 
belong assuredly to the Gothic. Substantives made adjectives by ish, as English, childish, 
are all Gothic, but the vulgarism of feverish for feverous. The Gothic an or un, being synoni- 
mous with the Latin negative in, and er with re, when used as prefixes, frequent substitu- 
tions of them have arisen, by which we say undoubtedly and indubitably, unviolated or in- 
violate, and release is the Gothic erlaesa confounded with the Latin relaxo. 

On the Latin side must be placed all our substantives and adjectives of two or more syllables 
ending in able, ible, al, ant, ate, ent, ence, ce, cy, ment, ous, ty, including also tude, by which 
adjectives become substantives, as solitude, multitude ; and others converted into verbs by fy. 


as deify, vilify, glorify ; but so inapplicable do they prove to our Gothic compositions, 
tiiat the most ignorant person would not transgress so far as to say lonelytiide, manytude ; or 
godify, fbulify, praisify ; which, however intelligible, could not be endured by an English ear. 
The prepositions ab, com, con, de, di, dis, e, ex, inter, ob, pre, pro, sub, subter, super, (French 
sur,) tra and trans, obtain alliance only with Latin or Celtic words ; nor, with the excep- 
tion of a very few terms from the Norman code which end with ance, age or ment, can any 
surer test of discrimination be applied, than that no foreign graft is ever admitted in a Gothic 

Verbal distinctions of this nature require therefore serious attention, and must not be vio- 
lated while there is any regard to chastity of style and purity of expression. 

Radical words, like all primitive faculties, are few in number and simple ; but, commensur- 
ately with the progress of human attainments, their combinations admit of unlimited exten- 
sion. It is thus in some degree with the modulations of music. The gamut contains only 
seven fundamental notes ; yet on this confined scale depend the whole powers of melody and 
harmony. Words may, therefore, possess all the charms of novelty in expression and subli- 
mity of conception by their mere reconstruction, while the component parts are so happily 
connected with impressions already familiar to the mind, that our ideas glide into the intel- 
lectual channel which superior genius has opened for them, as if by magical influence. 

That la common natural speech could exist for all mankind, is an opinion too absurd for 
comment. Herodotus, indeed, mentions the report of a trial made with two newly born 
children who were lefi with a she goat, excluded from all human society, and that their word 
when hungry was bek, the Phrygian for bread. But the experiment would prove nothing 
more than the imitation of the cry of the goat to signify their want of food. The historian 
should have observed, that, in the same way, MctfAfAap was the infantine expression for hunger ; 
and B?«i9, in his own language, a she goat, has been converted by the French into biche, 
a doe. 

In speaking here of an original language, nothing more is to be understood than one which 
has been transmitted to us from such distant and rude times, that some judgment may be 
formed of its structure, progress and improvement. And it has been deemed sufficient, in ge- 
neral, to trace the etymons to that early stage, without attempting to develop entirely their 
formation ; particularly as several valuable tracts relative to the origin of Greek, Latin 
and Gothic, already exist On the latter, however, a few additional observations may be useful 
to those who are inclined to study its history. 

The Gothic initial consonants were not subject to many intermutations, except B, M, F and 
V, which seem to have been used in some instances almost indiscriminately ; such as be and ve 
from the verb vera, to exist, mer and ver, our we, mid and vid, with, and met or mit for vit, 
knowledge, skill, wisdom. By a similar mutation the Gothic van, vank, vant, became the Tcup 
tonic mang, French manque ; and our wane and. want have the same root. The vowels, how* 
ever, were substituted for each other without much regard to consistency, unless where A and 
U, being initials, maintained greater stability. 



Among the numerous prefixes, in the Saxon dialect, be and ge had the most frequent use. 
The former was evidently the verb to be, Persian bu ; and the latter also derived from £, with 
J or Y prefixed, appears to have nearly the same meaning with our yea, for identity. Thus the 
Grothic audf od or oU produced g(^^ got and hot ; which are our words good and boot, profit, ad- 
vantage. These terms were no doubt synonimous^ since the Gothic baetter and best, contract- 
ed from baettest, form the comparative and superlative of good ; and in the Persian beh, good, 
the final consonant, as usual with the Goths, has probably been omitted ; the comparative be- 
ing behtur, and the superlative behtureen. The Goths and Teutons also used bos and bus, 
for boot, and hence besser for better. In some instances G was converted into K, as appears 
particularly to have been the case in the word Kong, Kunnug, for Gung, Gunnung, Guntan, a 
king : the root of which is Gun, Persian Jung, the people, the army, battle. In the same way 
Thiod, the people, produced Thiodan, a king ; Drot, the people, Drottin, a dread Lord or So- 
vereign. Thus also, with the Lombards, the royal line was called Gunnmge. Jungis Khan, the 
warrior Prince, we pronounce Gengis kan. 

The Gothic ij or double J is the origin of our letter y, and corresponds with the Saxon ge 
as used in gedown, geclad, which we pronounce ydown, yclad. The French and Welsh have 
also adopted this article y, confounding it with the Latin ibi. In Gothic it was synonimous 
with A ; and we, like the Saxons, had formerly ydown and adown nearly in the same sense. 

The Gothic ta and ata, the Saxon to and at, seem to have been nearly the same word ; and 
we still say at dinner or to dinner ; vexed to the heart or vexed at the heart. They were both 
used as prefixes, particularly by the Saxons ; and thus are formed our frequentative verbs tat- 
ter, to tear ; twinkle, to wink ; twirl, to whirl ; tattle, to tell ; troll, to roll ; twit, to wite ; and 
from the Saxon to-assett, a set to, a dedication, we have toast, a libation. 

Sk, as a Gothic prefix, like the Greek x> to which g was frequently added, denoted intensity, 
and followed by E, to be, formed ske, Saxon scio, scian, to cause or effect, whence our defect- 
ive verb shall. Thus also sk uta was the Gothic skuta, to force out, to shoot ; and sk auga^ 
to put before the eye, became skygga, Saxon sceawian, to show. 

The vowels, being the most simple sounds, were probably first employed in speech, as ex- 
pressive of some disposition, tendency or procedure, which the consonants served afterwards to 
accelerate, modify or arrest. The Gothic A, iE, E, I, Y, very nearly resembled each other in 
meaning. Several of them were put together merely to produce greater intensity ; and thus 
y, fiB, a, sa, form yea so, contracted into yes, which we sometimes endeavour to render still more 
impressive by repetition. It may be noticed here, that the Gothic sa corresponds with the 
Sanscrit (W, our is or so. While the foregoing vowels, when prefixes, equally signified assent, 
ccwiformity or procedure, the Gothic U, our un, like the Sanscrit, Persian and Greek U, was 
a direct negative, and reversed the sense of any word to which it was prefixed. The Gothic 
ra, a row or line, denoted also straightness and rightness. But ura, out of line, is wry ; urang, 
has the same purport with our word tort, unright, crooked, wrong ; and from this source we 
have wreath, wring, wrist, wrest, wrestle, wriggle, wrench, with many others. Rik is our 
rich, possessing wealth and happiness ; uriks or urick, poor, a wretch ; god or giasd, good, with 


this prefix becomes ugced, wicked» corrupted into Belgic quad ; roi, ru, eyru, peace ; oru, uey ru, 
ueru» war; uman, not man, feminine ; uvel, not well, evil, contracted into ill; and ueast, the 
contrary of east, west. 

The almost invariable constructions of B, G, M and U, are apparent in numerous compound 
words, of which the three following may serve as examples. The Gothic inn is the Latin and 
our preposition in, whence inna and Saxon ginnti, to enter upon ; beginna, to begin. The same 
in produced min, a mine, and bin, an enclosure. Our words meat and bait are both from Gothic 
eta, to eat. A, signifying direct procedure, became Gothic ga, to go, uga or umga, to go ob- 
liquely, circuitously, and thence buga, to curve or bend ; which is the Persian huge, our word 
bow in all its numerous acceptations. From it are derived bough, bower, bout, bound, bounce, 
bosom, buxom, book, buckle, boggle, budge, buoy, bulk, big, bay, bias, beck, bend, bight, bas- 
tard, and an endless progeny. The use of U is still more complicated in the following compo- 
sition. The Gothic Ua, like uga, already noticed, to deviate, decline or avoid, with the inten- 
sive particle sk prefixed, formed the Gothic skua, skaua, Danish skiaew ; and thence our skue, 
askew, eschew, ascaunce, sconce, squint, scowl, shall, shilly shally, scamble, sheep's eye, 
and also our naval term sheer, oblique. The Welsh osgo and French esquiver have been 
adopted exactly in the same sense, without either root or branch. Sheer, when used to express 
sheer vice, is the Gothic skir, clear, pure, evident The term sconce, at the Universities, de- 
notes a fine f<^ eschewance. 

The letter O partook of nothing peculiar, being sometimes substituted, very improperly, both , 
for A and U ; but whatever might have been the particular nature of each vowel, all distinc- 
tions were lost on the introduction of polysyllables. The scantling they had formed for the 
original structure being no longer necessary, they became in most cases mere links to oonneet 
consonants, without the apparent exercise of any primitive powers. Some traces of their dis^ 
tinct application are observable, however, in the tenses and moods of the Gothic verbs ; such as 
we have retained them in sing, sang, song, sung ; but as A, whether it be article, prefix, noun 
or verb, has generally preserved a character of identity, equity, conformity, continuity, posr 
session, a few instances of its Gothic acceptations may convey, at the same time, some nor 
tion of verbal expansion and affinity. 

A, according to Gothic authors, formed anciently the present tense of the verb to be, 
of which I a, thou a, he a, for I am, thou art, he is, was the original construction ; and 
from that sense perhaps all the others originate. This verb had E for its imperative, 
which afterwards became be, the Gothic ve ; and r was added to E or A, in after ages, 
throughout the present tense, making I ar, thou ar, he ar, we ar, which we have adopted 
for the plural, and art in the second person singular, perhaps for ar tu, thou ar. Hence 
also originated the Gothic verb vera, to be, and our were, the plural of was. Var, what is, 
signified real, true, and may have produced the Latin verus. The Gothic E and Greek 
"Eof have no doubt a common origin. 

A was a preposition, instead of i or y, when the word following began with a vowel ; 
i Noreg, a En^andi, in Norway, in England. It produced at, ata, ia, our at and to, 
which were originally synonimous. 

746133 A 


A« prefixed to nouns or verbs by the Goths, is common in English ; as sdo, above, 
aground; but the Germans have converted this article into an, the Saxon on, which is 
our on, when used separately. Thus, for the Gk)thic abordum, afotum, we say either 
aboard or on board; afoot or on foot; while the French adhere simply to abord. 

A, in terminations, marked, as with the Arabs and Persians, the infinitive of verbs and 
the quality or tendency of nouns ; but we now employ it only in burlesque poetry. The 
Teutonic and Arabic a7i is the same word ; and the Saxons, from whom we inherited a 
dislike to terminating vowels, use it generally instead of a ; as glowan, for the Gothic gloa, 
to glow, and Isetan, for leta, to let or concede. 

A, in the foregoing sense of continuance, was synonimous with also, or so on ; being 
the root of our conjunction and, for which the Russians and Welsh still use a. 

A, that which is, what continues or holds, was converted into Ha ; whence are derived 
hand, and our verbs to hend and to have. It is cognate with the Greek «xii and French 
a in avoir. 

A, either as signifying equity, or else that has, holds or is beholden, produced also our 
verb to owe. I ought to pay, I have to pay, being synonimous with the Latin est meum, 
it is my duty, I owe ; and thus also debeo appears to be de habeo, in the same way, that 
Aio;, to owe, is from -xfi. Swedish hafwa, to have, signifies also to owe. 

A, iEl or £, as sameness, continuance, corresponded with the Latin M in equalitas, to 
indicate evenness, smoothness or equity. The Saxon E and Teutonic M, in this sense, 
express law, right, justice. 

AA, perhaps as a repetition of sameness or extension, was a body of water. Swedish as, 
the Danish aa, by which see, like the Latin asquor, denoted any smooth expanse, a plain oc 
lake ; Islandic aer, Saxon aer, Gothic maer, the sea ; and from the Grothic aar, Islandic aa, a 
river, we have got aar, air, arun, arrow ; as also with the Gothic article J prefixed, yar, yare, 
yarrow ; by which yar is the or y Aar, Persian Jar, Jarur, a river. The Elb, Elf or ^Ip, is 
formed from Gothic iEleip, a water-course. Leipa, Teutonic Leifen, Lauffen, to run, pro- 
duced the names of many rivers, such as the Lippe, the Liffy and Leven. From the Gothic 
M, Saxon Ea, the Belgic Y, Ey, Wey, Ty, Tey, signify a river, like our Tay, Tees and Tyne. 

AM,or M, Saxon AAA, corresponds with the preceding article ; but conveys, by in- 
creased repetition, the idea of infinite extent, endurance or continuance, and hence our aye, 
'Afii, eternity. To these modifications of the vowel itself may be added some of its most ob- 
vious combinations. 

Ad, aud, od, from Gothic A, to have, was wealth, power, possession ; whence odal or all ad, 
Scotch udal, allodial, full possession ; fe-odtfe-odal, tenure by fee or service. The Saxons pro- 
nounced this word ead, and ne-ead became th^ir nead, without means, our need. Alaud has 
been contracted into French leude, seignorial. 


Aitb, from the Gothic A, Saxon JE, Teutonic E, law or right, produced ed, eitb, Saxon 
ath, Teutonic eid, an oath, meaning strictly a legal assertion. The Latin juro, in the same 
way, was originally from jus, right, equity. Thus also the Gothic lag, what is laid down^ a de- 
position, signified law and an oath. From ed the Goths formed ved or wad and the Saxons 
ewd, a formal contract or pledge ; whence the Latin vadium and our wed, wager, wages, vas- 
sal. The Saxon ge ewd, Scotch gud, we seem to have adopted in God-father. God-brothers 
were anciently contracted or sworn brothers, and gud-man in Scotch is a wedded man. The 
Oauls changing w into g, as usual, converted wage into gage, and our engagement is a con- 

Aihan, the Saxon agen, ahan, to own or possess, was either the junction of A with ha, han, 
Ij^y, that has ; or Gothic eiga, formed from the pronoun eg or ey, me, and corresponding with 
the Greek s or ea, personal property. Our verb to own or confess is the Teutonic iahen or 
beyahen, literally to yea, ayan, to say ay, to acknowledge ; and the Latins possibly adopted 
the Gothic aja^ or gea^ to form ajo, anciently ego, to yea ; nego, to deny. The Gothic J 
being synonimous with A, identity, sameness, expressed, as in old English, both assent and 
individuality. When used, however, as a personal pronoun, it must have required to be ac- 
companied by some sign indicating self, before time had rendered the sense unequivocal. 

Am or em, the first person of the present tense in the verb to be, anciently A, probably as- 
sumed the final m for me^ like the Sanscrit A«mi, I am ; although it may be connected with 
asm, a variation of asve, which is to be noticed hereafter. The word is common to many dia- 
lects ; Persian am or urn, Saxon am, Armoric oum, Greek E/pi ; and the Latin verb sum, 
. anciently eum, is probably the Gothic so am. 

Ar or sr, a^oV, the beginning, appears to be from A or ifi, duration, prefixed to ra, a row, 
line, limit, division ; which is the Greek &fa^ and Latin hora, time. The Grothic ar is also our 
year, Swedish aer, time, age, aera ; and var, first of the year, Greek "Eag and'"Hg, Bj?g, Latin ver. 
Spring. From aer we have early, and or, (J or, yore, primitive,) soon ; ere, Saxon orer, sooner ; 
the superlative of which, erst, or of erst, is first. Or is also the root of our morrow and 
morning. The Teutonic dauren, Latin duro, for de hora, are apparently from the same source 
with AiAfg/a, Arabic duhr, time. 

iEfi or 8&ve, is constructed from a a, or a?, Greek 'A6/\ prefixed to the Gothic ve or be, to 
be or endure ; as if we said aye be, instead of ever, which is the Saxon asfer. 

Ave has A or M, equality, sameness, identity, united to ve of the preceding article, 
and means, from its component parts, being so, or the same; and thence even or equal. 
The Gothic variations of this word are a^f, asm, am, ef, emn, evn ; and with the article J 
prefixed, icef, iafn, ibn, if, iv, while the Saxons have am, em, im, efh ; all of which concur 
in the same general meaning with our if and even; only that those without the article 
prefixed are more particularly applied for if, Sanscrit api, Chaldean aph, Persian ehm, so, 
if, equal ; and am, perhaps the first person of our verb to be. Same in Gothic, formed from 
am, we also use with, little variation of sense. The Saxons adopted iasf, iaefn, as their gif, 
gifiuiyi gifwen, which tbe.Scotdi have contracted into gin, saying also dif for the if; and 



with us yef, for yea if, and zit so if, were common about the time of Mandeville. As 
our ideas acquire precision, such useless repetitions of particles are exploded : but even 
now, among the illiterate citizens and peasants, they are studiously strung together in the 
antique pleonasm of phraseology, " an if, so be, as how," when if, alone, would be more dis- 
tinct, at least in modern acceptance. 

Compound words for assent, similar to our ay. or yea, are common to all European lan- 
guages, and, like the Latin etiam or ita, Greek OuVa^, mean in tlieir primitive sense, even 
so or the same. The Moeso-Gothic ibn is our even, and ibe, the Teutonic eb. Sans, ib, our 
yea be or if. The Armoric and Welsh je pe, having precisely tlie same composition and 
meaning with the Gothic, is frequently written efe, for which pe alone was also used ; and 
the Gothic eija, ey, Moeso-Gothic Ei, Greek E/, correspond with if or so ; as we now say, 
'* if he gives me the value," or " so he gives me the value." In Belgic lo niet, is the 
usual expression for if not. This construction of the word is very general ; for the Greek 
Ei^ has the same relation to ^fu, that the Latin si has with sum, or the Gothic and Welsh 
ef, ibe, efe, epe, to their verbs ve, be and pe. Our exclamation ay ay, is the (TOthic aja, ia, 
so so. The Gothic efa, ifa, iafa, ivan, formed from if, equality, sameness, signified to doubt 
With us ifs and ans also implied hesitation, from the real or pretended difficulty of discover- 
ing a preponderance of circumstances on either side. The Greek Ao/^, Latin dubium, two 
ways, and the Gothic tuifal, Teutonic zweifal, two cases, must have involved a supposition, 
that their parity of condition was such, as to produce that indecision in the mind which is 
called doubt. 

These etymons have been the more closely examined, because our conjunction if, is as- 
serted under high authority to be an oblique application of the imperative of the verb to 
give. But Home Tooke had not observed that in the Teutonic it is ob, eb, in Belgic of, 
Danish and Swedish om, corresponding exactly with the Gothic ef, aef, aem, none of which 
can with any probability be derived from give. Their composition, however, has some affinity 
with the latter word, so far as relates to the Gk>thic ia or gia, Saxon gea, our yea, which, form- 
ed into a verb of assent, became gean, to own, to admit The Groths probably added to gia 
their word fa, Saxon fon, Danish fae, to possess, in forming giafa, to bestow ; especially as 
fae, without any prefix, signifies to give. 

The article a/i, in the obsolete phrase, an if, which signifies so even, has been supposed 
to be the imperative of the Saxan anan, to concede ; but that verb is a modification of the 
Gothic, Swedish and Saxon unna, to please, cherish, love or coax, which produced the Gothic 
ynde, and ge ynde, endearing, amiable, our word kind, and boon, a grace. The Gothic 
enn or asn, then, so being, men, indeed, as well as the Teutonic an, can, from the Gothic 
A, to be, is used exactly in the sense of the Arabic en, the Greek ' Ai^ or 'Eai^, if, derived 
from "Eft;. 

The sagacity of Mr Tooke, however, suggested the real meaning of our preposition for, 
although he did not find the etymon. The Gothic ar, Teutonic or, ur, Swedish ur, Saxon 
OTp ord, the begioningp (which produced fore, priw) also signified the origin, first motive or 
purpose, and fiirmed part of the Swedish orsakp Teutonic ursach, the cause or b^^ning 


of a thing. From or and for, predisposition, destiny^ the Goths had their orlog and for- 
Ic^, law of fete, fatality. In some of our northern districts, ur is still used instead Cffjbr ; 
and in the Gothic dialectsybr and^r^ have been confounded in orthography. 

The Gothic uU Saxon uU ot^ Belgic uit, our out, becomes buU for be out, implying 
chiefly, put out, excepted ; put out, excluded ; and put out, extended. We use it also as the 
French do mais, the Latin magis, and the Belgic mar, moreover. Out, in this sense, enters 
into our verbs outgo, outbid, outUve ; we also say out and out, completely ; and in all the 
Gothic dialects it is used exactly like our but. Both have the same meaning with the 
Latin e, ex, extra, extraneous; from which we have stranger, apparentiy translated from 
the Gothic butaner, a foreigner. Extra, beyond, additional, further, beside, corresponds with 
but, unless where it was formerly ne but, not more, only. Forth and further are contracted 
from fore out and fore outer; unless is from utan less, leave out. But has no connexion 
whatever with boot, which never denoted any thing more than good, benefit, reparation. 
The Gothic B6ta and B6tra signify to better, to mend, to boot. 

Excludvely of what has been noticed, out may be traced into many words with various 
shades of meaning ; sudi as odd, otter, oust, joiist, jut, put or butt, push, beetle, (to pro- 
ject,) bud, button, boss, bother, (to put out,) butterfly, with endless prefixes and postfixes. 
The French but is our butt, an extreme object, and bout, our butt, the outer part, the end. 

The Gothic I or In, the contrary of out, hn also many derivatives. Our Inn, a house 
of reception ; mine, an entrance ; mouth, contracted from munth, an orifice ; mtms, mien, a 
countenance, in the sense of Latin os ; Gothic mirmcL, to kiss ; mxyney, coin with a face ; mint, 
ednage ; to mtan, to perceive internally ; mkrvd, inteUect ; and bin, pen, pound, an enclosure, 
have all the same root The Scotch ben is an inner, while but is an outer apartment Our 
by is the Gothic bej, being in, at or beside ; and the Persian bu Kkoda is our by God. 

The preposition with appears to comprehend the two foregoing etymons, llie Swedish uti, 
uthi is out in, and utan, out from. The Saxon with and Belgic uit have the same meaning 
as our with and also out of, when we say out o/* malice, for the French par malice ; the Saxon 
with tha SOS is translated into Latin e regione maris. The Gothic vid and Saxon with be- 
oame mid, med, mitJi, by the usual mutation of v into m, unless when employed as med, Mer, 
a mean or medium, to be noticed hereaften The Gothic xAd, vidur, Saxon with, wither, 
Moeso-Gothic F^i, By, Ba, signified together, opposite, against. In the first sense the Moeso- 
Gothic ga withan is to join, and gay withran, to gather ; but the Gothic vidur, against, was 
contracted into ver, vor,for, which, like our with, was an adverse prefix ; and hence Saxcm 
forbeodan, Teutonic verbieten, our forbid ; Gothic vidhalta, Teutonic verhalten, vederhalten, 
8&xiXi Jbrhealdan, to withhold. To meet and to moot, to assemble and to encounter, have the 
same formati<»). 


To these su^estions, on a very intricate subject, may be added the Gothic mi, mid, med, 
apparentiy from the Gothic /, at, in or between. They corresponded with the Latin me^ 
dius and medium, a mean, a half; and besides denoted a division and a particle, a mite or 
not^: whence Gothic meida, meisa, Latin meto, to cut, divide, mow, mutilate. Com- 


pounded with dal^ dail, a share, it produced the Gothic medal, the mid deal or middle. 
Midy Med, with the Gothic la (from laga, to lay or place) became, midla, Swedish medloy 
to put between, to intervene, divide, diminish, reduce into portions, interfere ; and also to 
meddle, in the sense of Meffooj. Media was contracted into Tuella, which produced the Gothic 
mcU, mel, Swedish mal, Saxon mat, mcel, Teutonic mat, mahl, applied in different ways, but 
invariably denoting intervention or division. Mai was thus a portion of speech, a word, a 
harangue, a notice, a cause or action at law, a division of time or space, an interstice, a frag* 
ment, a crumb, a spot, speck, painting, delineation, writing mark, sign, a piece of ground 
set apart or enclosed, a fixed hour for eating, a moiety of the produce of the soil as rent, a 
convention, a contribution, salary, measure, boundary. Our meal, time of eating ; meal, 
grain reduced to particles, smxiU ; mold, dust ; mole, a spot on the skin ; mxiU, a public walk, 
the boundary of a town ; Scotch muil, rent ; and, finally, from the Gothic mals, a fixed period 
for contribution, which has the same root with Teutonic mns, measure, we have Lammas 
and Christmas ; although the word has been generally confounded with Mass, a religious 
ceremony. Our medley, things intermingled, is the* Gothic medal, which, contracted into 
miUe, Swedish mellan, is our mell, a mixture ; and the Gothic imille, Swedish imellan, in the 
midst, among, Chaucer writes ym^ll Thus Swedish mala, mata, to measure ; Saxon mat, 
* mathl, methel, speech ; Teutonic malen, Scotch mail, mnit, mete, to paint, are from one com- 
mon root 

Swedish medel, Teutonic mittel, the middle, was a mean, medium, mode, remedy, and also 
a medicine ; which, in like manner, is derived from the Latin medium, remedium. Msrpiof, 
Latin metior, Gothic meta, Saxon viasthian, Mceso-Gothic maitan, to divide, measure, mete, 
have the same origin ; and Islandic myde, Saxon mythe, Scotch meith, meid, a division, 
boundary, mark, portion, measure, is cognate with the Latin meta. In the same sense we 
have mite, a small coin, Belgic myte, Teutonic meit, meid, medal, a piece of money, a medal, 
and also a meed, the Saxon med, hire, reward. Our meet, fit, proper, decent, is the Gothic 
miot, mast, Saxon mate, mete, Teutonic mas, in measure, regular, orderly, becoming. Such 
were the modulations and contractions by which " winged words" were produced in 

Three instances will serve here to show the expansion of Gothic words. Taelja, Tiala, to di- 
vide, separate, cut, produced our taille, tally, tale, deal, dole, dale, tell, talk, toll, thil, till, taylor, 
detail, retail. Kla»fa, klofa, to cleave, divide, put into parts or portions, produced, cleft, cliff, 
dough, cloud, club, clover, claw, clip. Gothic Ar, iEr, a division, a cut, an opening, is Scotch 
At a wound, a cicatrice, from which we have Ear, to plough, and scar, shear, score, skirt, shread, 
shard, share, shire, and to carve. 

Had any rules for orthography existed in very ancient times, infinitely fewer thorns 
would have been encountered on the path of the weary etymologist ; but spelling was so 
arbitrary in the days of our celebrated Shakspeare, that he varied it several times in writ- 
ing his own name ; and in France, the evil was not remedied till after the middle of the 
last century. 

The exact period of the first introduction of letters into Europe cannot be ascertained ; 


but, no doubt, their progress must have been gradual and almost imperceptible. The at- 
tempt to represent things by signs of outward resemblance, so natural to the , perceptions of 
an infant age, had probably long obtained among all nations. But that expedient^ incapable 
from its nature of much improvement, tended so completely to mislead the mind, that the 
invention of an alphabet appears like a miracle. Although some representations by figures 
were at first simple objects of convenience, in the common intercourse of mankind, yet every 
where, as with the Egyptians and Goths, they must have been employed more extensively in 
the mystical ceremonies of superstition ; and therefore they were known as hieroglyphics or 
runes, both of which denote sacred inscriptions. 

The most ancient and general practice of divination or incantation, consisted in scatter- 
ing ritually a parcel of rods, and predicting events from the appearances they exhibited on 
the ground. Runn, in Gothic, is a bunch of twigs or branches, and the mountain ash or 
wild sorbus, which, so long maintained its superstitious reputation in Scotland, was there and 
in Denmark called run or rountree. White beam, our name for that tree, has the same 
import, from the Gothic, Saxon and Danish weight, holy, sacred, in allusion to its use in 
rabdomancy ; and with us it enters into the composition of many words, such as Whitsun- 
day, Whitchurch, Whitby, and the Isle of Wight.* The Irish fiodah, shrubs, is also the 
name for letters, each of which is said to express some particular wood. The Celtic druids, 
Welsh derwiddon, may have been so called from trees, according to the original meaning of 
igvj, Russian dru, Welsh derw ; and AgygiJa;, like the Gothic trio, deru or dreu wita, signifies 
to prophesy or enchant by trees. The Goths seem to have used rada runer and rada risur 
in the same sense, because risur was the plural of rod. But, whether from that ceremony 
or not, the Gothic run, Irish run, Welsh ryn, had the meaning of mystery, religion, sorcery ; 
and from rune we have the obsolete word aroynt, to be exorcised. The Gothic allrun, T. 
alraun, was the herb mandrake, used in sorcery. The Gothic stafi" was added to run, in 
forming the verb runstafa, to divine or enchant by sticks, in the same way that the Chaldeans 
and ancient Persians employed arrows, which their letters resemble ; and runa, Welsh rhon, 
was also a dart. Thence probably originated the Ephesian letters, which, as Suidas reports, 
rendered one of the athletae invincible at the Olympian games. Performers in this mystical 
art, like the priests of Egypt, would naturally be desirous of preserving the remembrance of 
their successful predictions ; and the fantastic lines, copied dn a leaf or stone, were the first 
runes. When the wonderful device of signs for sounds was introduced, many of the former 
figures, familiar to the hand and eye, were probably adopted for alphabetical characters; 
which continue to be called book staiF or buchstaf, in Germany, and buch stave in Denmark. 

The origin of Arithmetic has been unanimously attributed to the fingers. The Gothic 
teiga, tiga, to extend, ascend, appears' to have produced tiga, tein, the number ten ; al- 
though the word might be corrupted from tuig or tuea, our twain, meaning twice five, as 
the Gothic taihun, ten, taihund, tenth, approach so nearly to tua haund, two hands ; corre- 
sponding with Ai^a from A6o g%<v, Persian Doh, ten, from Do, two, which would naturally 
produce decimal numeration. But the Welsh, like the Jalofs and Foulas, confined them- 
selves to one hand for five or the whole ; and, instead of sixteen, seventeen, they now say 

• Gothic We is holy, and Saxon Igt, old English Eight, an Island. 



fifteen onei fifteen tivo, although they count to ten as we do. Something similar is indicated 
in 6reek» by the apparent affinity of UAnu the whole, and Tlint five. In Persian panja is 
the hand and panj five. 

Haund, or its plural haunder, the hands, has great resemblance to hundra or hund, which 
originally signified ten ; corresponding with the Latin centum in viginti and triginti, for tri 
eanti ; although it afterwards denoted a hundred or five score. The (^othic teija or tegas 
hund^ ten hundred, is our thousand. Hand was fi'om Gothic Ha or Han, yji^lwtui^ to have 
or hold ; the Greek 'fjearoV, was any gross quantity, as well as ten times ten ; and the Grothic 
katt or kant, corresponds with the Arabic kata, a division, the Latin centum and Greek 
Koiv-a, as in 'Oy^n^oyro, the Armoric and Welsh cant, a piece, circle, canton, kantrad or 
hundred. The two last have the addition of the Gothic ra or rad, a limit, number, order 
or demarcation. 

We may suppose that a circular or quadrangular figure would naturally be used to de- 
signate what is called a round sum or square quantity. Thus, 

might be ten, one hundred, and a thousand. In our present arithmetical signs O has much 

of that efiect ; but, if any one of the three were described separately by such a figure, 

something must have been added to indicate its relative proportion. The Greeks had their 

great and small o. The Latins having reversed the a; into % or transformed CIO into 

M, would find that letter sufficient to express one thousand without annexing the larger 

drcle. The smaller o had C, for centum, Earoi' or KajTov, as its 

distinctive sign, which in the same way denoted afterward one 

hundred. With the Greeks, however, o m^a contained only 

eight hundred, like the asttrad, four score or literally eight por- 

tbns, of the Goths ; because they could obtain no further regular 

subdivisions of the circle without producing great excess; and 

aoeording to M ungo Park, with some nations in the centre of 

Afirica, the hundred is only four score. When thus graduated, 

two additional lines were required to correspond with the digital 


or decimal system, and complete the true hundred and thousand ; then each X in the circle 

being a tenth part of the whole, became numerically ten ; and the 

half of X is V or five. The M or great circle, when equally 

divided, 0, was twice the letter D ; which, like the Greek <I>, is 

therefore half a thousand or five hundred. The square hundred 

seems to have been intersected diagonally, |^, of which L, being 

one half, was of course fifty, and all the regular subdivisions of 

squares are hence denominated quadrangulars or quarters. The 

Greek x* like the Latin and Chinese X, was ten, as in yj^iX^ ; and 

for yjKkOL or % si>J7, ten times ten numbers, the Latins substituted M, 

!i>j7 or mille, one thousand. The Greek B stood for two, and thus. |3 sF;, |3 u^aq^ became bis 

and binus. It may not be impertinent to observe also, that the Greek Airpa is weight or 

measure, the Latin litera, a letter ; and, as the Osce frequently, instead of the Greek t, used p 

or b, the connexion between the Latin liber, a book, and libra, fi*om A/Vpce, is remarkable. 

Under these circumstances the learned will decide how far the suggestion be admissible, 
that, many figures, now alphabetical, may have long been employed for numeral or mathe- 
matical purposes, before they were adopted to denote vocal sounds. 






THE first letter, perhaps, of all alphabets except the 
^y Runic, of which it was the tenth, has in English 
tlu-ee different sounds; the broad, the open, and the 
slender; as in wall, father, face. It is short, as in 
glass, and long in glaze, and other words with e final. 

1. An indefinite artide before nouns ; used also by the 
Goths as an and ain, our one. 

2. A prefix, either negative or privative, S. a ; whence, 
witn the Gk)ths, an, ana, na, our no. 

3. A prefix, termination or separate article, signified a 
state of being, tendency or procedure, as in above, 
along, adrift, and form^ the infinitive mood of G. 
verbs, which became an in M. G. and S. and eninT, 
and B. It seems to have been the G. verb A or £, 
to be, corresponding with w, and the root of our verb, 
to be. Tlius we say, a riding, a prajring, a laughing ; 
and, in burlesque poetry, it serves at the end oT a 
word to suit the verse. See Be. 

4. prep. As Thomas a Becket, may have been the L. a, 
but more probably a contraction of G. of, our of. See O. 

5. In forming the names of places, is frequently G. a ; 
Heb. ahha; P. a6 ; L. aqua, water; G. aa ; Swed. a ; 
in composition ar, a river. See £a and Dab. 

6. An abbreviation of L. artium, as A. B. bachelor of arts, 
A M. master of arts ; or for L. anno, as A. D. anno 
Domini, the year of our Lord. 

Aam, f. a measure of capacity. See Awme. 

Aback, ad. backward ; in sea terms, to the mast. 

Abaft, ad. towards the stem of the ship. See Baft. 

Abaisancb, s. a bow of respect, a courtesy. See to 

Abandon, v. a* to forsake, desert, separate from ; F. 
abandoner ; It. abandonare ; from a, privative, and 

Abase, v. a. to humble, depress, cast down; F. abaisHr; 
It. bassare. See Base. 

Abash, o. a. to confound, make ashamed. See Bash. 
Abate, v. a, to diminish, lower, reduce ; F. abatre, ra^ 
balre. See to Bate. 

Abaw, 0. o. to intimidate, to terrify ; from ab, G. af, 
and awe. See Adaw. 

Abb, 9. the yam of a weaver's warp ; 8. ab; v^n. See 

Abba, s. a scriptural word for father; A. aba; Heb. abba. 

Abbat, Abbb,«. the superior of an abbey ; It. abate; F. abbi. 


I Abbess, s. the governess of a nunnery ; L. B. abbatissa ; 
F. abbesse. 

Abbey, s. the residence of an abbe or abbat ; L. B. abba-- 
Ha; F, dbhaye. 

Abbot, Abbat, s* the superior of an abbey. 

Abele, 8. a white-leaved poplar ; B. abde ; S. cebUce- 
See Blat. 

Abee, in the names of places, signifies the mouth of a 
river, a port or harbour ; G. hrfar ; D. hav ar, from 
M, the sea, and ar, of a river or creek ; Sp. and Port. 
dbra ; W. aber ; F. havre, a haven ; A. and P. aber, a 
river, from ab, water ; G. amun ; Swed. kmun ; L. 
amnis s and W. afim, a river. See A 

Abet, v. a. to encourage, aid, set on ; G. bceta ; S. hetan, 
to assist; S. beian, in anodier sense, is from O.eUa, 
beita, to excite, instigate. See to Bait. 

Abctakce, Abidance, s. expectation, reversion; Nor- 
man F. abbaiaunce ; Chaucer wrote abie and abegge, for 
D. abie, to abide. 

Abide, v. to dwell, continue, support, await, expect ; 
S. abidan. See to Bide. 

Able, a. 1. having strength or power, robust, energetic ; 
G. and Swed. qfl; S. aial; B. abel ; Isl. ^, to labour, 
to exercise strength ; S. eUen, strength, power. 

2. Having address, facility, capacity ; L. habUis ; F. ha- 
bile ; It. abile ; W. aid. 

Able, Abels, Ablins, ad. perhaps, peradventure ; G. 
qfal, ajalis, from fall, chance. See Befal. 

Aboard, ad. in a ship, embarked ; F. a bord ; It. and Sp. 
bordo, from G. and Swed. bord ; B. boord, which si^i- 
fied the part of a ship rising above the water, the edge. 
See Border. 

Abode, s. a dwelling, a residence, a house ; G. and Swed. 
bod; D. boed ; W. bod; L. B. boda, from the verb to 
bide; A. bad ; P. bood ; Heb. bat, beth; Hind, abad; 
whence Allahabad, Hyderabad, Aurungabad, the resi- 
dences of Allah, of Hvder, and Auruns ; as well as 
the scriptural names of places, Bethel, Sethesda, Beth* 
lehem. See Booth. 

Abode, r. a. to foretell, predict, announce. See to 

Abound, r. n. to be in plenty ; L. abondo ; F. abonder, 
to flow, from L. unda. 

About, 1. prep, near to, with, of, concerning; 2.arf. around 
every way ; S. utan, abutan, on the outside, around. 



Abb^ham^ s, the name of the Jewish patriarch ; T. Abra^ 
ham, as with us Moses and B. Schmaus^ which also is 
Moses^ signified a Jew. Persons of that description 
were formerly considered as the kind's property, and 
could therefore, in some cases, plead immunity from 
the civil law. Whence to sham Abnhtm -was -to «et up 
a false plea ; Abraham colour, tawny ; and Abweksutn 
balm, hemp. In N. Britain, the gipsies seem, from 
their dark complexions, to have been included in 
what was called in Teutonic Abrakamisch, and their 
leader had the name of Abraham Brown in many a 
tale of seduction. 

Abrade, v, a. to rub off, waste away ; L. abrado. 

Abraio, a, broken, pounded in a mortar. See to Brat. 

Abraide, v. a, 1 . to disturb, rouse from sleep ; 6. and 
Swed. bresda, bregda suefni, to rouse from sleep. See 
Braid and Break. 

2. To speak, explain, expostulate ; T. bereden, abreden, 
from G. rceda, T. reden. See to Rede. 

3. To dilate, enlarge, publish, exclaim.; S,abr(gdatt,.&om 
breed, broad. 

4. To speak against, refute, disagree; T^ jaireden, &om 
ab and redcn ; sometimes confounded with upbraid. 

5. To bereave, deprive; S. berasdan^ abmiian, from 
hredan to rid. 

Abridge, v. a. to shorten, contract, diminish ; F. aire- 
ger, from L. abreviatio, 

A9BOACH, ad. in a posture to 4*ua out, properly spoken 

of Tassels. See Jdboach. 
Abboad, ad. ont, at a di«taiice, in a foreign country. 

See Bboad. 
Abstain, v. a. to refrain from, forbear; from L. abs 

Amvt, v. n. to border upon, rest a^punat, terminate ; 

F. aboutir. See But. 

Acoompt, t. a reckoning, a bill; F« cample^ from L. 

ccmputatio. See Count. 
Accord, s. an agreement, free will ; F. aocarde, fr^m L. 

corde, with the heart ; but sometimes denoting unison 

of musical cords. See Concobd. 
Accost, v. to speak to first, to salute; F. accoster, to 

approach, come side to side, from L. costa ; but our 

word corresponds with S. acwethan, from cwoihan; 

6. kuedia, kuesia, to speak. 
Account, s. reckoning, estimation, detail, consideration, 

rank. See Accompt. 
Accoutbb, v. a, to arrange, attire, dress, equip; F. 

accoutrer, from L. cosiruo for construo. 
Accboach, v. a. to draw to one as with a hook ; to draw 

away by degrees what is another's ; F. Accrocher. See 

AccBUE, V. n. to grow out of, to arise from, to redound ; 

F. accreu, increase, from L. cresco, crevi 
AcB, s. a unit, in cords or dice ; &• a*, contracted from 

ains; eU ; "P. as ; It. asso. 
AcHB, s. Parsley ; F. achej T. cppich^ from L. apium. 
Ache, s. continued pain. See Akx* 
Achieve, v. a, to finish, perform, accomplish; from 

chief, the head; F. achever/ Sp. acabar. Se« Caa- 


Achievement, 9. from the verb, an exploits a feat ; and, 

in heraldry, denoting armoriid bearings. 
AooBN, s. the fruit of an oak ; S. ascem, oak com. 
Acquaint, if. a. to xaiiiiie known, in&rm ; F. acami, in- 


formed, known, from L. cogniiut, cognate with 6. 

kunna ; Arm. gouna, to know. 

Acquaintance, s. from the verb, knowledge, famili* 
arity ; F. accointance. 

Acquit, v. a. to discharge, clear; L. B. acquito ; F- 
aqukier. See Quit. 

AoBE, s. a measure of hmd, containing 160 perches, or 
48^ square yards ; F. acre, a word introduced by the 
Normans, who confound L. ager; S. acer, a field, with 
li.jugera ; T.juckar,jucar, signifying as much as one 
yoke will plough in a day. 

Adagio, ad. a term in music, signifying leisurely, at 
ease. See Aoio. 

Adam, s. the father of all men ; Heb. Adam ; A. Adum ; 
Hind, adtnee, a man, a person. 

Adaw, v. o. to terrify, to daunt, from awe. See Abaw* 

Adder, s, a venomous serpent ; Isl. nadur ; S. ncedre* 
ostler : T. natter, atter j B. adder ; W. nddr, frtnn G. 
eilur ; S. aslier^ venom. 

Addicb, s. a cooper's ax. See Adzb. 

AnDLB, 1. a. rotten, filthy, muddy ; G. ota, to defik, 
' corrupt^ jiroduced Swed. atal^ atd ; S. add ; Scot 

addle, ordure; W. had^l, rotten, corresponds with 

Heb. hadU* 
2» Morbid, sick, infirm ; S. adl. See Ail. 

3. Vain, frivolous, empty ; Isl. eidel, from G. aud, ^fd ; 
T. oed, void, waste. See Idle. 

4. s> Ettlr, Yeddlb, profit, wa^ far labour ; 8. igd^ 
leatij from G. and Swed. id, idia ; S. md, laboor, and 
lean^ reward. See Loon. 

Address, v. a. to speak or write to, tojptepate, arrange, 
direct ; F. addresser ; Sp, derecar ; xt mrizzare, mm 
L. dirigo. 

Apblxn, Athblino, a Utle given to the son of a Idnjg ; 
G. aita, father, produced cm, ctll, race, pedigree, wbidi 
prefixed to G. a/, ad, a chilc^ progeny, became app»> 
rently G. adel, legitimate, corresponding with our 
word gentle; whence G. ctdli, edle; Swed. asdle; T. 
add, ^l ; B. adel ; S. cethel, of pure race, noble. Vtom 
this word are formed many names of persons, as Athe* 
len, AUeyn, Athelhade, Adelaide, AdaHdis, contnieted 
into Alice, Malhelaide, Matilde. See Athblino and 

AdjoubN, v. a. to defer, postpone, fix for ano^ier day ; 
F. ajourner, from L. dhtmus ; F.jour, a day. 

Admibal, s. a principal sea-officer ; It. ammira^o ; F. 
admiral, from A. amir, a commander. It was used in 
France both as a military and nayal title- 

Adbtpt, ad driving or floating at random. See DmiFB. 

Adboit, a. dexterous, skilful, clever ; F. from droU, It 

drillo, L. directus. 
Advangb, v. a, to put forward, promote, prdSer, say ; 

F. avancer ; It avanxare from abanli, mvanH : L. ^m/e, 

before, forward. 
AnvANTAOB, s. from advance, precedence, Airtfaennet, 

profit ; F. avaniage. 
Advbntubb, s. a doubtfril enterprise ; F. avetUwe, It 

ativeniura. See Vbntubb. 
Advicb, s. notice, counsel ; F. avis; It awM,* 8p. oifiao; 

D. advis ; B. adtjys, from G. amsan, to make known. 

See Wis. 
Adulation, s. flattery, high compliment, sweet speech; 

L. adulatio. 
Absb, s. a narrow ax, an addice ; S. adese ; Arm* 4ig€ ; 

W. iMisr, neddy, &im G. egg, an edge. Sea Ax. 

A I G 


Aebie, s. a nest of birds of prey. See Eybt. 
Affair, 9. a business, concern; F. affaire, from L*facere» 
Affiance, *. marriage-contract, trust ; F.Jiance ; It af^ 

Jianza* See Afft. 
Afford, v. a, to produce, supply, grant; O. Rad, power, 

means ; 8wed.Jorrad ; T.forrath, supply ; O.forrada, 

to f\imish, provide. 
Affront, v. o. to insult, provoke, enrage ; P. qfronter, 

from Jj,fronSf the face, and Met. shame. Afiront was 

sometimes used for confront, and denoted a friendly 

Afft, v. o. to betroth, confide in; F.Jier, qfier; It qf- 

Jidare, from h.Jldo. 
Afraid, o. fearful, terrified ; F. effhufL See Afearo. 
Aft, ad. behind ; G. apt, eft ; S. ceflan. See After. 
After, /w-ep. later than, behind ; S. asfter ; T. after. 
Again, ad, once more, besides, moreover; O. gen; S. 

a^en ; Swed. fgai. 
Against, prep, in opposition to, close to; O. geinsta, 

from gen, gegn ; S. gean ; T. gegen, and sla, to stand ; 

S. ongeans. It implies towards and opposite, like 

L. contra, 

A0A8T, ad. terrified, amazed. See Agaze. 

Agaze, v. a, to strike with terror or amazement ; from 
G. agis, ogU ; S. egeia, fear, dismay. 

Age, a termination of noons, adopted by the F. fVom 
L. alio. 

Age, s, a space of time, a man's life, 100 years, maturity; 
G. cefe, cewe ; B. eun ; S. ana ; Hind, ayoo ; L. avitoi, 
astas ; F. age ; W. oe* ; Arm. Oag^ ; I. ao». See Ave. 

Agio, «. leisure, convenience, facility, exchange of money. 
It agio, from L. (Awm, sometimes connected with ago. 

Agist, 1. s, a forest term for taking in cattle to pasture; 

L. B. agistamentum, from G. ce^ia; Isl. aya, to feed. 
9. a bank, a dam; L. B. aggiitalio fVom L. aggero. 
Agnail, t. a small flaw of the skin, near the finger nail, 

occasioning sometimes a whitlow; Swed. agg, pain. 

See Awn and Nail. 

Ago, Agone, ad. past, long since, ^ee Gons. 

Agog, ad. in a state of desire or joy. See Gog. 

Agont, s. extreme anguish, pain of death. F. agonie 
from *Ayi»y/«. 

Agoutt, s. an animal of the Antilles about the size of a 
rabbit ; Sp. agudo ; F. accomti, from L. acuius. 

Agrbb, v. to consent, harmonize, {dease, suit; F. agreer ; 
It gradire ; L. B. agradire from L. gratia. 

Ague, s. an intermittent fiiver, accompanied with cold 
and hot fits ; L. acuta fehru is supposed to have pro- 
duced our word ; but the disorder nas never been con- 
sidered acute. The vulgar call it agar, and Isl. agar, 
ogur; S. ega, oga, terror^ tremor, may have had Art, 
hriih, an attack, a fit, added to it, corresponding with 
F. acce, which is the accessus of Pliny. 

Ab, intj. a word denoting compassion or desire, and 
sometimes complaint or censure ; A. a; P. Ook ; Heb. 
Hoi ; 'aJ; L. It. F. ah; I. ach; W. and Arm. och; in all 

• G. dialects ach, ak ; P. oA, a sigh. See O. 

Aha, intj. an expression of surprise, triumph or con- 
tempt ; L. ha. See Ha ba. 

Aha, 4. a concealed fence, ditch or enclosure. See Haw 
and Hat. 

Aid, 9. help, support, subsidy ; F- aide ; It aiuto, aita, 
from L. ajutum. 

AiouLBT, «. a point, a tag.; F. aiguUt, from L. acuUaius. 

I Ail, v. to be in pain, disordered, afflicted; G. iUa, aiila, 
aiiUa; S. adilian, adlean, to have ill ; S. eglan, to have 
pain, from Swed. agg, pain ; G. cegla, a point; M. G. 
agio, affliction ; W. aell, sorrow. 

Aim, v. a. to have in, view, to design; D. ceyeme; I. oigham; 

G. au^a urn, from atf^a,''0^c^, the eye; F. enter, umer; 

It smtrar, from L. mtror had nearly the same meaning. 
Air, s. I. the element encompassing the earth ; A*^; L. 

aer ; F. air ; It aria ; Sp. are ; rm . air ; W. amtfr, 

2. Appearance, manner, sheen; F. air, from Av^/ L. aura; 
Heb. aour, sheen, light ; Heb. raa^ '0^«iv, to see. 

3. Light music> a song; F. air; It aria; Sp. aria, supposed 
to be from L. aer; but perhaps from him. 

Aisle, s. side walk in a church, a wing; F. a%U; Arm. and 
W. oigel; L. B. ascella, fVom L. ah, axilla; the aisles 
being the wings of the nave. 

Ajar, ad. leaning to one side; G. ajari, adjari; Scot 

agee, oblique, from G.jadur,jar, a side, a limit 
Akb, *. continued pain; G. ecke; S. (xce;'*Ax^%, pain; Swed- 

ogg^> to ake, hiartagga, the heart-ake. 
Alabanda, s. a dark-coloured ruby found at Alahanda, 

and also a damask rose. See Almandinb. 
Alarm, *. a cry or notice of danger ; It alarma; F. alarme, 

generally supposed to be F. a Varme, to arms; but 

our word is probably from Larum. 

Alas, Alack, intj. betokening pity ; L. ah lassus, ah 
luctns; F. helas; W. ha llaes; JP. ulha. 

Albeit, ad. for Albbtbough, although, nevertheless. 
Albicore, s. a fish like a tunny, which follows ships ; 
Port albacora; A. al and bacora, a pig. 

Alburn, a. of a brownish colour ; It alburno for a la 
bruno. See Auburn. 

Alcaid, s. governor of a castle in Barbary ; a judge of a 
city in Spain. See Cadi. 

Alcanna, s. an Egyptian plant used for dying yellow or 
red ; A. hinna, aChtnna ; Turk, alkanna. See Hbnna. 

Alchymy, t. the highest chymistry ; A al keemiya, from 
A. and Copt hem, khem, neat, process of heat, al khum 
an Alembic ; but some suppose that the A. article has 
been prefixed to x^vfttt. 

Alcohol, s. rectified spirit of wine ; A. al khuU, or hull, 
a solvent 

Alcoran, s. the book, the Mahometan bible. See Co- 

Alcove, s. a private recess to lie or sit in, an arched 
building in a garden ; A. al qoobbu, or kubah, an arch 
or dome. 

Alder, s. the name of a tree ; S. ctlr ; D. eUe tree ; L. a/- 

Alderlievbst, a. all most beloved ; B. al der lievst. 
See LiEVE. 

Alderman, s. a munidpal magistrate ; G. Swed. and S* 
alderman ; G. aldur, from which we have Old and El- 
der, signified precedence and priority, like h. primus ; 
but G. aldra, for all cedra, was a superior person, a 
right honourable. See Earl. 

Ale, i. a fermented liquor, G. eal, ol, aul ; Swed. ol ; 
S.- eale ; T. oL If from P. ala ; Q. and Swed. ell, 
fire ; S. celan, to heat or bum, it would correspond 
with Zu6h ; but perhaps the name is from G. ala ; L. 
alo, to nourish, and in the former, to bear ; whence 
allon and qfal, an apple, from of ala, a name given to 
fruits in general; so that ale would be synonimous 
with L. cicera. See To Brbw. 

Alecost, s. an herb ; from ale and cost See Costmaby. 


A M E 

Alegar, s, a sobalitute for vinegar. See Ave and 

Albboop, s. an herb called ffround iry ; B. eilorf; T. 

ephen, a plant formerly used in brewing. See Oill. 
A1A1IBIO9 s. a tfill ; A aiambic, fhnn laybec. 

A11BRT5 A. briflk^ livdy, watchful ; It. a ferta, the con- 
trary of inert. 

Albxandbrs, s, a plant called L. <du$atrum, but proper- 
ly smymium. 

Alrzandbins, s. a verse of twelve syllables^ introduced 
by one Alexaiidre> a Frendi poet 

Albt, s. a Tmkiah title ; A. alee, from ala, superiority, 

Algebra, s. literal arithmetic ; A. aljebra, properly al 

jubr mooqahihi, power of equaliiing by comparison or 


Alight, v. a. to fkll upon, deaoead. See To Light. 
Alkahest, s. a univecsal dissolTeiit ; F. idkaest, from 
A. alkahasset. 

Alkakengi, s. the A. name of the winter cherry ; It. 

Alkali, s. a salt, properly that of the herb Kali. 

Alkanet, s. the herb ancJiMsa, confounded with alcanna, 

because both are used as cosmetics. 
All, a. the whole ; O. all, oil; Swed. T. B.aUe; S. alU 

eal;*'OXHi Heb. cAo^; Axfou kM i W . all ; I. wle. 
All Saints, the first day of November. The ancient 

Romans built a temple, called the Pantheon, where an 

annual festival was held in honour of all the Gods, 

which the Christians dedicated to all the saints. 
Allat, v. a. 1. to adulterate or mix metals ; L. B. lega, 

adulteration ; F. aUkr ; Sp. alear. See Alloy. 
2. To put down, suppress, appease ; S. aUffin ; Aifyiw. 

See To Lav. 

Allegiance, x. feudal obligation, duty of subjects to 
princes, loyalty, obedience to the laws. See Liege. 

Allegbo, 1. 9. one of the six modes of music 2. a. spright- 
ly, briflic ; It. allegro ; Sp. aUgero ; L. alacer. 

Alley, s. a narrow passage or walk ; F. aUei from aller ; 
Arm. tela, to go. See Oalleby. 

Alleluya, s. a kind of sorrel ; L. B. lujula; F. VoieUle, 
from L. oxalis, 

Alligatob, s. a kind of crocodile ; Sp. lagarto, alagarlo, 
from L. Iaceriu9. See Crocodile. 

Allodial, a. independent, free from fines, not feudal ; 

O. andal, odal; B. odd; Swed. odal ; Sa>t. ndal, pos^ 

session ; whence O. allodal ; F. alien, entire possession ; 

F. alendes or lendes were manorial lords. See Feudal. 
Allodium, s. entire possession, free land ; L B. firom O. 

all and ; F. alien. See Allodial. 
Alloo, v. a. to set on, to excite a dog to attack. See 

Loo and Halloo. 
Allot, v. a. 1. firom Lot, to distribute by lot. 
S. To place, assign, allow ; firom L hco, locainm. 
Allow, v. a. I. to admit, permit, grant ; O. £. alenin ; 

F. alloner; S. oMan from Swed. kfwa; D. hem; 

Scot. Uw, permlflsion^ leave. 
2. To deposit, assign, mAke provision or abatement, to 

fix with consideration ; L. B. aUoco from loco. 
Alloy, s. a mixture or adulteration of metals ; It Uga ; 

F. alliage, ahy. See Allay. 
Allubb, o. o. to entice, seduce, attract ; L. alicere; but 

sometimes from Lube. 
Ally, o. o. to unite by contract, join ; F. allier ; It. 

oQigare ; L aXgo. 

Almanac, t. a calendar of die moon's changes, fasts, ftc« 
for the year ; P. almaheen firom tnaka ; O. Mmna ; M^m 
the moon. 

Almandine, s. a kind of ruby ; F. abnandine ; properly 

Alabandine. See Alabanda. 
Almonbb, #. a distributer of alms. 

Aloe, Aloes, s. a bitter purgative gum ; A. aloe ; P. alo^ 
yak ; Hind, ey/fvor. 

Aloft, ad. on high, above in the air ; O. loft ; L. de^ 

Alone, a. solitary, single, onely ; T. allem, only. 

Aloof, ad. ntn clistance ; foridl off*, and sometimes finr 

Alphabet, s. the letters in a languaffe; "Ah^ B^m; A. 

Heb. and P. alifbe, the names of Uie two %it letters, 

to which we add a third, making a b c 
Altab, s. a place for divine offerings ; L aliart, perhaps 

for aUa ara ; Q. ara is fire. See Hbabth. 

Altbb, 0. o. to make otherwise, to vary ; L. aUero ; F. 
aUerer ; It. alterare. 

Aludbl, 4. an earthen pot for sublimation ; supposed to 
be from L. a and Intnm, without clay. 

Alway, Always, ad. in every way, oontinuaUy, ever ; 
T. alweg. 

Am, v. n. first person of the verb to be ; F. oai, mtmr O- 

am; H. am; Ei^ ; Arm. onm. 

Amain, ad. with vigour, violently. See Main. 

Amaze, v. o. to surprise, terrify, daunt See Mass. 

Amazon, s. a warlike woman, a virago; one of an ima- 
ginary nation of female warriors called A/ig^wif from 
m ftm^f without a breast ; because the right one was cut 
off that it might not impede in shooting with a bow. 

Ambassadob, s. a representative of a prince ; F. om^or- 
sadeur; It. ambasciatore, from G. ambaktare, ambagt 
are an official legate ; M. G. ambahln / L. B. amhac^ 
ins; T. ambahi contracted into amoi, an office. G. 
hug, the mind, produced aknga, avAeknga, to direct, 
superintend, from which is our Heed. £]iBA88V ap- 
pears to be a different word. 

Ambbb, s. a yellow resinous gum; A. ambar ; Sans. 
ambnra; L. B. ambra ; It ambra ; F. ombre; T. 

Ambbbobise, 9. a clammy, firagrant drug; F. amber 
gris, gray amber, is probably A. aber, a perfume, eon- 
tcmnded with amber. 

Ambbs ace, a term in play when two aces are turned 

up ; F. ambetai, fVom L ambo and ace. 
Ambiou, *. a medley of viands, with various flavours, 

where nothing predominates ; F. mMgn, fixMn L. 


Amble, o. o. to move between a walk and a trot; F. 
ambler, from L. ambnio. 

Ambby, 9. a place where an almoner lives, or where cold 
victuals are kept for alms, a cupboard ; 8. abnerige 
corrupted firom almery. See ALMe. 

Ambuby, *. a bloody wart on any part of a horse's body. 
SeeAMPEB. ^' 

Ambush, s. a place to lie in wait; It imbo9caia ; F. em' 
bnscke, a covert The term originated with sportsmen, 
who omtrived to conceal themselves with bouirhs. 
See Bush. ^^ 

Ambl, *. 1. the matter used in works which we call 
enamelled; F. emaUle ; T.ala; G. ett; S. al, alid, 
fire, produced our words mek and smelt ; T. sckma^ 



en ; It. and Sp. smaUare, esmaltar ; P. emailler, to melt 
or glaze. See Enamel and Annbajl. 

2. A variegated painting ; F. mailler ; T. mahlen, to spot 
or paint, are from G. mal; T. mahl, corresponding 
with L. macula. 

Amen, ad. so it is, so be it ; Heb. reality, truth. 

Amenable, a. liable to be brought to account, or to ap- 
pear ; P. amen(d>le ; Swed. mana; T. manen, signify 
to constrain, to conduct with some effort ; but F. 
mener ; Sp. menear ; L. B. tnanire, were perhaps from 
manu ire, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. 

Ambbcb, v. a. to inflict a fine proportionate to the of- 
fence ; P. amercier, from L. merces, mercedis, compen- 

Amnesty, s. act of oblivion, pardon ; L. amneslia ; P. 

Among, Amongst, prep, mingled with, amidst; S. amang^ 
mixed, from 6. mang, many. See Many, Mingle 
and Blend. 

Amomum, 8. a sort of fruit ; L. amotnum. 

Amobt, a. 1. dead, lifeless ; P. morl, from L. moriuus. 

2. Afflicted, dejected ; L. B. moeritus, from L. tncereo. 

Amount, v. a. to rise to, to come up. See to Mount. 

Amount, s. from the verb, the sum total, the result 

Ampeb, 9. a tumour, a boil; Isl. amper ; S. ampre, a 
wart or cancer ; T. empor, a tumour. 

Amphibious, a. that partakes of two natures, so as to 
live in two elements, as in air and water ; from 'Aft^i 
and fitH* 

Amulet, s. a charm, a spell ; P. amulette, from L. ama- 

Amuse, v. a. to direct the mind, to entertain, trifle with ; 
P. amuser, from a privative, and muse ; the opposite 
of muse, to meditate. 

An, 1. the indefinite article a, which assumes n before 
words beginning with a vowel, or in derivations from 
the P., with h mute ; but it ought not to be used be- 
fore a G. initial h; nor before eu or k, when pro- 
nounced like you, as eunuch, unicorn. Thus, a house^ 
a unit, a ewe ; and an hour, an ulcer, an ell. Our y^ 
S. ge, is a consonant ; and therefore we say a year^ 
a yew-tree. We say a one-horse chaise, but an only one. 

2. Conj. so be, being it ; G. an, aen, enn, participle of the 
verb A or E, to be, corresponds with A. e» ; Greek "^Af 
*£iiy. See Then. 

Ananas, s. a pine-apple ; Brazil, nana ; A. annanas. 
Anantbes, prep, in regard to ; M. G. an andwairthis, 
being towards or against. See Anbnt and Wabo. 

Anbuby, f. a wart or excrescence. See Ambuby. 
Akcbstob, s. a progenitor, one from whom we descend ; 

P. ancetlre, from L. anlecedo. 
Anchob, s. an iron instrument to hold a ship ; P. angar ; 

G. angur ; T. anchor ; L. ancora ; P. ancre ; It angor ; 

W. ajigor. See Angle. 
Anchovy, s. a small fish, resembling a sprat, used for 

sauce ; It. anchiova ; P. anclvoye, because principally 

caught at a small island of that name near Leghorn ; 

Sardines, a larger species, are caught off Sardinia. 
Ancient, a. old, antique, former ; P. ancien, from L. 


Ancient, s. a standard, properly Ensign. 

And, coni. also, moreover, likewise ; Isl. and B. an, en, 
end; D. end; S. and; G. endur, signified again ; but 
G. a; Ruas. a; W. a; Swed. cen, cognate with G. an, 

S. an; our on, procedure, are used for and in all its 
senses. In the early Bibles, the L. et was written et, 
which is our figure &. See End. 

2. Ad. even to, unto, as far as; Swed. asnda ; M. G. 
und ; T. unt ; S. and, as used in andlong sas, along the 
sea. This word, cognate, with the conj,, is now obso- 
lete, or only found in old ballads, as, *' Robin Hood 
he would and to fair Nottingham ride." See A. 

Andibon, s. • a fire grate, or spit iron ; G. aund ; Swed. 
and, corresponding with *Am, opposite, and G. arn or 
ey», the fire, may have produced P. landier, and L. B. 
andena. The resemblance of G. aund to hund, a dog, 
occasioned perhaps the name of dog iron, for what is 
S. brandiren. 

Anbnt, prep, concerning, regarding ; G. aund ; S. andr 

opposite; Swed. an, and; T. enent, being opposite^ 

correspond with 'Ef^vrt. 
Angel-fish, s. a scate or thomback ; perhaps from 

angle, or L. ungulus, a claw or hook. See Catfish. 
Angelica, s. an herb ; It. angelica ; P. angelique ; G. 

huan niolka ; anciently much used in medicated beer. 

Angeb, s. irritation, rage ; G. angr ; Swed. anger ; S. 

Angle, s. a hook, corner or nook, a point where two 
lines meet; G. angul; P. atigol; S. engel ; T.angil; 
L. angulus. 

Angle, v. a. from the noun, to fish with a hook and line. 

Anguish, s. excessive pain or grief; Y. angoisse ; It. 

angoscia; L. angor, perhaps ivaai^Ayxiu; Swed. augest ; 

T. angst, torture. 

Ankeb, s. a vessel of nine gallons ; B. ancker ; Swed- 

ankare, from G. kier ; Swed. kar, a tub. 
Ankle, s. the joint above the foot ; S. ancleon ; D. 

anckle ; B. enckel, signifies the heel. 
Annates, s. first fruits ; G. atin ; Swed. ann, husbandry ; 

annat, produce of a year's labour; L. usus fruclus. 

But L. B. annates, like annona, is supposed to be from 

L. a/t/ifiJ, because imposed on the produce of the year. 
Anneal, v, a. 1 . to temper glass or metal ; S. ancelan, 

from G. el, eld; P. ala ; Swed. ell; T. ell, fire. 
2. To anoint ; S. anoelan, from al, oil. 
Annock, s. a flat cake baked in the ashes ; Sans, agn ; 

Chald. on ; I. aghna ; G. aen, eyn, fire, ashes, to which 

cake may have been added. It has generally a round 

form in Scotland ; but fadge. It. foccacia ; F.fouace ; 

S.Jbca, from h.Jbcus, is oblong. 
Annoy, v. a. from note, to incommode, injure, damage. 
Anon, ad. soon, in a short time ; G. nyan ; T. nan ; Nvf; 

L. nunc; S. nu ; Scot. eenu. See New and Now. 
Answeb, s. a reply, solution, response; G.andswer, and' 

sard ; Swed. answar ; S. andwi/rd, andwar, andswar ; 

B. antmoord, counter-speech. 

Answeb, v. a. from the noun, to reply, succeed, suit; 
tliis verb has the same direct and figurative meaning 
with L. respondere ; P. rej)ondre, to reply, to fit. But 
for habit, there would be apparent confusion in saying, 
that a small shoe does not answer for a large foot. 

Ant, s. a small insect, a pismire, properly Emmet. 

Ant, 'ad. 1. contracted from an it, in the sense of so it, 
or if it. See An. 

2. A vulgar contraction of am not, is not, are not. 

Antelope, s. a goat with curved horns ; AntAi^*;, re- 
sembling a deer. 

Anthem, s. a divine song or hymn ; It. anthema, from 
At^vftp»s, an offering to God. 


A B G 

AsTic, a. odd^ ludicrous ; from L. aniiquus ; a term first 
used in architecture to denote such ancient figures of 
satyrs^ monkeys^ &c. as are called grotesque. See 

Antimony, «• a valuable mineral ; F. aniimmne ; It an* 
iimottio, said to be aniimonachus, from having poison- 
ed a monk to whom it was first administered. Xmf^t 
may have produced the A names altimini and aUimad, 
for that mineral ; but if antimony were a barbarous 
compound of A»r« and S. num, a man, it would corre- 
spond in meaning with Arsenic. 

Antique, a. ancient, old-fashioned ; F. from L. antiquus. 

Anvil, s, an iron block for smith's work ; G. ain bil, 

one bill, marked the difference between it and the 

bigorne; but S. cenfille seems to be our on fell, to 

strike upon. 
Any, a. one, some, every, whoever, whatever, either ; S. 

anig ; T. einig. See One. 
Apb, s. a monkey without a tail ; Swed. apa ; S. apa ; 

T. affe, abe ; B. aap ; W. eppa, from G. ap, mockery, 

ridicule ; which produced gaba ; It gabbare, to jeer. 

See Gibe. 
Ape, v. a, from the noun, to imitate, to mimic, deride ; 

G. apa ; T. aben. 
Apes, in the expression " to lead apes," is apparently 

from G. leida ; T. leiden ; to suffer, to endure apes 

or gibes. See Ape. 

Apothecary, s. a compounder of medicines ; F. apothc" 
caire; L. 'B.apolhecartus, ftomAw§$iiut^0f*a, a drug shop. 

Appal, v, a, to frighten, to strike with fear. See to Pall* 

Apparel, s, dress, clothes, habit; F. appareil, from L. 

Appay, V, a, 1 . to satisfy, appease ; Romance, apayer ; 
Port, apagar, from L. paco. 

2. To requite, to discharge a debt See to Pay. 

Appeach, v. a. to accuse, to inform against ; L. appeto. 

See Impeach. 
Appeal, vTa. to call on for relief; F. appeller; It ap* 

pellare, from L. appello. 
Appease, v. a, to quiet, calm, pacify ; F. appaiser, from 

L. paco. 
Append, v. a. to hang on, to add to ; L. appendo, 

Apple, s. 1. fruit of the apple-tree ; but, like San3.phul, 
applied to other kinds ; G. qfl, ceple ; Swed. apie ; T 
apjel; B. appel, from G. afla, qfala, to produce from, 
to brinff fortn ; the name was applied also to the Acorn, 
which Uie Gt)ihs considered a production of Paradise. 

2. The pupil of the eye ; either from its apple form, or a 
corruption of L. pupula ; It pupilla. 

Appose, v. a, to question, puzzle. See to Pose. 

Appraise, v. a. to value, set a price on. 

Apprentice, s. a covenanted servant who binds himself 
to learn a trade or profession ; F. apprenti, from L. 

Apprize, v. a. to inform, to let know ; F. appris, in- 
formed, from L. apprekendo. 

Approach, v. a, to draw near, come up to ; F. approcher, 

from L. appropinquo. 
Approve, v. a. to like, allow of, render acceptable, shew, 

prove, justify, commend ; F. approuver ; L. approbo. 

Apbicot, s. a fruit resembling a peach ^ O. E. alberge ; 
8p. aibaricoque ; Port albrico ; F. abricot, may per- 
haps be albu9 persunu : but Bm^MMxt, plum of Epirus^ 
is mentioned oy Pliny ; A kakh ; T. quetche; Kmx; 

might have produced Bt ^m M^ , which was a barbarous 
name for an Armenian apple ; A. barkok. 

April fqol is a person sent on a foolish errand on thefirst 
day of that month. This custom is fHractiaed in France, 
and also in Hindoostan, at the hull ; as the Persian 
year anciently began with the first of April. 

Apron, s. a part of dress, a barm cloth ; G. bromg^ W. 
and Arm. oron, the breast, may have produced F. op- 
pronier ; W. apron ; L abram ; which is It grembude, 
from L. gremium. 

Aqua vitje, L. water of life, brandy ; F. eau de vie, and 
I. usque buach, have the same meaning. See Whisky. 

Ar, in the names of rivers, is generally G. a, ar ; P. 
jar : a river. See A. 

Ar, 8, a cut, scar, cicatrice, furrow ; G. ctrr ; Isl. and 
Swed. atr ; D. and Scot arr, from Isl. cpra, to cut, 
plough, reap. See Scar and Shear. 

Arable, a. fit for the plough, tillable ; L. arabiUs, from 

aro; *A^$«f ; G. aria; Isl. orra, to plough. See Ear. 
Arac, s. a. urak, a general name for distilled spirits, 

but properly with us the spirit of toddy. 
Arbalet, a realist, s. a cross-bow ; F. arbalete, from 

L. arcus, and B«aai». 
Arbour, s, a shaded seat, a trellis of green branches. 

See Bower. 
Arch, in composition, signifies high, chief, from *A^h, 

which, like T. ertz ; B. aarts, properly means first or 

foremost in rank. See Earl. 

Arch, Arc, j. part of a circle, a bow ; F. arc ; L. arciu ; 

A. alquos, from kaus, a bow. 

Arch, a, witty, shrewd, waggish ; G. argwitz, malicious 
wit; Swed. arg ; S. and J3. arg, malignant; Arm. 
argwez, intelligence. See Wis. 

Archer, s. from arch, one who shoots with a bow ; F. 

archer ; It. arciero. 
Arches Court, the most ancient consistorial court ; L. 

B. curia de arcubus, or arceps, is supposed by some 
to be curia de archepUcopus; by others from being held 
in Bow Church, which, like Bow Bridge, was called ar- 
cubus, arches ; but arceps is said to have been used, 
in law, for archives. 

Architrave, s, F. a beam or stone serving instead of 
an arch ; It arcotrave, from L. arcus and trabs. 

Archive, s, ancient record ; F. archive ; L. B. archx^a^ 
arcibum, from A^x^99rif. 

Aro, in forming the names of places, particularly in Ire- 
land, signifies high ; from I. ard ; Arm. arth, arz ; G. 

Ard, s. origin, condition, quality, disposition ; is used 
now only in compound words, such as coward, drunk* 
ard, dastard ; G. art ; S. ard ; T. art ; B. aart, aard, 
from G. ar, or ; S. ord, the beginning of a thing. See 

Are, v. a. to plough, to till ; G. aria ; *A^tf ; L. aro ; S. 
earian* See to Ear. 

Are, plural of the present tense of the verb to be; G. 
ar, er ; Swed. ar ; D. ere. See to Be. 

Aread, v. a, to advise, direct ; S. aredan. See to Rsdb. 

Aroal, s, the salt or tartar from the lees of wine ; A 
alkali. See Oroal. 

Argil, s. clay ; P. al gil;'*A^iXH; L. argilla; F. argile. 
See Clay. 

Aroosy, s* a large merchant ship ; Heb. argos ; L. orca ; 
G. aurk, signified an ark or large vessel ; whence. It 



aggozino ; F. argousin, from G. aurkastvein ; the mas- 
ter of a ship. See Boatswain. 

Ark^ ^. 1. a ship ; Heb. argot ; L. area ; O. aurk ; T. 
arcAre^ Noah's ark. 

2. A chest ; G. aurk ; L. area ; It. area ; Arm. and W. 

3. The curve of a circle. See Abch. 

Arm^ s. I. a. limb^ a branchy a member ; G. arm ; T. 
arm ; B. arm ; S. earm ; L. armus, 

2. A weapon of war ; L. arma ; It. arma ; P. arme, per- 
haps from A^fj^m;. 

Aroynt, ad. a word of exprobation ; L. B. aurina, a 
mystical word used to exorcise or allay ; G. run, rutin, 
raun, in different dialects ; W. run ; I. run, signified 
religion^ sorcery ; and produced atraun, araun, a name 
for the herb mandrake. 

Arragh, an Irish interjection. See Ora. 

Arraign, v. a. to put in order^ to accuse, indict ; but 
properly to prepare for trial. See Arrange. 

Arrange, t>. a, to put into line, place or order. See 
Array and Range. 

Array, t. line, order of war or battle, regularity, dress, 
- apparel ; L. B. arrigo was used like L. dirigo, to ar- 
ray ; but G. ra ; P. radah, rah ; T. reye ; B. root; F. 
raye ; Sclav, rad; Swed. rod, arad; It. arredo; Sp. 
arreo ; F. arroy ; P. araUh, a line, order, arrangement ; 
Isl. rada, to put in order, to dress. See Range. 

Arrear, s. 1. what is behind. See Rear. 

2. What is unpaid, as being behind or in the rear ; but 

L. B. cerarium, from ass ceris, is a debt 
Arrest, v. a. to seize, stop, apprehend, fix, decree ; F. 

arreter ; It. arrestare from L. resto. 
Arrest, Arret, s. 1. from the verb, a decree, a w^t, 

a power to arrest. 
2. A mangy humour, from its resemblance to an ear of 

com ; F. areste ; L. arista'. 

Arrive, v. n. to come to, to reach a place or period, to 

happen ; It arrivare ; Sp. arribar ; F. arriver ; Arm. 

amvant ; supposed to be from L. rha ; It riva ; F. rive^ 

a brink, a limit 
Arrow, s. a pointed missile weapon; G. aur, arwa, 

arfwa ; S. arewe ; Swed. arf; W . arf. 
Arse, *. the buttock, fundament ; G. rass, signifying 

also a discharge, as we use it in mill race ; Swed. ras, 

ars ; T. ars ; B. aars ; D. ars. 
Arsenal, j. a warlike magazine; Sp. arzinal; F. arcenal; 

It. arsenate, perhaps from A^ rvntXw. 

Arsenic, *. a strong mineral poison; A^^riiMy, mansbane ; 
corrupted into A. zerniek. 

Arson, *. a law term for house-burning ; F. arson, from 
L. ardeo, arsi. 

Art, s. 1. skill, cunning, science; L. ars; F. art; It arte. 

2. Direction, position, place ; G. art ; Swed. and T. ort ; 
S. orde, eart ; I. aird. See Aro, Ward and Wards. 

3. Compulsion ; O. E. arten, to constrain, from L. areto. 
Arts liberal, are arithmetic, geometry, music, astro- 
nomy; grammar, rhetoric and logic. 

Artichoke, *. an esculent plant; It. eareioeeo, eareioffo, 
cardo ciocco, artieioeeo ; F. artiehaut ; Sp. artiehoja ; 
the three first of the Italian names are cognate with 
our chards ; and eioeeo, signifying a tuft of hair, is G. 
'^^^gy our shag, if not K^trn; but G. aurtiskesg: Swed. 
orttskuBg^orlskocka; D. ariUhok; B.artUch^k, literally 

is beard- wort. See Wort, a general name for pot- 
herbs, and Shag. 

Artillery, s. cannon, large ordnance ; It artilleria; F< 
artillerie; L. B. tirogrilli, denoted warlike engines; and 
F. atirail included harness and accoutrements, corre- 
sponding with our word train, which is also applied 
to artillery; and together with It. attilare, attirare, to 
draw, lirare, to shoot, are all from L. traho. 

As, eonj. so, in the same manner, because ; G. as^ asa» 
from a, to be, and so ; T. als for also ; Sans, as ; Greek 
if. Our as and so seem to have been the same word. 

AscAUNCE, ad. sidewise, scornfully. See Askance. 

Ash, s. a genus of trees; G. ask ; S. ase ; T. aseh ; B. esche. 

Ash-coloured, the colour of ashes ; F. eendre. 

Ashes, s. the remains of what is burnt ; G. aska ; T. 

asehe ; B. assehe ; S. asea, from Heb. esh ; G. eysa ; 

P. azish, fire ; Sans, oosh, to .bum. 
Ashlar, s. an unhewn stone ; Scot aislair, from layer 

a stratum, a quarry. 

Ask, v. a. to inquire, beg, demand ; G. and Swed. askia ; 
T. aischen; S. aseian, from seek. See Beseech. 

Ask, s. a lizard ; S. athexe; T. eidexe; Isl. eth. 

Askance, Askaunt, ad. sidewise, scornfully. See 

Askew, ad. sidewise, obliquely. See Skew. 
Aslant, ad. sloping ofi*, obliquely, on one side. See 

Asp, j. 1 . a venomous serpent ; A. Azima; 'Ao^h; L. aspis. 
2. A tree, a species of poplar ; T. asp ; S. espe ; D. (Bspe ; 

B. espen ; and btfa; S. hijian, to tremble. 

Asparagus, s. an esculent plant, speerage; 'A0v«^«y«f ; L. 
asparagus ; F. asperge ; It sparago. 

Ass, s. a beast of burden, a stupid person ; S. assa ; L 
asinus, from M. G. Auso ; ols hf ; the hare is also 
named from ear. 

Assart, s. ground cleared from the roots of trees ; F. 
essart ; L. B. assartum from L. exaro. See Sart. 

Assassin, s. a base secret murderer ; F. assassin ; It. as» 
sassino. It was also written Sp. asesino ; It. asessino, 
supposed to be It assedere, assessere, from L. sedeo, 
to lie in wait, to waylay. To be assassinated does not 
always signify, in Italy, to be slain ; but to be set upon 
with murderous intent. The supposition that the 
name originated with a banditti near mount Lebanon, 
who were descendants of the P. Arsaees, appears to be 
fabulous, but A. hassa, hasasa, signifies he slew. 

Assay, v. a. to try, inquire, endeavour, prove; F. essayer; 
It. assasiare, from L. sapio, sagio; G. ascekia ; D. 
ascege ; T. versuehen, to try, examine, are cognate with 
our verb to seek. 

Assemble, v. to bring or meet together ; F. assembler ; 
It. assemblare ; L. simulo ; G. and Swed. sambla, samla ; 
D. samle, to collect, are cognate with our same and 
lay ; in one position. 

Assize, s. a court of justice, an ordinance or statute, a re- 
gulation of measure or size ; F. assise ; L. sessio. L. 
sedeo, and G. seta, sessa, correspond in nearly all their 
significations ; to sit, to set, to remain stationary, to 
fix, to plant, to legislate ; and G. and T. sclz, gesetz, 
signify precept, statute. See Law. 

AsswAGE, V. to abate, mitigate, ease ; F. soulager, in this 
sense, is from L. sublevo, and from sublatio; L. B. *«- 
latio, diminution ; but our word appears to be Swed* 
stvaga ; T. schwachen, to enfeeble. See Weak. 

Astonish, Astound, w. a. to amaze, terrify ; F. estonner, 
eUmner, from L. attono. 

A V A 

Asylum, x. a refuge^ a sanctuary ; "AtvXw, immunity of 

the church. 
At, prep, near to, by, with ; G. at ; S. at; Swecl. &t; M. 

G. at ; W. at ; L. ad; G. at, ata, ta. Our at and /o 

seem to have been the same word ; the Swedes say 

gif at migf give to me ; and scega at en, to say to 

some one. See To. 
Atabal, s, a kind of drum ; A. tabal ; F. atahale, a , 

Moorish tabor. 
Ate, pret. of to eat. 
Athanor, s, a furnace ; A. and P. tanoor, an oven ; Heb. 

iannour, from aour, heat. 

Athblino, s. a young noble; S. T. adelung, from G. adel, 
noble, and ung, our young. G. a^tt, pedigree, pro- 
duced also cetska a youth of rank, which was written 
cesca to designate the son of Hengist. See Adelin. 

Atlas, s, 1. a collection of geographical maps ; the name 
of a mountain ; A. and P. atlos, heaven, the universe, 
the sky. 

2. Satin, or satin paper of a large size manufactured in the 
East. A. utlas ; D. atlask ; B. atlass ; F. atlas. 

Atone, v. to expiate, agree, answer for ; G. una, atuna, 
to favour, to conciliate, seems to be the same with 
sauna; Swed. so7ia ; T. suna, to reconcile, make com- 
pensation, redeem; whence L. B. zona, atonement. L. 
aduno, to unite, partakes in something of the same 

Attach, v. a. to lay hold of, arrest, join, adhere ; G. 
taka, to hold, to arrest, has affinity to L. tango, tactum, 
which produced Sp. atacar ; It. attacare; F. attacker, 
to fix, fasten. See Tack. 

Attack, r. a, to assault, to encounter ; F. attaquer; Sp. 
atacar, seem to be s3monimous with the terms applied 
in the verb to attach, and to have the same origin ; P. 
tdkk ; G. atuik signify assault, aggression. 

Attain, v. to touch, arrive at, reach, apprehend ; F. at" 
teindre from L. attingo. 

Attainder, s. 1. the act of attaining or arriving at. See 

to Attain. 
2. The act of accusing or convicting. See to Attaint. 

Attaint, v, a. 1. to accuse, reach, convict; L. attingo; 
F. atteindre; whence L. B. altinctus ; F. atteint, 

2. To find guilty, to taint, to disgrace ; L. attamino. See 

Attainture, s. a stain, slur, reproach. See Attaint. 
Attempt, v. to try, endeavour, attack, invade ; L. at* 
iento; F. attenter. 

Attend, v. a. to wait on, listen to, stay for; L.attendo; 

F. attendre, 
Atter, s, venom, puss; G. eytur; Swed. etter ; T,eter; 

S. ater ; whence, S. atter ; D. cedder, a spider. See 


Attire, s. from Tire, dress, ornament ; F. atour, signified 
dress, from atoumer, to arrange. See Turn. 

Attorney, s. a practitioner in the law, supposed by 
some to be L. actuarius notus; butF. attoume is from 
tour, a business, action, office. See Turn. 

A vale, v. a, to lower, let down; F. avaler, from ancient 
val ; Arm. gwal, low. 

AvANT, prep, before, forth ; F. avant ; It. avanti ; 
L ante. 

Avast, v, cease, stop; F. avaste; It. Sp. Port, basta, it 
is enough. It. assai ; F. cusez from L. satis have the 
same meaning with basta, which is perhaps corrupted 
from obsat : unless possibly A. and P. oas, basast ; 


Chald. bastan, mastan, enough, sufficient, may have 

been adopted in Spain from tne Moors. 
Auburn, a, brownish coloured. See Alburn. 
AvENS, s, an herb ; L. B. abenitus. See Bennett. 
Avenue, s, an approach, a road leading to a mansion ; 

F. avenue, from L. venio. 
Aver, v, to verify, to assert as true, to affirm ; F. averer, 

from L. verus. 
Aver A, s, in law, day labour performed by a tenant for 

the lord of the manor; F. oeuvre, from L. opus, operis. 

Average, s, 1. from the verb to aver, a medium or true 

2. In law, from Avera, service done for the king or 
lord; F. ouvrage, from L. operatio. 

3. In navigation, a contribution made by merchants for 
the losses of such as have their goods thrown over 
board in a storm to save the ship; It. avaria; F. 
avarie ; B. havery; D. haverie; T. hafery; perhaps from 
G. haf, the sea ; but more probably. It. averie, Aa- 
veri, wares, goods, from L. habeo ; G. havo. 

4. Any duty paid for transport of wares or port rates ; 
, It. haveri, avert, goods, effects, from L. habere ; called 

hamn penningar,haLYen penny, by the Swedes; L. B. 

AvERiA, s, in law, work cattle in general ; L. B. affra, 
a work-horse. See Avera. 

AuF, s,l, a. booby, a dolt ; B. oafs, auk ward, frY>m G. 

2. An elf; B. alf. 

Auger, s, a carpenter's tool, a borer; G. agger; T. 

^g^^i B. aueger ; S. hauegar, from G. ceg, a sharp 

Aught, pron, any thing, the smallest thing ; G. wizt, 

fvaiht ; T. wicht, ouaiht ; S. auht, atvhit. See Whit. 
August, s, the harvest month, from L. augeo, to increase- 
Auk, s, a kind of goose; Isl. and T. auke; It. occa; Q. 

aa, water. 

Aukward, a, unhandy, inelegant ; T. kwar ; Scot kar, 
crosswise, lefr-handed; Scot, arvkwart, and athwart. 
See Queer and Thwart. 

AuNCEL, s. an instrument for weighing. See Ouncel. 

Aunt, s, a father's or mother's sister: F. ante, tante, 
from L. amita. 

Avoid, v, to shun, escape ; L. evito. 
Avouch, v. a, to affirm, vindicate. See Vouch. 
Avow, V, a, to declare, justify ; F. avouer. See Vouch. 
AvowsoN, s, the right of presenting to a living ; F. aw- 
cation, from L. advocatio. 

Awake, a. from Wake, not sleeping ; It. avaca. 
Award, v, a, to adjudge, value, appraise ; G. werda ; 

Swed. warda, to state the worth ; T. atveorht, merit 

See Reward, Guerdon and Worth. 
Aware, a. attentive, vigilant, cautious ; G. and Swed. 

war ; S. ware, from G. wera ; S. werian. See Ware. 

Away, ad. at a distence ; S. aweg ; It. via. See Way. 

Awe, s, 1. dread, fear, terror ; G. aga, oga ; S. oga ; 
D. awe, 

2. Reverence, attention^ consideration ; G. ahuga, from 
hug, the mind. 

Awl, s, a pointed tool to bore holes; G. aUur; T. ahk; 
S. al ; F. alene, 

AwME, s. a tierce, containing 39 gallons; G. awn; T. 
ame ; B. aam ; D. ahme ; Id, amphora. 

Awn, X. 1. a covering or hull ; G. hauln, from hulgian ; T. 
hullen, to cover. 

A Y 

A Z U 

2. The beard growing out of com orgrass; G. agn; Swed. 

ahn ; T. aan ; Scot awne, from G. ctgg j^A^^n 
Awning, s. a covering, a shade. See Awn. 
Ax, «. a sharpened tool ; G. aux, ex ; Swed. i^xe; T. ax, 

akes ; S. eax ; L. asda. 
Axel, Axlb, s. that on which a wheel turns ; L. axis, 

axilla ; F. axe ; Sp. exe ; S. eax : T. achse ; T. acA^e/ ; 

Swed. oore/, signified the shoulder joint, Scot oxter. 
Ay, ad, yea, yes; A. ay ; G. ai, aia,ja. See Yba. 

Aye, ad. always, ever, forever ; Q,ce ; 'Aii ; Swed. aa ; S. 
aaa ; B. aeh, 

Ayobebn, s. an herb, evergeen ; from aye and green ; 
G. ctgTcen, 

Azimuth, s. the vertical point in measuring the sky; A 
azmui, high. 

Azure, a. blue, pale blue, sky-coloured ; A. azruk ; P. 
ajunr, al ajumr, lajuwr ; L. B. lamlus; Port, and 
Sp. azti/; R azure. 



B A C 

THE second letter of the alphabet, is pronounced by 
*9 pressing the whole length of the lips together^ and 
forcing them open with a strong breath. The Latins^ 
anciently, as the Spaniards, Russians, Gascons and 
Irish do now, used it instead of V, particularly at the 
beginning of words. The Celts substituted it tor their 
Gw, V, M, F; and among the Saxons, B, F, P, V, W 
were written almost indiscriminately. It is therefore 
in English a prevailing initial ; and the more so from 
the common use of Be as a prefix. 

Baa, X. the cry of sheep ; fin, from the sound ; and conse- 
quently our pronunciation of the Greek word is wrong. 

Baal, s, a Canaanitish idol ; Heb. and Chald. bal, hel; 
fitUx. A. and P. bal, high, a king, the sun, apparently 
the same with Alah, Ali or Eli 

Babble, v, a. to prate childishly, to tell secrets ; It. 
babillare; F. babiller ; T. baoeln; D. bable. See 

Babe, x. an infant of either sex; Heb. babah; Syr. baba ; 
B«C«y Isl. babe; W. bab, mab; I. bab, probably from 
aba; P. baba, a father; as G. cttt, offspring, from atta. 
See Dad. 

Baboon, s, a large kind of monkey with a short tail ; A. 
baaba ; U§iiriFH ; L. B.papio ; T. bavian; It. babbio; F. 
babouin. Babon is said to have been the name of an 
Egyptian deity, and the ape sacred to Apis. 

Bachelor, x. 1. a man unmarried ; L. B. bacalarius, 
bascalarius, bassus cavalerius ; F. bas chevalier, the 
lowest order of knighthood. It denoted celibacy, be- 
cause on marriage the title was forfeited. 

2. One who has taken a degree at the university, and 
holds the rank of senior, contracted into Sir ; L. B. 
bacularius, batularius, from baculus, batulus, a staff, 
the emblem of authority ; whence F. bacheleur ; It, 
baialo. See Batoon and Staff. 

Back, *. the hinder part of a thing ; G. and Swed. bak ; 
S. bac ; D. bag. 

Backgammon, *. a game with dice; G. back, beck, a table 
or bench, and gaman; Scot, eamyn, a game. We 
call the board on which it is played a table ; but G. 
tafl gaman (was from fM, chance; S. tcefel; Swed. 
tafrvell; T. dofel, doppel, a die, whence Port, iafular, 
to game particularly with dice,) and also denoted the 
game of chess; from tajla; Swed. toefla, to contend, 
qfla, to vie. See Able. 

Bacon, *. hog's flesh salted and dried ; T. bache, a hog, 
is said to have produced T. bachen ; L. B. baames ; 

B A I 

F. bacon ; W. baccwn, signifying lard ; but our word 
seems to be connected with baken, dried by fire. 
See to Bake. 

Bad, a. wicked, vicious, defective, sick ; G. va, vad ; S. 
vea, vo, vod, corresponding with P. bad ; Sclav, bieda, 
having G. vaer and vaerst, our worse and worst, for 
its degrees of comparison. It has erroneously been 
supposed to be B. quad, contracted from G. ugotd. 
See Wicked. 

Baboe, s, a mark of distinction; G. bod tyg; T. bot zeug; 
S. bod sign, token or sign of office ; G. badgia, autho- 
rity. See Beadle. 

Badger, s. 1. an animal called a brock ; W. baed zaear, 
and daiar hweh alike signify earth hog, corresponding 
with the Swed. name grajswin : but G. beit goor, the 
baiting gour, may have produced F. badgeur and ^-i 
doiie. See Gour, Bausen and Gray. 

2. A pedlar, a porter, from fiatrrti^tt ; It bastaggio, baS" 

Badger, v, a. to excite, to irritate; G. beit gera. See to 

Baff, Boff, Buff, v. a. to refuse, evade, put off; from 
be off, like doff, for do off. 

Baffle, v. a. from baff, to elude, confound ; F. befier 

signifies to befool, to mock. 
Baft, ad. after, behind ; S. bcefl. See Aft. 

Bag, s. a sack, purse, pouch ; P. bag, bugh ; G. bagee, 
balg; D. bag; S. beige; W. bulga ; L. B. bulga* See 
Budget ana Pouch. 

Bagatelle, s. a trifle, a gewgaw, a jest ; Sp. vagadilla, 
basadiUa, from L. vagus, may have produced It. baga- 
tetta ; F. bagatelle ; but It. baiaieUa, from baia ; G. 
and Swed. h%a, jest, mockery, has the same meaning. 
See Banter. 

Baggage, s, 1. luggage, army utensils; generally sup- 
posed to be from Bag ; F. baeage ; It bagaglio ; but 
our word may be Batage or Package. See Bat. 

2. A worthless woman ; A. baghaza ; It. bagasia ; F. 

Bagnio, s. a bath, a stew, a house of ill fame; It bagno; 
F. bain ; Arm. bagen ; L. balneum ; fitcvfof, a stove. 
See Stew. 

Bail, s. security, pledge, accommodation ; L. B. baila, 
signifies, in law, the responsibility of those persons to 
whom a prisoner is delivered in charge, on condition 
that he shall be forthcoming when required for trial; 

B A L 


It. halio, a guardian^ from L. bajular, is supposed to 
have been used in this sense ; but F. hail, a farm^ 
bailler, to let a farm ; T. beleken, to pledffe^ lend^ con- 
cede^ seem to be derived from 6. tea, Ua ; S. lihan, 
which produced our liBASS^ let^ lend^ and G. Ian, a 
feudal tenure. See Baillie. 

Baillie^ Baily, *. 1. a person who exercises jurisdic« 
tion for a superior ; L. B. balius, bajulus ; Arm. belt, 
bailU; P. batllie; It balio ; Scot, baify, a sheriff; T. 
baley ; Sp. bai^le, a legate. See Bail. 

2. Jurisdiction, the inclosure round a court of justice; T. 
baley; F. bailie; L. B. hajula, ballia. 

Bailiff, j. the servant of a judiciary or manorial court; 
L. balivus. See Baillie. 

Bairn, x. a child, male or female ; G. and S. bam ; P. 
bima ; Heb. bara ; P. and Sans, bar ; M. G. baura, a 
child, being all cognates of the verb to bear. See 

Bait, v. a. I, from eat, to feed, to put food to tempt ani- 
mals, to take refreshment on a journey; G. and Swed. 
beta ; S. baton ; fi*^tt, from L. edo, G. eta, to eat See 

2. To excite, rouse, irritate, contend ; G. beita ; Swed. 

beta ; T. beizen ; G. bexta biorn, to bear-bait, from G. 

etia, eita. 
Bait, s. from the verb, refreshment, temptation, an al« 

lure ; Swed. betej T. baitze; P. pud ; fivrn ; W. bwtfd; 

F. appas is from ndsf, and L. esca corresponded with 
our word. See Meat and Lure. 

Baize, s. a kind of rough, open woollen cloth ; B. baije; 
T. boy. See Bay Yarn. 

Bake, t;. to cook, to harden at the fire ; G. baka ; Swed. 
baga ; D. bage ; B. bakken ; S. bacan ; P. pakktan, 
pukhian, are perhaps cognate with Sans, agn ; P. va, 
vag, bag, baks, fire, heat ; ^, to warm ; whence Phry- 
gian bek ; Scot, bake, a cake. See Bask. 

Baker shin, a round projecting shin ; T. bauch ; B. 
huik, a belly, a protuberance. 

Balance, #. a pair of scales, the difference of an account ; 
L. bilanx; It bilancia; F. balance. 

Balas ruby, F. balais from Balaheia or Balassia, now 
Badahihan, where it is found. 

Balcony, s. a small gallery placed on the outside of a 
house; It balco, balcone; F. balcon, P. bala khanu, 
is an upper story, bal kanak, a lattice window ; but 

G. balk IS a pladform, and kunna, to observe. 

Bald, #. 1. without hair, naked, defective ; Sp. pelado i 

F. pelade ; Scot peild, from L. pilatus. G. bm, how- 
ever signified bare. See Blot. 
2. White, light^coloured ; (UXtU ; Arm. baHl; I. ball 
Baldekyn, Bawdekyn, #. a rich stuff brought from 

Baldack, now Bagdad. 
Balderdash^ Bladerish, x. unnatural mixture; G. 

bladur, blandur; Scot, bladder, amish mash, a medley. 

See Blend and Blunder. 
Baldmoney, Blithemoney, s. an herb ; from Bold or 

Blithe prefixed to meutn, the botanical name^ vulgarly 

men, common spignel. 
Baldrick, s. a girdle, belt, the Zodiac; T. balderick s 

Swed. baUe ; L. baUea. See Belt. 
Bale, v. a. to throw out water from a ship; from F. baile; 

Swed. balja ; B. baalie ; L. pala, a shovel or flat paiL 
Bale, #. 1. a round package of goods ; B. baal; T. batten s 

F. bdUe; Sp. balon* See Ball and Bowl. 
2. Evil, misery ; G. bal, bol; B. bal ; S. beal, evil ; A. bala, 

hula, nusfortune. 

Baleful, a. from the noun, hurtful, direful : S. bealo* 

Balk, s. a division, separation, intermissiop, interval ; 
and thence a beam or rafter in a building ; G. Swed. 
T. B. balk ; S. and W. bale : Swed. balk is a section 
or chapter in a book, the shore, a ridge separating 
fields, or furrows ; and bielk, T. belck, a chain of hills. 
It is probable tliat in these different significations G. 
bil, an interstice, and bol, a beam, have been con- 

Balk, v. o. to disappoint, frustrate, intervene ; from the 

Balker, Balconner, X. a person placed on an eminence 
of the shore to observe the movements of the shoals of 
fish ; from G. balk, a ridge or bank, and kunna to ob- 
serve. See Conder. 

Ball, s, 1. any thing of a round form; G. baul; Swed. 
bal; B.baU; T.ball; ¥. baUe ; ndxxm ; li. pUa ; It 

2. The hollow of the foot or hand; G. baul, signified ro>* 
tundity, either concave or convex. See Bowl. 

3. A dance; F. bal; It. ballo; B. bal, from fi^xxa for fimtf 
aXX»fuu ; L. B. ballo, to skip, to dance. 

Ballad, s. a trifling song, either from baU, a dance, or 
G. liod ; T. lied ; I. laoidh, a song. See Lay. 

Ballast, x. the loading necessary to keep a boat steady; 
Swed. ballast ; S. bathlasst ; Ana. balastr, from bat, a 
boat, and G. ladst ; S. hlast ; F. lest ; T. last, a load. 
See Last. 

Balloon, s. from ball, a term chiefly applied to a globu« 
lar silken apparatus for containing air, a chymical ves- 
sel ; F. ballon s It. baUone. 

Ballot, #. a little ball, a paper folded in that form, par- 
ticularly for drawing lots, a chance. 
Ballot, v. a. from the noun to choose by ballot. 

Balm, s. a plant, a lenient ointment; F. baume, contract- 
ed from BALSAM. 

Baluster, s. a small column ; F. balustre; It balaustro, 
from L. palus. See Pilaster. 

Balustrade, s. the railings of a staircase; F. balustrade. 

Bam, s. a cheat, a deception; S. bam, frook ha both, 

signifies duplicity, equivoque; G. vam is a defect, 


Bamboo, s, the longest kind of reed; Sans, ban vuhr; P. 
baghamdoo ; F. bambon. 

Bamboozle, v. a. to deceive, to impose on; from bam, a 
cheat, and G. suiga, suigla ; S. besuigan, to swindle. 

Ban, s. authority, public decree or notice, proscripdon, 
interdict, excommunication; L. B. bannus; Sclav, ban, 
a governor; Q.Jar; Sp. banar, a lord; F. ban, banal, 
feudal, public. In Hungary and Croatia the govern- 
ments are still called bannats. T. bann includes, with 
the other meanings, ecclesiastical jurisdiction, excom- 
munication. G. banna ; S. bannan, signified also to 
denounce, proscribe, reject, execrate. The princes of 
Germanv> when delinquents, are placed under the ban 
of the Empire. 

Band, #. a tie, a fascia, restriction^ obligation, associa- 
tion, point of union, a banner, brigide ; G. bound, 
band; P. Sans. T. Swed S. band; D. F. B. bande; 
It Sp. Port banda. See to Bind. 

Banditti, s.jd. 1. men outlawed, banished; plur. of It 
bandiito; Sp. bandido; F. bandit, an outlaw. See 
Ban and Banish. 



2. An association of persons for illegal purposes^ robbers. 
See Band. 

Bandog^ x. from Band ; a dog kept chained during the 
day on account of his feroaty ; D. bind huiuL 

Bandoleeb, s. a belt with smidl cases for holding cart- 
ridges ; B. bandeleer, from band, and leer, a leathern 
case; F. bandauUere; Sp. bandelera, 

Bandon^ s. from Band, a tie, connexion, obligation, re- 
striction, reserve ; F. bandon ; It bandone ; L. B. ban^ 
dum; Scot bandoun. In fVench it signified feudal 
devotion, and was so used by Chaucer. See Liege. 

Bandobe, X. a corded instrument of music, called vul- 
garly Banjour; TlavlS^a ; L. pandura ; Sp. bandura. 

Bandt, X. a crooked bat for striking a ball, the game so 

played. See Bend. 
Bandy, v. a. to beat to and fro, as a ball with a bandy, 

to agitate. 
Bane, s, poison, mischief, destruction; G. bane; S. bana ; 

T. bana ; Arm. gwana, death. 

Bang, v. a. to beat, stamp, strike, treat with violence ; 

O.banga; T. bengen; D. banke; Scot, bang; L.pango; 

n«/«. See Penny. 
Bangle, v. a. to be pendulous, to hang loosely, to trifle; 

T. behenglen; S. behangan, from G. hanga. See 

Dangle and Hang. 

Banish, v, a. to drive away, to exile, to proscribe, out- 
law ; F. bannir ; B. bannen ; S. abannan. See Ban. 

Banisteb, s, the railing of a stair, properly Balusteb. 

Bank, s. a ridge of earth, an elevation, mound, mass, 
heap, store of money ; G. bunke, banke, bake, backa ; 
Swed. backe, bank; S. banc ; T. bank ; F. banque; It 
banco; L. B. bancus ; n«y«f . See Mount. 

Banneb, s, a standard, flag, streamer, a military en- 
sign; A. bend, band; G. bending; S. bandier, bansi^n; 
Swed. and D. banner; T. ban, baner, banner; B.banter; 
It. bandier a; F. bandier, banniere; Sp.bandera; Arm. 
banier; W. baner, are supposed to be from band ; but 
may have been confounded with ^an, ban, a sovereign, 
as noticed above. Thus G. banding, composed of ban, 
and ding or thing from thinga, to assemble, would 
signify a gonfanon; G. fanon; Swed. fana; T. 
fahne; M. Q.Jana; F.Janion; Scot. Jannoun, seem 
to have partaken of L. pannus, which has been trans- 
lated into F. drapeau. See Fane, Gonfanon, Pen- 
non, Vane. 

Bannebet, 8, a knight made in the field, under the 
dominion of the banner. 

Bannock, s. a thick cake baked before the fire. See 
Annock and Jannogk. 

Banquet, *. a formal repast; T. and B. banket; F. 
banquet; It. banchetto; from Bank or Bench, a table, 
and perhaps Eat ; signifying a formal repast 

Bans, s, public annunciations of intended marriage ; F. 
bans. See Ban. 

Bansticle, s. a small prickly fish ; Swed. ben stickeL 

See Stickleback. 
Banteb, v. a, to rally, to ridicule ; It. baion dire, dar la 

baia ; F. donner de bates. See Bagatelle and Boord. 
Bantling, s. a little child, a bastard ; G. baugant ; S. 

bugund, signify deviating, bending from the riglit 

course ; T. banckling, however, denoted a by-blow, 

a child begotten on a bank, and not in the marriage 

bed. See Bastabd. 
Bab, s, a rail, a bolt, an impediment, inclosure, a place 

for arraigning criminals ; Arm. W. I. barr; F. barre; 

It. barr a; Sp.barra; B. barre, a bolt, a rail; in which 


sense L. vara was used, by Vitruvius, and is still 
vara, bara, in Port and Sp ; T. barre is an inclosure, 
and, like Sp. barra, an impediment ; Arm, W. and I. 
barre, bam, beara ; F. barreau, jurisprudence, in the 
sense of L. canceUus. See Chanceby. 

Babb, «. I. a beard, the beard of a hook or arrow ; F. 

barbe, from L. barba. 
2. A horse from Barbary. 

Babbacan, s. a fortified gate, a tower, an outwork ; S. 
barbacen ; F. barbacan; Sp. barbacano ; but It baba^ 
can is supposed to be A. oab baka^ a gate house. 

Babbaby, s. a country in Africa; A Barbaryh; P. Ba- 
rabur, from Ber Ber, the name of the people of Mo- 
rocco and Nubia, with whom berr signines a terri- 

Babbecue, s, a wooden frame placed over a fire for 
baking by the inhabitants of South America ; biaribi, 
in their language signifying roasted. See Buc- 


Babbebry, s. a kind of sour berry ; P. barbari / L. B. 
berberis. See Bebby. 

Babd, s. the ancient name for a poet in Britain ; Swed. 
D. T. bard; Arm. W. I. bardd; L. B. bardus ; G. 
radd ; Swed. rddd; I. rhaidd; B. rey; O. E. raye, was 
song : T. rehen, berehen, to dance, to sing ; bar, song. 
The scald, or poet of the Goths, is supposed to be 
from ^ala, skala, to sing, cognate with ovlt gall, as in 
nightmgale. The Bards had great influence with the 
people ; and, aware that it could not subsist under a 
foreign domination, they became obnoxious to the 
Romans, who persecuted them and misrepresented 
their religion for political purposes. The men of 
song soon disappeared, and with them the ancient 
strains of their national melody. See Dbuid. 

Babe, a. naked, smooth, plain, evident; 6. bar; P. 
bahur ; T. bar; S. bare; B. bar. 

Babgain, s. a contract, stipulation, exchange, purchase ; 
F. barguigne; It. borgagno; Arm. bargagn; W . bargen, 
from 6. beorga ; S. borgean ; T. borgen, to accommo- 
date. See to Bobbow. 

Babge, *. a large row-boat ; B. barjie; F. barge, berge, 
the diminutive of Bark. 

Babilla, s. a species of sea-weed or kali, burnt into 
ashes ; Sp. barilla ; A. bar is the sea. 

Babk, V, a, to make a noise like a dog ; G. berka; S. 
bcorcan, from G. rakka. See Rack and Bback. 

Babk, s. 1. the rind of a tree ; G. and Swed. bark, sup- 
posed to be from G. berga, to cover, to protect 

2. A ^lip ; A. bark; B. bark; F. barque; It barca. See 
Abk and Babor. 

Babken, s. a small farm-yard; diminutive of 6. bter, a 
dwelling. See Babton. 

Babley, s, a grain of which malt is made ; M. G. bar; 
T. berc, beer; S. bcre; Scot bar, beer: barlig, barlike, 
signifies being like bar; and Heb. Syr. P. bar, grain, 
are all cognate with our verb to Beab. 

Babm, s. 1. the scum arising from beer in fermentation, 
yeast ; T. bier rahm, beer cream ; Swed. berm ; S. 
beorm ; B. barm. 

2. The bosom, the breast ; G. Swed. and S. barm, 

Babmclotu, s. an apron. See Babm and Cloth. 

Babn, s. a storehouse for grain ; Swed. S. T. bam. 

Babnacle, s. 1. a kind of shell that adheres to the bot- 
tom of ships ; I. barneach, signifying also a clam and 
a limpet. 

B A S 


3. A kind of wild goose nipposed to be produced fVom 
the barnacle ahell : but tnis bird called brant gagl, 
and bam gagl, the aea ffooee in Norway, probably 
gave name to tlie shell fidi and the bird ; F. bemache. 

3. A kind of grappling or holding iron ; F. bar ienaiUe> 
See Bab. 

Baron^ «. 1. a man by excellence^ and, in law, a hu»« 
band ; Sans, bur, vur ; O. vair ; L. B. varOy 6aro ; 
Sp. varpn, baron ; T. baro ; S. baron ; W. barwn. 

3. A title of nobility, next below a viscount. The fore- 
going word is supposed to have been applied in this 
sense to a feudal tenant or vassal, one who performed 
homage.. In Germanv, free lord and baron are syno- 
nimous ; S. btom is also a noble. See Bright. 

Babonbt, #. diminutive of baron, a title having rank 

above a knight. 
Babraoan, «. a coarse cloth made of ffoats' hair ; A. 

barkan ; P. bardk ; Swed. barkan ; T. barchant ; F. 

bouracanj It baracano. 

Barrack, s. a building to lodge soldiers ; Sp. barrack ; 

F. baraque ; L. B. burica, baurica, a novel, was 
cognate with bower, from O. beorga ; S. beorgan. 
See Harbour. A. balak, was a coarse kind of tent 

Barrel, s. a wooden cask^ a cylinder; 6. beril; It 
barile; F. baril; Sp. barriga; W. and Arm. barU* 

Barren, a. unfruitful, scanty ; 6. obairan, signified un- 
bearing, sterile ; Arm. brehan ; F. brehaigne ; but D. 
and B. bar, bare, desert, unfruitful, is also barren. 

Barretsr, s* a defrauder ; F. barateur j It. baraitiera ; 

G. bragdur, corruptly^orrf^ttr, from bragd; S. bra^d, 
brede ; Arm. bar ad; W. brad ; L. B. baratrum, gmle, 
fraud, deceit See Barter. 

Barricado, s, what is shut with a bar ; S. barricado ; 

F. barricade, apparently from bar, and It. chiudo; 

L. claudo, to close. 
Barrier, «. a defence, boundary, limit ; P. barryar ; 

F. barriere ; It. barriera. See Bar. 
Barrow, #. 1. a hand carriage ; G. bar ; Swed. best ; S. 

berewe ; It. bara; P. bar; Sans, bhar, a burden. 

See Bier and to Bear. 

2. A tumulus, a tomb ; Sans, barah ; G. biarghaugur ; 
S. beorg, beork ; I. brugh ; G. biarg ; T. berg, signify 
a hill, a place of security and a concealment See 
to Bury. 

3. A cell, a grove, a retreat, a place of repose ; S. bearo, 
bent, berwe; T. beruhe ; Swed. bero, from G. rot; 
Swed. roa ; T. ruhe, rest, tranquillity. See Birth, a 

4. A male pig ; S. berga ; B. barge ; T. barg ; L. wr- 
res ; F. verrai ; Sp. berra. See Boar. 

Barter, v. a, to traffic, to exchange commodities ; G. 
bregda, breita, brttian, to change, produced F. bara~ 
ter ; It baraitare ; Sp. barrator, which, admitting the 
interpretation of to alter, signify to deal fraudulently, 
by substitution and altercation. See Barreter and 
to Break. 

Barton, s. a manor, farm-house, a court-yard ; G. 
basrton ; S. bereton from G. banr, byr, a dwelling, and 
ton, an inclosure. See Burton and Berry. 

Bartram, s. the herb jpellitory ; L. pyrethrum, parte* 
taria ; F. nyrethre ; T. bertram, pertram. 

Base, #. I. a foundation, a pedestal ; Bdrif ; A. base; It. 
base; F. base. 

2. A game, properly Bars. See Prison Bars. 

Base, a, low, meaii, worthless ; L. B. bassus ; It basso ; 
F. bos ; W. and Arm. bas. 

BabA, v. o. to lower, deject, humiliate, intimidate; 

Chaucer uses abaw both for abash and abase. See 
Abaw and Abase. 

Bashaw, #. a title of honour in the east ; Turk, and P. 
bash, the head, produced basha ; Heb. pacha, a chief, 
a prince ; G. vasa, a kitig ; BmrtkliK, chiet of the people, 
have the same origin ; G. and S. basu signify royal 
and purple. The tail of a horse, being the military 
standard of the Turks, a Bashaw of three tails is one 
who commands three standards or divisions of tiie 

BashfuIi, a. timid, humble, modest, shy. See Bash* 
Basii., s. 1. a plant ; L. basilicum. 

2. The angle of a joiner's tool. See Bias and Betei*. 

3. Basen, a kind of brown leather; F. basane; T. bat* 
zan ; It Sp. and Port zaino. See Tan. 

Basin, s. a flat vessel, a pond, a dock for ships ; A. 
bascia ; Chald. bazun ; Sans, badun ; F. basstn ; It 

Bask, v. a. to lie exposed to the sun ; G. and Swed. 
basa, bada, to heat, seem to be cognate with our verb 
to bake ; and B. baeken, baekeren ; Scot beek, siffnify 
to bask. G. assa ; Heb. esh ; P. azish, fire, produced 
G. €uk, ashes ; and sUna i asku, to be indolent ; the 
common P. and G. prefix be would make baska. See 
Bake and Bath. 

Basket, s. a coffer made of wicker work used by .the 
Picts; L. bascauda; W. basged; I. bascaid. See 

Bass, x. a rush mat ; Arm. behesq ; B. bies, a rush, per- 
haps from being used as a ligature. See Baste and 

Bass, s. grave, deep in sound; It basso; F. basse. 
See Base. 

Bassoon, s. a wind instrument for playing bass in 
music ; F. basson ; Sp. baxon. See Bass. 

Basso kelibvo. It that kind of sculpture which projects 
out but littie ; from base, low, ana L. relevo. 

Bastard, s. an illegitimate child ; T. bastard; F. bas~ 
tard, bdtard ; It. bastardo ; Arm. and W. bastard ; 
supposed to be bassus ortus, low origin ; but bastards 
may be high bom ; and William the Conqueror, with** 
out any sense of dishonor, stiled himself William the 
Bastard. G. baugst ard, from baug, T. bay, bendinff, 
deviation, and ard nature, condition. G. baug signi- 
fies decUnans a vero; and in heraldry, illegitimacy 
is marked by the bend sinister. 

Baste, v. a. 1. to sew slightly, to draw together, to 
bind ; G. basta; P. besien; Swed. basta; D. baste; It. 
bastire ; L. B. baceo, to tie together. Bast anciently 
included all pliant fibres. The inner bark of the 
linden tree, as well as flax, were so called in Germany ; 
and hence S. bcest ; F. bastiste, bdtiste, linen. See 
Bat, Bass, Bbnt and to Bind. 

2. To beat, to fustigate ; G. beysta ; Swed. basa ; Arm. 
bazata. See Bat and Batoon. 

3. To besuet to anoint, to grease. See Suet. 
Basting thread, thread used in slight sewing ; from 

the verb baste. 

Bastino, X. a cudgelling, from the verb. See Batoon. 

Bastion, s, a part of the enceinte in modern fortifica- 
tion ; F. bastion ; It. bastione, from G. bua ; T. bauen ; 
F. bastir, bdtir, to build. 

Bat, «. 1. a mallet, a dub, a stick ; Arm. baz; S. bat, 
from G. bata, basta, to beat, to baste. See Batoon. 

2. A small winged animal resembling a mouse; but 
generally called a bird, vespertilio; owed.natt baka; 

B A W 

B £ A 

D. bake ; Scot hak^ from O. wiukuy to wake. It was 
called Nv«r« C«d«i. See Bivouac. 

Bat and Foraob^ in military language^ aignifies an al« 
lowance for the transport of baggage during a cam- 
paign ; Arm. hait; It hatto; F. hast^ Mi; G. bagi^ hat; 
F. basta; Sana, bust, signify a package or bundle^ 
-being cognate with our verb to baste^ from G. beita, 
btuta, to bind ; but they may in some cases be con- 
founded with B«ifK> a load. 

Batch^ *. 1. contracted from Bakeaoe ; a baking of 
bread. See to Bake. 

2. A bundle^ parcel or cluster ; G. batz. See Bat and 


Bate, s. contention, strife ; S. bate, from G. beila^ to 
contend. See to Bait. 

Bate, v. a, to lower, diminish, to take less in price ; F. 
abattre, to beat down, from L. batuo, is used like 
F. baisser; It. bassare, to lower, to abase. 

Bath, *. a place for people to wash themselves ; but ori- 
ginally signifying, like stew and L. balneum, hot 
water ; Swed. T. B. bad ; S. bath ; I. baidh. G. and 
Swed. bada ; T. bdhen, to heat, were perhaps cognate 
with P. adur, azur ; Heb. adour; S. ade, fire. See to 

Batoon, s. a stick, a staff, a truncheon, a marshal's staff; 
B. Greek Bttrh; F. baton; It bastone; W. battwn, 
pastwn. See Staff and Batt. 

Battalia, Battalion, s. a band of soldiers in array or 
order of battle ; It battaglia, battagliane; F. batailhn. 
See Battle. 

Battel, s, food, provisions. See Batten. 

Batten, r. a. to feed, to fatten ; S. batan s Swed. beta. 
See Bait, food. 

Batten, *. a thin piece of wood, a scantling ; F. bas 
tenant, an under tenon. 

Batter, s, a mixture of flour and water ; Scot, batter, 
paste, perhaps from being beaten together; but Swed. 
beta signifies to macerate. 

Batter, v. a. to beat down ; frequentative of the verb 
to Beat. 

Battle, x. a fight, a combat ; Scyth. n«r«, adopted in 
Greek, like S. beado, signified a fight, and was cog- 
nate probably with our word to beat, and L. batuo, 
which, prefixed to L. duellum, produced F. bataiUe; It 
bataglia ; Sp. bataUa. 

Battle, r. a, from the noun ; to contend in fight, to 

Battledore, s. a bat to strike a ball or shuttlecock; Sp. 

BATTLsiniNT,^. an indented or turretted wall; F.bastille^ 
went from bastille, a fortification. See Bastion. 

Battler, Batteler, *. 1. from Battel ; a sizer at an 

2. From Battle ; a fighter, a contender. 

Bauble, s, a gewgaw, a trifling thing; S. buUahulla; F. 
babiole ; D. boble ; L. B. baubellum, from L. bulla. 

BaviNj s, the branches of trees made into faggots ; F. 
feuine is faggot, from Jj. focus, and boisjeune, a wood 
faggot See Bawn. 

Bawcock, s. a complaisant fellow, a pimp ; either for 
bawd cock, or from D. bukhe ; G. bauga, to bend. 
See Buxom and Meacock. 

Bawd, s. a female pimp, a vile procuress ; B. baad, a 
bath, a stew, a bagnio. At Bern there is still a super- 
intendent of prostitutes who attends the public baths. 

called at Geneva the Queen of Bordds. B. and T. 
balde ; F. baude, bold, wanton, laadvioiia, may have 
been used in the same sense. See Ban and Ribauk 

Bawdy, a. obscene, unchaste, vile ; from the noun. But 
old writers used the word in the aenae of nigged, ftoB 
B. vodig, bodig. See Wad. 

Bawl, v. o. to call very loud; Swed. bala; G. bamL Sea 

Bawn, s, a faggot made of branches of trees. See 

Bawsin, s, a badger, a gray ; from O. E. bouse; fit^m. 
See to Bay. 

Baxter, s. a baker, properly a female; G. and B. hakster. 
See to Bake. 

Bay, v. a. formerly Bauch, to bark^ to howl ; G. gqa, 
bigeya ; fiai^m ; Arm. baich ; F. aboyer. 

Bay^ s. 1. a portion of the sea, around which the ahore 
forms a bow or curve ; Swed. bay ; S. biee; B. boat; 
D. bugt ; F. bate; It baja ; W. bach; l.hagk; L. B. 
bet. See Bow, Bosom, Bight. 

2. In architecture, a beam, stay, platform^ dacm; F. bau, 
baux. See Balk. 

3. The state of holding an enemy in check; F. aboy, ocw- 
nate with our bay or bauch, signified the sobbing or a 
deer, at the close of the chase, when incaMole of 
further exertion ; but our ancient poets used oe^A or 
abeigh either as S. beah ; T. bag, indecision^ or ratiier 
as It bada, tener a bada, which is our Abeyance. 

Bay salt, s. salt unrefined^ but less dark in colour tiian 
the black salt 

Bay Yarn, s. coarse rough woollen; Swed. bqf; D. &cy; 
B. baai; F. baie, bote; perhaps from G. baug, a curi, 
a buckle. See Budge. 

Bayonet, s. a kind of dagger to fix on the muaale of a 
musket ; F. bayonette, from being first used at a siege 
of Bayonne. 

Bdellium, s. the gum of a tree used in medicine ; Syr. 
badleyoon; fiitXXiw. 

Be, v. n. to exist ; S. beon, bio ; T. bin ; Sdav. bit ; W. 
bod, bid, from G. be or ve, the imperative of vera. This 
was originally £ or A, corresponding with "Em, and 
successively became ar, era, vera, wera ; in other dia- 
lects the E had the G. pronoun sa or se, which 
produced our so, added to it in forming esa, corre- 
sponding with L. esse, and this again became mesa. 

Be, a frequent prefix in composition, signifies a state of 
being, and corresponds with A. be ; r. bi, bu; Sans. 
bhoo; G. be; D. bie; S. be, bis; Swed. T. B. be; W. 
and I. bi ; 'Ewi. See A. 

Beach, s. a shore or strand ; G. baech ; D. bekkenms, a 
beach way. See Beck. 

Beacon, s. a public signal ; but, apparently, at first a 
fire signal ; Swed. bak ; S. beacen ; B. baak; D. bakn ; 
Scot, bekin, from G. bak, fire, and ken to know, cor- 
responding with ^et^»f. See to Bake. 

Bead, s. a small globe of glass, stone or metal; a string 
of which forms a necklace, used in Roman catholic 
countries at prayer; G. bede; D.and B. bede; S. heed; 
T. bet; Arm. ped; W. ped, prayer ; L. peto. The use 
of beads in devotion was known to the Hindoos long 
prior to our era. Brahma is represented, by very 
ancient monuments, as counting a bead of amber at 
each recitation of the name of God. 

Beadle, s. a parish officer, a messenger ; G. and Swed. 
bod; D. boode, a message; whence Swed. bddel; T. be- 

B £ C 


deU; a hadd; L. B. hediUMt; F. hedeau; It. biddlo. 
See Bid. 

BeaoIiB^ 9. a small hound ; F. bigle, from bigler, oo^ 
nate with our Bat and Bauch. 

Bbax, St the hill of a bird> the rostrum of a ship, a 
promontory; Arm. bec;.T. hick; S. beccaj B. bei; F. 
bee ; It beocoi Sp. jpico. See Peck. 

BsAKBB, 9, a cupthat has a spout ; perhaps from Bsak; 
but G. bikar; T. becher; Swed. b^are; It. boccia, 60- 
chiere, bickiere; L. B. bauca, are from fimwcn; Romance 
bee is a drink. 

Beal, s. a pimple, a whelk, a tumor ; T. beule ; S. byL 
See Boil. 

Beam, s, a larse piece of timber, a stock, a pole, a ray, 
a tree, the horn of a deer ; M. G. bagm ; 6. bolm ; 
Swed. bom; S. beim; T. baum ; B. boom ; Scot, bcime ; 
6. bol signifies the trunk or stem, and baug, a bough 
or limb. 

Beam-tbee, «. the spindle-tree, apparently from G. 
bdn ; S. bum, a spool ; but confounded with horih' 

Bean, s, garden pulse; UvmMf; Isl. baun; Swed. b^ine; 
S. bean; T. bohne; B. boon; W. bonar. 

Bear, v. o. to carry, press upon, endure, produce, bring 
forUi; G. ba^a; Sans, bahr; P. bar; fia^w, ^^; Swed. 
bara; T. baren, baeren; S. beoran; B. baaren;Helx ukI 
A. bara, to create, signifies also to bring forth, to 

Beab, s. a savage animal, a rude man ; G. biam; Swed. 
bidm ; T. bar ; S. bera ; B. beer. 

Bear8BBEech, Bbab8FAws, s, a plant ; from bear and 
L. brachia, an arm. See Brank-ubsin. 

Beabd, s, hair on the chin, a point ; P. baroot; B. board; 
T. bart ; perhaps from G. vairhatt; T. barheit, man- 
hood, virility, with which in Arabic the beard was 
S3monimous. With the Goths to swear by the beard 
was to pledge all the manly virtues. The word, how- 
ever, may be derived from L. barha. See Shag. 

Beast, s, an irrational animal ; L. bestia; It. bestia; F. 

bite, from B/«f. 
Beat, v. a. 1. to strike, throb, conquer; G. beyta, hata; 

Swed. beta; S. beatan; L. batuo; It. battere; F. battre; 

W. baedden. 

2. To strive against the wind, to tack, a sea phrase ; 
G. beita, to exert, contend. See to Bait. 

Beau, i. a man of dress, a fop ; It. bei for begli; F. beau, 
from L. bellus. 

Beavib, s, 1. an amphibious animal so called ; G. bior; 
Swed. befwer; T. biber; S. beqfer; B. bever; P. bievre; 

2. The part of a helmet that covers the face ; It bavera; 
F. baviere. 

Bbaitft, s. fine appearance ; F. beauts ; It bella, from 

Because, conj, for this reason. See By and Cause. 

Beck, #. 1. a rivulet ; S. becc; Swed. and D. bak; T. back, 
from G. aa ; T. ack, a stream of water ; or perhaps 
from G. back, a bank, corresponding wiUi L. ripa. 

2. A courtc«y, a nod, a bending of the head or body ; 

D. bcek ; G. beig, horn buga, to bow. 
Beckon, v. a. ftom the noun ; to make a sign with the 

head or hand, to nod ; S. becnian. 

Beoome, v. a. 1. from Comb ; to enter into some state or 

condition ; 8* beeomman. 
2. To come opportunely, to be convenient, suitable ; 

Swed. bequema ; T. bequemen, in the sense of L. con^ 

venio ; S. cweman, to please. 
Bed, I. a place to sleep on, a platform, a plot in a garden, 

the channel of a river ; G. bed; Swed. bcedd; M. G. 

badi; S. bed; B. bedde; T. bette, Chald. 6a< signified a 

place of repose, a dwelling, and the Gothic word is 

apparently from bida to stey, to dwell. 
Bedlem, Bedlam, s. ao hospital for lunatics, a mad- 
house ; was formerly called Bethlehem, Heb. and A. 

beth el ham, the house of bread. 
Bedbid, a. confined to bed by sickness; S. bedreda, 

from bed and rcedan; G. and Swed. rdda, to subdue, 


Bee, s. the insect that makes honey ; G. bij; Swed. 61; 
B. bye; T. byhe; S. beo; L. apU; F. abeiUe; Sp. abeia. 

Beech tbee, *. Swed. bage; S. bece; T. buche; B. beuke; 
I. beahag; 0«y0f. 

Beef, s. the flesh of black cattle slaughtered for food ; 
A. bu; B#^j, Btvf; L. bos bovis; Arm. bove; F. bceuf; It. 
bove ; G. bu signified an ox, but properly bufie in- 
cluded animals used in husbandry, from oua, to cul- 
tivate, and^, an animal. 

Beeb, *. malt liquor ; G. bior ; Swed. bijr ; T. bier ; S. 
bior; F. biere; It bire; W. bir. See Babley, Bbew 
and Ajle. 

Beetle, *. 1. a mallet; G. batil, basstil; S. bytl, diminu- 
tive of Bat. 

2. An insect ; It biatilla, from L. blatta, is a small fly ; 
but S. bitel, from bite, is synonimous with our Cha- 


Beetle, v. a. to project, jut out; G. be yta from be and 

out. See But. 
Beetle Bbowed, a. prominent, full browed. 

Befal, v. n. to happen, to fall out ; S. befeallen, from 
G.fall, chance. 

Befobe, hprep. in front, further on. 2. ad. sooner, earlier 
in time. See Fobe. 

Beo, v. n. to pray, to petition ; G. biilga ; Swed. bet^a ; 

S. bidgan. See Bead. 
Beget, v. a. to generate, to produce. See Get. 

Begin, v. to enter upon, commence ; G. tit corresponds 
with L. in ; whence inna, ginna, for ga inna ; S. 
gynna, to go in; Swed. begynna ; S. and T. beginnan, 
to commence. 

Behalf, «. favour, support, account; oit behalf hlitenlly 
on the side or on the part of; from G. ha^; S. hatf^; 
B. halve, a part, a side. See Half. 

Behave, v. a. to act, to conduct one's self; G. hava; T. 
behaben, to possess, to hold, to maintain ; correspond- 
ing with L. habeo. 

Behen, s. an herb, formerly written Pechem ; A. and 
P. bechwen, excellent. 

Behest, «. command, mandate, order. See Hbst. 

Behold, v. a. to observe, retain, attend, regard; S. 
behealdan. See to Hold. 

Behove, v. a. to be fit, meet, pi^^^' i Swed. beh^wa ; 

S. behqfian ; B. behoeven: G. hoef; Swed. htf, propriety, 

decency, fitness, from the verb to Have. 
Belaboub, v. a. to beat with force and continuance. 

See Laboub. 
Belay, v. a, 1. to place in ambush, waylay. See Be- 


2. To lay down, leave quiet See to Lay. 
Belch, v. a. to throw wind frt>m the stomach, to eruc- 
tate; S. be al c imm. 


Bbldam> t. an old lady^ a scolding woman ; Port vdka 
dama; Sp. bMa dama; L. vetuia domna. 

Bblbaousb> v. a. to benege, blockade, iniresty restrict; 
Swed. beUtgra. See Lbaoubb. 

Bblfbt^ #. originally a tower ; but now applied to the 
steeple of a churchy and supposed to be named from 
the bell ; F. bMroi, befroi; L. B. belfrafium; O. E. 
bawfirey, from tif. balk, a platform^ andfrtd, peace, se- 
curity, a tower; belfrid, berfrid; L. B. beHridus, was 
a moveable tower used by the Franks at toe siege of 
Clonstantinople, which, as well as balcony, signified a 
place of watch or alarm ; and in many places, on the 
continent, the steeples of churches still serve for that 

BbIiIbf, #. creed, credit, assent See to BsLiEyB. 

BsLiEyB, V. to trust in, credit, have faith ; G. Ufa ; S. 
lefan ; T. lauben, to concede, to admit, produced S. 
geli(fan ; T. gelauben, glauben ; Swed. belefwa, to con- 
sent, to believe. In Scotland Uef, like S. imfe, is used 
in the same sense. See Lbavieb. 

Bblifb, Biiiys, ad. presently, in the mean time ; from 
Swed. bldtva ; 6. olyven ; S. belifan ; T. bUiben, to re- 
main, to be waiting as the French say en attendant. 

BsiiL, X. a hollow sounding vessel of metal; 6. biol; 
Swed. biasl; S. and B. beU; from O. hliom, sound, beloa, 
to toll. Apparently, long before known in Europe, 
bells were used in Hindoo temples, to frighten away 
evil spirits. See Lay. 

Bellow, v. a. to roar like a bull, to bawl ; Swed. bdla; 
S. bellan, from 6. baul, to which we have added our 
word Low. 

Bbllows, s. an instrument used to blow the fire ; S. 
bilig, blast belg; T. blast balg, a blowing bag or belly. 

Bbllt, s. the lower part of the body, the bowels ; O. 
bcelg ; S. bylg; T. balg; W. bdy. 

Bblono, v. n. to continue with, to be the property of, 
to pertain ; T. belangen. See Long. 

Bblbwagobb, S.& whore's associate; from Swed. bol; B. 
boel; T. buhle, a concubine, and B. swoaker ; T. schwas 
ger, a brother-in-law. 

Belt, s. a leathern girdle, a sash ; O. and S. belt ; T. 
baltz ; L. battens. 

Bbnch, s. a seat, a judge's seat ; O. beck ; Swed. bcsnk ; 
S. bene ; T. bank ; F. banc ; It banco ; L. B. bancus ; G. 
back, a bank, seems to have been the same word, cor- 
responding with liaiyHi from which A^iMmyK was a 
senate. See Form. 

Bend. v. a. 1. to crook, curve, subdue; G. benda ; S. 
bendan, from G. bingend ; S. bifeand, the participle of 
buga, to bow, corresponding with panda, 

2. To incline, to direct one's way ; from Bend, to curve ; 
Swed. b^'a, to bend, produced 6o^^ a course, a bow. 

Bbnd, in heraldry, an oblique band or bar ; F. bende, 

Beneath, prep, below, under. See Neath and Nether. 

Benison, s. a blessing; F. benisson, contracted from 

Bbnnut, s. the nut of the benzoin tree ; P. ban. See 

Bent, *. a kind of grass or reed ; B. biniz ; T. lAnire, 
like bass, bast, baste, bat, are derived from the verb to 
bind. All tough grasses, as well as rushes, hops, 
tares, convolvuli, were called bents, bindweeds or 
windles, from their nature, corresponding with Xxfim. 

Bent, par^. crooked, inclined, determined. See to Bbno. 

B E V 

Bbkzoin, s. a reainoas tree, and its gum, rvlguAy edt 
ed benjamin ; P. ban suhujna. See Bbnnut. 

Bbqubath, v. a. to declare, devise, to leaye or give by 

will ; S. bequaUhan, from G. kuedia. See Qdotb. 
Bbqubst, s. a legacy, a gift by will ; from BaqfiniAiiB. 
Bbrbavb, t^. a. to despoil, to rob ; Swed. herfjfwa; S. 

bereqfian ; M. G. biramhan. See Rbatb. 
Bbboamot, s. a kind of pear ; It bergawuUo, from P. 

b^ armod, the prince pear ; Turk, begmoi. SeeBBT. 
Bbroandeb, #. or burrow duck ; S. berg ander, from 

berg, a cliff, and ander, a duck. It breeds in lioles of 


Berry, in forming the names of places, is generally 8. 
berig, beorg, a town, a burgh; but sometimes con- 
founded with G. bar, bvr, bur, whidi, from O. 6imi, 
to cultivate, designated a village or farm; and as 
prefixes, are written bar, bare, beer, ber, here, beor, 
our. See Bury. 

Berry, s. 1. a den or hole. See Burrow. 

2. Any small pulpy fruit; G. ber; T. beer; S. berig; A. 
Chald. Syr. bar, bari, peri, a general name for fruit 
as well as grain. See to Bear. 

Bert, in forming the names of persons or placea, 8igni« 
fies bright, illustrious; as Bertha, Ajlbbbt. Set 

Besant, s. an ancient golden coin of Bysantium. 

Beseech, t^. a. to supplicate, entreat, request ; S. 
gesecan ; from Seek, as request from quest. 

Bebhrew, v. to call out against, curse, let 

fall ; T. beschreien. See Shrew. 
Besom, s. an instrument to sweep with, a broom ; S. 

besem, besm ; B. bezem ; T. and o. bies^ a rush ; lixm. 

bezo, the birch tree. 

Best, a. good in the highest degree; G. best, contracted 
from baiezt, betst ; T. best ; B. Zeste ; D. bedest ; S. betst, 
best. See Better. 

Bestow, v. a. to place, apply, give, dispose of gratuit* 
ously. See to Stow. 

Bet, s. a wager, stake, deposit ; G. vofd; T. wette; Swed. 
wad ; S. tved, mad, bad, bate, a pledge. See Waobr. 

Betray, v. a. to draw on deceitfully, to reveal or discoyer 
treacherously; G. draga andL. trahoare cognates, with 
exactly the same principal meaning ; from the first, 
Swed. bedrdga ; T. betr&gen ; B. bmriegen, betreikam, 
and from the latter, F. trahir, are synonimous. G. 
drag; T. trug, signify fraud. See Trick and 

Better, a. good in a greater degree; G. betr; P. bekter, 
beskter; T. besser; S. betera; Swed. bdtter; B. beter, 
the comparative degree of G. bat, bast; P. beh; D. 
baot ; 8,oet ; from which we have boot, good, advant- 
age, profit See Best. 

Better, W. a large wooden mallet, sometimes strengdu 
Beater, > enedwith iron rings ; T. 6a^yS.6al. See 
Betty, J Bat, and to Bbat. 

Between, prep, from tween,! . .^ ., „ ^ 
BSTWIXT, fr^. from twixt, | "» *« "^^^ ^^ t^o. 

BEyEL, s. an instrument for measuring the sweep of 
an arch or angle; Sp. baivel; F. beuveau; It. biecm ft- 
vella ; L. obliqua Ubella. 

Beyebaob, s. drink in general; It. beveraggio from be^ert; 
L. bibere. 

Bevy, s. a flock of birds ; but sometimes signifyiiig a 
brood ; It. beva ; T. bene, from G. bua, to dwells to a*, 
sociate. See Coyby. 

B I L 


BswEAT^ V. a. to betray, disclose maliciously, accuse; S. 

bewregan, hewroegan, wregen; T. wrogan, from 6. 

raigia, to calumniate. 
Bbt, s. a Turkish title> a Imrd, a prince ; Turk, begh ; 

Tartar hegy a lord ; 6<?giMi, a lady ; begUer beg, a lord 

of lords. 

Beyond, prep, further off, above ; S. begeond. See Yond. 

Bbzxl, Bbsil^ «. the cup of a ring ; T. beseau ; /8i»rr». 

Bbzoab, 9, a medicinal stone; P. pazahar, counterpoison. 

Bias, #. inclination to <»ie side, obliquity ; F. inais; It. 
bieco; L. obliquus. 

Bib, X. a cloth under the chin of infants ; F. bave, ba^ 
vette; It. bava, bavagUo, from F. bave; It. bava; Sp. 
baba ; Arm. babous, slaver. 

Bib, v. o. to drink, to tipple ; L. biba, 

Bible, s. the book containing the holy Scriptures, a 
volume or roll ; but properly the Egyptian papyrus ; 
fiXx^i. See Book and Pa]pbr. 

Bicb, Bibb, s. a colour used in painting, formerly a gray, 

but now partaking of a light blue ; F. bis; It. (ngio ; L. 

B. bidus. 
BicKBB, t^. a. to skirmish, to fight off and on, to vibrate; 

T. bicken, bickeren ; It. beccare ; F. bequer, bequeier, to 

peck, to contend with the beak ; W. bicre ; P. bikar, 

pikar, a conflict, a skirmish. 
Bid, command; O. and Swed. biuda; S. beodan ; 

T. bieten, perhaps cognate with P. bid, bud, be it, let 

it be. 
2. To invite, propose, offer^ request; 6. bidga; S. biddan; 

T. bitten ; B. bidden, corresponding with L. peio. 

BiDB, V. to endure, remain, wait, expect ; G. and Swed. 
bida ; S. bidan ; D. bie. It may perhaps be derived 
from the verb, to be; for ki be, in Scotland, signi- 
fies to let remain ; P. bu, repose. 

Bibb, s» a hand carriage for the dead; G. bar; Swed. 
bar; T.behre; F. btere; It bara. See to Bbab and 

BiBBTiNoa, s. the first milk a cow gives after calving ; 
G. and Swed. vsta, signifies to coagulate, ferment; 
beisi; S. beott, nad ung, new^ young, affixed to pro- 
duce S. bystung ; T. biestung ; F. biton. See Chbbsb. 

Bio, II. bulky, large, great, pregnant ; G. bdg, bulk; D. 
bug ; Isl. buk, whidi in our northern counties is pro- 
nounced booke and bugg, 

Bioo, s. a kind of barley ; Isl. bygg ; Swed. biugg ; D. 
byg; P. big, bij, is a grain resembling rice. 

BiGOiN, s. a cap or coif worn by an order of nuns ; F. 
beguin ; B. begyn, from being, as some pretend, dedi- 
cated to St Beffa ; but perhaps the name was cognate 
with beg, or bead quean, a praying woman; L. B. 
begardus, a monk. 

BiOHT, s. one turn of a cable ; Swed. bdgt ; S. bf^hi, from 
Isl. beiga ; S. bygan, to curve. 

BiGOBNB, BicoBN, 1. a. having two horns. 3. s. a kind 

of anvil ; F. bigome ; It. Udime. 
Bigot, #. a zealot, one devoted to a party ; F. bigot ; It. 

bigotio, from God in the sense of pledged, wedded. 

See €k>D. 

Bit«ANDBR, s, a kind of hoy^ a coasting vessel; B. 

BiLBBBBT, «. a whortleberry, a blue berry ; G. bla ber; 
Swed. bla bar; Scot blaeberry ; L. vaccinium, 

BiisBOmB,e.Q.bolboija; Arm. bUbys, log fetters ; Swed. 
boye ; T. hoge; L. boim. 

BiLB, #. 1. a tumor, a pustule ; G. belg ; &^ bUe ; T. 

beuk ; B. buHe. See Bbal and Boil. 
3. Gall, choler ; F. bile ; L. bilU. 

BiLOB, s. the breadth of a ship's hull ; G. belg ; T. buHg, 
■ from G. bulga, to swell. 

BiLOB-WATBB, s. water collected in the hull of a ship. 
BiiiK, V, a. toplay upon, overreach, dupe ; bUeUka ; M. G. 

bilaikan ; T. belaichan, to play, and signifying like L. 

ludere, to chouse ; B. bilk, a gaming Uble. See Plat. 

Bill, sA.b, beak, a pointed instrument ; G. bill; P. bil; 
S. biUe; T. beU; B. byl; Swed. biU; T. bigd, biyel; 
W. bwiall, signify a coulter or crooked adze, from 
G. beygia, to curve. 

2. A written list of articles, a draft for money, a pre- 
scription, a case in law ; L. bulla, a seal attached to a 
writing, produced F. buUe, biUe; It. boUa, a written 
document See Billet. 

Billet,/. 1. a diminutive of Bill; a small letter, aticket ; 
L. B. bi^ta ; F. billet ; It biglietto. 

2. A small piece of wood, a stick ; L. B- billus; F. bille, 
bUlot, perhaps the diminutive of G. bol, a log ; but 
Scot hale, a faggot is contracted from bandle, a 

BiLLiABDS, s. a game played with balls on a table ; F. 
billard; but formerly in E. ball yards. 

Billow, s, a large rolling wave ; Isl. bvlg^ ; G. b6l wasga, 
a swell wave; Swed. bolja; T. bulge; G. bhla, bulga, 
to swell. 

Billy, x. diminutive of William ; S. villy ; W. biUy. 

Bin, s. a heap of grain, an inclosure ; S. binn ; T. binne ; 
D. bing, from G. and Swed. inna, to inclose. See 

Bind, v. a. to hold together, to inclose, to constipate ; G. 
binda; S. bindan; T. binden; Swed. binda; P. and Hind. 
bend, bund; M. G. vithan; JEol. fiw ; L. vieo, are sup- 
posed to be cognates of G. binda, which, in some tenses, 
varied into bat and bit, signifying restraint, security. 

BiBCH-TBEB, #. supposed to be named f^om its bark, 
which, with the savages of America, is still employed, 
particularly in ornaments ; G. birk ; Swed. bidrk ; S. 
oirc; T. btrcke; B. berke. 

BiBD, s. a fowl, a feathered animal ; S. bird, bridd, ori- 
ginally like lj.pullus; G. byrd; P. perid, berid, denoted 
me young of animals in general, from the verb to 
Beab. Bird formerly was used as a term of endear- 
ment in the sense of 6aibn. See Bbebd and Bbino. 

BiBLET, s, a band for the head ; F. bourlet, ourlet, from 
L. ora. 

BiBT, #. a fish. See Bbbt. 

BiBTH, s. 1. being bom, the act of coming into life ; G. 
burd; Swed. bdrd; S. beorth. See to Bbab. 

2. A place of rest or security, a sleeping place in a ship; 
T. beruhl, from beruhen ; Swed. bero, to repose ; G. 
rot, rest See Baabow. 

Bibthwobt, s, an herb so named from its use to pro- 
mote untimely birth. 

Bishop, #. 1. the head of a diocese ; 'EiriVvMr^ ; L. episco^ 
pus; T. bischoff; F. evesque, evique. 

3. For bishop poi, a posset or warm drink with a toast ; 
supposed to be F. 6f« chauffi; but perhaps contracted 
fh>m boUson chauffi, drink warmed. F. ois, however, 
was toasted or scorched bread ; and the iingle oi pot 
and fool may have been the origin of calling a burnt 
taste, a bishop's fool. 

BiaoM, #. a kind of wild bull, with a mane, and a huBsp om 

B L A 

B L I 

his back ; some animal of that kind was known to tht 

Goths, as vUundur. See Unvs. 
Bison, a. blind, dull-sighted ; S. hiteny fnm. O. onen^ 

without seeing. 
Bit, j. 1. a morsel, a small piece, a fragment ; O. bUe ; 

Swed. hit; S. hiU; B. heH; T. Htz; D. hkte, very little, 

from BiTB : and F. morfeau, from L. morsui, is syno- 


2. The iron of a bridle that enters a horse's mouth; G. 
bit; B. bit ; G. bitol, a bridle, from bit, and o/, a rein, 
a strap ; F. mord, a bit, is from mordre. See Bitb. 

Bitch, X. the female of a dog; G. bickea; Swed. hycl^a; 
S. byce ; T. hetze ; G. greg baka, seems to have been 
the right word, cognate with greedy, and bak, heat. 
The word was a term of the greatest reproach among 
the Goths ; and to call any person byckta hwalp (son 
of a bitch) was punishable by law. Through all the 
G. dialects hunasfud, hunrfot, has the same significa- 
tion ; and F. Jean foutre is corrupted from L. canis 

BiTTACLE, s» a frame of timber where the compass is 
placed in a ship ; F. boite d'aiguille; L. pyxis aculei, 
the needle box. 

Bitter, o. having a biting taste, harsh, severe ; G. bittr; 
Swed. T. B. bitter ; S. biter. See to Bitb. 

BiTTBBN, BiTTOUB, s. a water fowl ; /8«it«(; F. butor; B. 
butoor ; L. B. botaurus, avis taurina. See Buttbb 

B1TT8, s. a sea term for two square beams serving as 
stays; F. bittes, from G. bit; Swed. beting. See to 

Bivouac, s. in military language signifies that the whole 
corps remains on guard during the night ; G. vauk, 
our wake or watch, a guard, produced, T. betvach; 
Swed. ben>ak,he\ng awake, which the French corrupted 
into bivouac. 

Blab, v. a. to let out, to tattle ; like blurt and Scot. 
bladder, blab is from blow ; the vulgar say don't blow, 
for don't blab. 

Black, a. 1. dark, without colour or light, cloudy, vile, 
dismal ; G. and T. black; S. blac; AirXtf%%. Met. infernal, 
without ecclesiastical sanction. See Blub. 

2. Confinement, prison ; G. and Swed. black, an iron fet- 
ter. See Block. 

Blackouabd, s. from Black and Guard ; a mean dirty 

Black-bolb, s. from Black and Hole for Hold, con- 

Bladder, s. the urinal vessel, a blister ; G. bladder; S. 
bloBddre ; Swed. blddra ; T. blase, from to Blow ; L. 
vesica, and ^vra have the same meaning. 

Blade, s. 1. the leaf of herbs, the laminous part of a 
sword ; G. blad; Swed. Dan.B. blad; T. blatte; S.bhed; 
corresponding with TlXur^f. 

2. A young man, a stripling ; from Lad, corresponding 
with B?Miti. 

Blain, s. 1. a pustule, blister, blotch ; D. bleyne ; S. 
blegene ; T. blegen, from blehen, to swell. See Blister. 

2. A wound or chop ; G. bken; Swed. blan. See Blow. 

Blame, s. censure, offence, reproach ; Port blasma ; It. 
biasmo; F. bldme, infamy, have the sarab origin with 
Blaspheme. But A. and P. luom ; G. liom ; S. Idem ; 
T. leum, iaum, sound, fame, produced T. beleum, belaum; 
B. blaam, evil report, censure, in the . sense of L. 

Blanch, v. to whiten ; F. blanckir. See Bleach md 

Blank, a. white, having no mark or colour, indefinite, 

vacant; G. bleik; firnXwr, S. bUec; B. bMt, blank; Swed. 

D. T. blank; F. blanc. See Bleach. 
Blanket, *. a white woollen cover for a bed ; F. Msa- 

chet ; It. bianchetta. See Blank. 
Blare, v. a. 1. to bellow ; T. blaeren ; L. bakk 
2. To blow, blase abroad ; G. bkera. 
Blaspheme, v. a. to speak impiously, to defame^ to 

curse ; fixet^^ftim. 
BhABT, s. I. B. gust of wind, explosion ; Swed. T. S. 

blast, from G. blasa, blasta; S. bkestan. 
2. Foul vapour, blight ; T. blast. See to Blow. 
Blast, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to blight, vitiate, injure, 


2. From Blaze ; to bum, to scorch, to destroy by heat ; 
Scot, blezzen. 

3. From the noun ; to blow, to proclaim, to trumpet 
See Blazon. 

Blay, s. a small white fish ; B. bly; F. able. See Bleak. 
Blaze, ^. 1. a white mark ; G. blisa; Swed. bkes; D. and 

B. blis ; T. blaesse, blesse, from G. lios, white. 
2. A flame, conflagration; S. blase; D. bluss; Swed. bloss; 

0A«(; B. blur; T. blitz, a flame, torch, lightning. See 

Blaze, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to rise in a flame. 
2. To proclaim, promulgate, to trumpet; G. blasa; Swed. 

blasa ; S. bUesen, to blow, to trumpet. 
Blazon, s. a trumpet, proclamation, display ; G. blazun, 

blason, from blasa. See Blaze, to proclaim. 
Blazon, v. a. ^m the noun ; to display, or proclaim 

armorial honours, to make public. See Herald. 
Bleach, v. to whiten, grow white ; Swed. hleka ; S. 

bkecan, from G. bleik ; T. bleich ; B. bleek ; At mus. See 


Bleak, s. a small white fish ; S. bkege; B. bly. See 

Bleak, a. dark, gloomy, dull, cold; G. bleck; Swed. 

blek ; S. bleac. See Black. 
Blear-eyed, a. dim with rheum, watery, raw ; G. blar 

for bladr; D. blcere; B. blaar; T. blar; Swed. blir. See 

Bleat, v. a. to cry like a sheep ; S. bketan; B. bladen; 

L. balo ; It. belare, from fitj. 

Bleb, s. a small blister ; cognate with blab, bladder, 

blister, from to Blow. 
Bleit, Blate, a. timid, heartless ; Isl. blaud; G. bleide; 

T. bloede ; Swed. blade. 
Blemish, s. deformity, spot, scar ; fix^fui is a wound, 

Swed. bleme, an ulcer ; but F. blime, discoloured^ livid, 

is from L. plumbeus. 

Blench, v. a. 1. to cede, shrink, start back; T. blencken. 
See Lin and Flinch. 

2. To render obscure, or difficult. See to Blink. 

Blend, v. a. to mix, confuse, spoil, adulterate; G. blenda; 
D. blande; Svred. blanda ; S. blendan: G. bland, signi- 
fied many, and ibland, among. 

Bless, v. a. to wish, or make, happy, to praise; G. bkssa; 
S. bUssian, for blithsian, to make blithe. See Blithe. 

Blight, s. 1. mildew, foulness, smut; G. and Swed. 

2. Destruction by heat. See to Blow and Blast. 

Blight, v. a. from the noun ; to corrupt, destroy. 

B L O 


Blind, a. depri?ed of nght, obscure; 6. Swed. S. T< B. 

blind ; O. olya, to shine, to appear, probably with the 

negative a^unct, became ou^, to obscure. See 

Blink, v. n. 1. to see obscurely, to wink; O. btindka; 

Swed. biinka ; B. behnken. See Blind. 
2. To give a ray of light, to shine transiently ; B. blin* 

ken; D. blinke; S. bUcan from O. blya, to shine. See 

Bliss, s. felicity, happiness, blessedness ; O. blUs; S. 

blis. See to Bless. 
Blissom, v. to be in heat; G. blism, for blithtam; S. blithe, 

lascivious; W. blyiian, to seek the male. 
Blister, s. a watery pustule, a plaster to draw serous 

matter from the skin ; G. bladr; T. blazer; Swed. blad* 

der, blister; S. bladdre, from to Blast or Blow. See 

Blithe, a. gay, sprightly, glad ; G. bUde ; B. Mvd; Swed. 

blijd; S. blithe; L. ketus. See Laugh and Glad. 
Bloat, v. a. 1. to swell, become turgid ; to blow out, to 

be puffy. 
2. To smoke, to blacken. See Blote. 
Blobber, a. swelled, blown out. See Bluff. 
Block, s. a heavy piece of wood, stone, or metal ; G. 

and B. blok; Swed. T. Arm. block; F. bloque. See 

Block, v, a. 1. from the noun ; to frame with logs. 
2. To shut up, inclose, confine; S. locen, blocen; B. 6e- 

loken ; It. blocare; F. bloquer. See to Lock. 

Blood, s, a red nourishing fluid ; G. Swed. S. blod ; B. 

bloed; T. blut ; M. G. bloth. See Blow, to colour. 
Bloom, «. 1. a bright colour, the flower of herbs and 

trees; G. and Swed. blom; T. blum; B. bloem; S. bleo. 

See Blow, to colour. 

2. A bluish tinge on grapes and plums. See Blue. 

3. A mass of purified metal ; S. bUrnia, translated from 

Blossom, s, flowers of trees and plants; G. bh sam; S. 

blosm; B. bloessem; Arm. bleuzen; W. blodeuyn; L 
blatham. See to Blow and Bloom. 

Bi«OT, s. 1. blackness, discolour, soot, disgrace; G. blot; 
B. bloat. See Blote. 

2. A vacant place in an escutcheon, an open point at 
backgammon, G. blott; Swed. blott; B. bioot; T. bloss; 
Scot, blait; It bioito. 

Blotch, s. 1. a pustule, an eruption of the skin ; G. and 
Swed. blodsasr; B. bluts, a blood sore ; It bozza, 

2. A slur or stain ; as if blotage. See Blot. 
Blote, v, a. 1. to smoke, blacken by hanging in the 
chimney; B. blaakt, smoked. See jBlot. 

2. To swell, become turgid. See Bloat. 

Blow, s, a stroke, a lick ; G. blegtva; T. bldue, bluw; B. 

Uouwe; llAsyt. See Lick. 
Blow, v. a, 1. to puff out with wind, to ventilate, to 

swell; G. bkea, blasa; T. bldhen; S. bkwian; h.Jlo. 

2. To blacken, smut, discolour; G. blaa; T. blawen; D. 
blae; from G. bla, black. 

3. To colour, to blossom, bloom ; G. bloa, bloma ; B. 
hUyen; T. bluihen; S, blowan, from G. iiu, Uur,Uiwr; 
Arm. liu; W. Uiw; S. bleo; B. blod; T. bluihe, colour. 

4. To scorch, to bum, to blast ; T. belohen, from lohen. 
See Low, flame. 

Blowzb, e. redness, a flushing of the blood to the lace; 
B. blooz; Arm. bUmz, See Blood. 

Blubber, s. liquid drawn off, whale oil unrefined ; G. 

blaupr ; T. lab ; O. laeb. See Loppbr. 
Blubber, ». a, from the noun; to shed tears, to run at 

the nose. 

Blubber-cheeked, a. puffy-cheeked. See Blobber, 
Bludgeon, *. a short thick stick, a bat ; G. bfygwan ; 
n?inytt9. See Blow. 

Blue, a. sky-coloured ; G. bla; P. beel; T. blau; S. bliw- 
hcBwan; B. blaaw; Swed. blao; D. bltfe; Sp. bloo; P 
bleu; Met dismal, dark, dissatisfied. 

Blue, s. colour of dry raisins and plums when well pre- 
served. See Bloom. 

Blutf, a. swelled out, puffed up, bulky ; from Blow 
and Up, T. uf; Scot buffy; P. boiifi. 

BiAJYV, s. a round protuberance; G. and B. bol, is round, 
large. See Plump. 

Blunder, #. a misUke, a mixture, confusion ; G. hlan" 
der; Swed. blandar; S. blender. In is applied 
to ridicule silly people who would use a sieve for a 
pitcher. See Blend. 

Blunderbuss, *. a short wide gun ; from Blunder, a 
mixture of sho^ and Bus, a tube or barrel ; B. dander^ 
boss, a thundering gun. 

Blunt, a. round, obtuse, dull ; G. boUot, boUont; B. boUe, 
whence, Swed. blump, plump ; B. plomp. See Plump. 

Blur,v. a. to sully, blot, efface; contracted from blotter, 
frequentative of blot. 

Blurt, v. a. to blab out inconsiderately ; G. bkera ut. 
See Blare. 

Blush, s. redness, colouring of the face, glow, appear- 
ance ; B. bloose; S. blose ; but D. bluis, bluds, it shames, 
is from G. bleid. See Bleit. 

Blush, v. a. from the noun; to assume colour, to suffuse 
the cheeks from emotion or shame ; B. blosen ; S. 
ablisian. See to Blow. 

Bluster, v. a. to blow rudely, to storm, to bully, to 

swagger, G. blustra, frequentative of Blast. 
Blusterer, s. a vapouring noisy fellow. 

Blusterous, a. from the verb ; stormy, noisy, tumul* 

Bo, intj. a word of terror to children ; A. bau; Sans. 

bhuo ; Arm. baw ; W. bw ; B. baum. See Bug. 
Bo, s. a shout ; It bau, from L. boo. 

Boar, s. 1. a male of swine ; Sans, burah; S. bar; B. 
beer ; L. aper. See Barrow. 

2. A violent tide ; G. bara ; B. boar. 

Board, *. a plank, table, deck, bench; G. bord; Swed. 

T. D. B. W. F. bord; S. brad. See Broad. 
Boast, v. a. to brag, to vaunt; W. bostio; I. bost, are 

adopted from the English word; B. boogen; S. bogan, 

to use a bow, has the exact meaning of L. jactare; 

^g> boogst, a bow, a boast, as we use the phrase " to 

draw a long bow," to magnify. 

Boat, s. a vessel of conveyance on water, a small ship ; 

G. and S. bat; Swed. bhi; T. and B. boot; Sans, pot; 

Hind, bohit; P. boi, bateau; W. bad; It baUUo; Sp. 

Boos, s. 1. cut off, short, quick ; boff for be off, as doj' 
for do off. 

2. A trick or deception. See Baff. 

8. FVom the verb ; a shake, a touch, a motion. 

Bob, v. a. I. to touch or puU by way of signal, to play 
backward and forward, to move, to shdke; G. bifa; 
<& bet^Um; D* bene ; B. bavem; T. b€ben. 

B O L 


2. From the noun ; to put off, dodge, or cheat. 

Bobbin, #. a small spool for weavins lace, a cord so wo- 
ven; B. hobw; F. bohine, from oob, to move, and 8. 
Imne, a spool. See Bonb Lacb. 

Bobtail, s. from Bob ; a short tail ; Tag, Rao and Bob- 
tail, were three denominations of ignoble dogs. 
See TiKB and Rack. 

B00A88IN, #. a kind of open fustian used like buckram ; 
It. bocassinoj F. boucassinj Sp. bocasti, from It and 
Sp. boca, a hole. See Buckbam. 

BoDB, V. a, to portend, presage, announce ; O. boda ; 
Swed. boda ; S. bodxan; T. boUn; 6. bod, was a message, 
an order, fit>m the verb to bid ; and bode, S. boda, a 
messenger or announcer. See Bbaolb. 

BoDB, 1. a dwelling, habitation ; G. bud; S. bude; Swed. 
bod; D. boed; w. bod. See Abodb and Booth. 

BoDBJ[N, 9, 1. an iron pin or needle ; formerly brodkin^ 
See Bbad and Broideb. 

2. A name given to one who has a small seat; bumkin, 
a small bum. 

Body, s, the human stature or person, a corporation, 
the trunk of a tree, the bulk of any matter; S. bodig; 
T. potih, signified the human person or stature only ; 
ana there &es not appear to be any cognate term, un- 
less bode might have been considered as the residence 
of life, which in all 6. dialects is synonimous with 
what we call body. P. bodt^ ; Sans, bodaun, a being, 
may possibly have a common origin with our verbs 
to be and to bide. See Life and Bolb. 

Boo, s, a morass, a fen, sofl ground ; Arm. boug ; I. bog, 
a quagmire ; B. bagger, is mud ; but Swed. oog signi- 
fies pOant, flexible, cognate with our budge, 

Bogbean, BucKBEAN, s. an aquatic plant ; B. boekboon, 

foatsbean, menyanthes trifoliata; T. bachebohn; B. 
eckeboon, would be in E. beckbean, which produced 
the botanical name becabunga for brooklime. 
Boggle, s, a fright, diminutive of Bug. 
Boggle, v. n. 1. to be alarmed, to shy. See the noun. 
2. To waver, to hesitate. See Budge. 
BoHEA tea *. so named from the province of Vou yee 
or Bou yee, in China. 

Boil, s, a pustule; G. buil, from bola to swell. See 

Boil, r. a, to bubble through heat ; L. bulUo ; F. bouiUer, 
B018TER, V, a. to talk loud, to swagger, to vaunt. See 

Boisterous, a. blusterous, noisy, violent. 

Bold, a. daring, stout, impudent ; G. bald, vald ; Swed. 
bald; S. baldfbeald; Swed. botlla corresponds with 
I^. valeo. See Wield. 

Bole, ^. 1. the trunk of a tree, the body in contradis- 
tinction to the limbs; G. and Swed. bol; Swed. bad, 
large, massive, together with bulk, Isl. buk, bulg, our 
bug or big, seem to be derived from G. and Swed. 
bula, bulgia, to swell, to enlarge ; whence also Isl. and 
Swed. buld, thick, gross, corpulent. 

2. A measure for corn of six bushels ; L. bulga ; Scot. 
bow ; G. boUe ; T. boUe, was a measure for liquids. 

3. A kind of earth used in medicine ; F. bole, from B«lx«f . 

Boll, s. the round capsule containing the seeds of 
plants, such as flax ; T. boUe ; B. bol; W. bul ; Scot. 
bow ; from G. boUa round ; and thence signifying a 
bud, a bulb, and the head. See Bowl and Pole. 

Bolster, «. a large pillow, a pad ; G. Swed. and S. bol' 
iter ; T. pfuUler ; F. baliih. See Bolb and Pillow. 

Bolt, #. a bar, an arrow, lightning ; Swed. Mr /& ft«ft / 
T. boUt; B. bouU; W. bM; I. bdadk, oorretpoiid with 
B«A4i an arrow ; but Swed. boUoir Mt, aigmfiaa abar, 
a beam, from G. bol, and also, like L. ctpfwr, % block 
for confinement A notion may have existed that 
something like an arrow miffht be discharged with 
lightning; but T. IMz, lightning is cognate with 
our bliiUc. 

Bolt, v. a. 1. to sift flour by turning it round in a cy- 
lindrical sieve; B. buUen; T. beuteUn, from buil, beuid, 
a bag ; F. bluter. 

2. From the noun ; to fasten with a bolt. 

3. To sally out, to dart forth ; from Bolt in the sense of 
dart ; or sometimes in the sense of Sp. bueUo, frtim L. 
voUio, to turn suddenly. 

Bomb, 9. a large ordnance shell ; F. bombe, from iUfAn^ 
Bombabin, s, slight stuff for mourning ; L. bomU^ycvmi. 
Bombast, #. 1. high-sounding words. See Bomb. 

2. A kind of coarse fustian ; P. bumbo busia is cotton 

cloth ; but T. baum is a tree, and boH, akindof tissve 

remarkably flimsy; Swed. bast, any thing li^t or 

trivial. See Beam and Baste. 
fioMBEE, 8. the drone bee. See Humblb Bbb. 
Bond, s, a tie, an obligation, a band; G. bound; Swed. 

band; S. bond; P. bund; Hind. bind. See to Bimb. 
Bondage, s, captivity, slavery; G. bandgia; P. hundrnget. 

See Bond. 
Bone, x. the most solid part of the body ; G. bein, bun; 

Swed. ben ; B. been ; S. ban; T. Mi^all of whidi, like 

L. tibia, signify a leg and pipe or tube. 

Bone-lace, s. bobbin-lace ; S. bune, a bone spool. See 

BoNEFiRE, s. a great fire for public reioidng ; supposed 
to be from L. bonus; but probaoly mr banjire. 
See Ban, public 

Bonito-fish, s. A» boomtta, beiniih ; Sp. Port, and It. 
bonito, the latter apparently from L. wmus. 

Bonnet, x. 1 . a head-dress ; Swed. bonad; D. bonnet; Arm. 

bonnet ; F. bonnet ; G. and Swed. buan or bon, signifies 

attire, and hart is high. 
2. A small topsail in a ship ; D. bonet ; F. bonnette; Sp. 

Bonny, a. pretty, gay ; Sp. and Port, bonito, from Lr 

bonus. See Boon. 
Booby, s. 1. a clownish, dull fellow ; B. btMt, a country 

lad ; perhaps from G. bo, T. bau, tillage, and boy. See 

Looby and Hobby. 

2. A sea bird remarkable for its gestures ; Port, bobo, a 
buffoon ; it is called^btf in F. See Buffoon. 

Book, s. a volume to write or read in ; G. and Swed. 
bok ; S. boc ; T. buck, apparently from G. Swed. S. bog, 
bok; B. boek, a roll, a quire ; O. E. bow of paper was 
also a quire or roll. It has been supposed to be de- 
rived from S. boc, the beech tree ; but as the Goths 
were late in acquiring the use of letters, it is not pro- 
bable that they ever used the beech as paper. See 

Boom, s. a beam, a bar, a pole, used in a ship to keep 
the sail extended ; B. boom ; D. bom. See Beam. 

Boom, v, a. 1. from the noun, to sail very fast, with all 
sails set. 

2. To rise in billows ; G. bodm; B. 600111, the bottom, sig- 
nified in Gothic a ground swell or surf, an aestoary ; 
but our word was apparently from G. boga um. See 

B O R 


Boon, x. 1. a favour, a prayer; O. bam, hon; S. bene; 
Swed. h6n, from O. una, to favour, to cherish. 

2. The stalk of herbs like hemp or flax; 6. Imn; S. hune, 
like L. tibia, signified a shank and a pipe ; Scot. bune. 
See Bone. 

Boon, a. jovial, jolly ; supposed to he F. ban, from L. 
bonus ; out G. buan, ban; Isl. boin; Swed. boen, signified 
prepared, provided, adorned ; and 6. buai to entertain 
as a guest, beini, hospitable, were from G. bua, boa, to 
prepare ; Scot, bene, comfortable, wealthy, happy. 

Boor, s, a country fellow, a clown; G. baur, buer ; T. 
bauer ; B. boer ; S. beorman, a cultivator. 

BooRD, s, a jest, a sham, a fib ; B. boert ; F. bourde ; L. B. 
burda ; It. bugiardo, from bugia, a fiction. See Bantbr. 

BoosB, s, a stall for oxen or cows ; G. bua hus ; S. boaig, 
cattle house; /8^h. 

Boot, s, 1. profit, advantage; G. bM, bot; Swed. and S. 
hoi ; B. boat ; W. btidd. It was originally bot or bat, 
good, from which we have Better and Best. 

2. A covering for the leg ; G. botar ; T. boi, botschuke ; F. 
bottc ; Sp. bota; Arm. bot; W. ^a«y Isl. and Swed. bot, 
supposed to be from G. bog, bogt, signified a leg or 
limb, corresponding with L. cms. They varied in 
shape at different times ; but particularly when those 
worn by the Tartars and Chinese, with long peaks, 
were introduced from Poland into France, and called 

Booth, s, A shed for retailing liquors, a stall in a market, 
a rustic house; G. bo, bud, abo, abud; S. and T. bude, a 
dwelling ; W. butk ; Scot buith, a shed or rude hut, 
from G. bua, to build; but sometimes confounded 
with L. B. boiha ; It. potheca, from L. apotheca, a shop. 
The same G. root proauced S. butlean, to build; whence 
botl, which, with us, is boitk, German bMel, in form- 
ing the names of places. See Bode and Abode. 

Booty, s. pillage, warlike spoil; G. and Swed. bifte; T. 
beute; It botino; F. buiin. It seems to be cognate with 
our Boot,and,to have signified originally profit; whence 
Swed. byta, to exchange, to buy. 

BoRAGHO, s. a leathern bottle, a drunkard; Sp. borracha, 
a bottle, horrachon, a drunkard. 

BoRAMEs, s, a plant called the Scythian lamb ; P. Sans, 
and Hind, baramesh, fruit lamb. See Bread and 

Borax, s. an artificial salt; A. buoruq; L. B. borax, 

BoRDEL, s. a bawdy house, a brothel; Sp. bordel; F. 
bordel; It bordello, apparently from G. bord ; F. borde, 
an extremity, a side. It was usual in fortified towns 
to prohibit the building of hovels within the walls ; 
ana particularly such as were considered nuisances. 
Swed. bord; L. B. bordiUum, however, signified merely 
a shed made with boards, such as would be erected 
by the sutlers of a garrison. Sp. bordionn, a whore. 

Border, s, edge, boundary, limit ; G. bord, bard; Swed. 

S. T. bord; P. bord, bordure; Sp. borde. 
Bore, v. a. to make a hole, perforate ; G. bora, Chald. 

bera ; Swed. bora ; D. bore ; S. borianj ll%^«n ; Jj,foro. 

BoREii, a. clownish, rustic. See Boor. 

Borough, #. a corporation, association ; G. and S. borg, 
signified a mutual pledge or accommodation ; S. borg^ 
hoe, borhoe, a person pledged, a fidejussor ; 8. buruh, 
burug, a community. This word, now used as syno- 
nimous with burg, is cognate with Borrow; the 
members being bound by a reciprocal pledge. 

Borrow, v. a. to re<|uire or take as an accommodation, 
or on credit; G. biorga; D. borge; Swed. borgaj T. bor* I 


gen; S. borgian, to trust, pledge, interchange. It 
seems to have signified originalTy security, from G. 
berga, to secure, defend. 

Boscage, s, a thicket, a wood, a grove, an arbour ; F. 
boscage, bocage; It boscaglia; B. bosckooge. See 
Bush and Shaw. 

BosoH, s, the hollow of the breast; S. bosum; B. boezutn ; 
T. busen, the bending. See Bow, Bay, and Buxom. 

Boss, s. protuberance, knob, stud ; T. butz, boss ; Arm, 
boss ; F. bosse ; from G. boga ui, boga us, to bow out 
See But and Bud. 

BosvEL, #. a kind of ranunculus ; F. bois belle, beauty 
of the wood. 

BoTARGO, #. the roe of the mullet potted ; O. F. bota 
rogue, now botar gue; It. botar ga, potarga. See to 
Pot and Roe. 

Botch, s. 1. from the verb ; a patch, clumsy work. 

2. For Blotch ; a boil, a swelling ; It. bozo. 

Botch, v, a, to patch, to mend clumsily ; T. bietzen ; B. 
boetsen, from G. bota, to mend, bota shoe, a cobbler. 
See Patch. 

Both, a. of two ; P. bado, ba, with or by, and do, two ; 
S. batwa ; Swed. bada ; G. basde ; T. betde. G. and S. 
wit was the dual of we, signifying we two. 

Bother, v, a. to put out, to confuse ; from be out, I. 
buaidrasadh, confusion, trouble. 

BoTs, s, worms in the entrails of horses ; L. podices. 

Bottle, s. 1. a vessel to contain liquid ; G. buttd, dimi- 
nutive of butt, a cask; F. bouteiUe; It b<dticeUa. 

2. A bundle or truss of hay or straw ; G. bat, boti ; F. 
botte; Arm. boetel. See Bat. 

3. In forming the names of places ; S. botl; T. bitttel, a 
village. See Booth. 

Bottom, s. lowest part, foundation; G. boln, bond; P. 

bon; Swed. botten, bun ; T. boden ; B. bodene ; S. botn ; 

D. bund; W. bon ; fivifuf, fivin ; Ij,Jundum, 

Boud-worm, s, a meal worm ; It. biotto, ftom L. blatia. 

Bote, prep, higher than, superior to, beyond ; S. bqfan ; 
B. boven, from G. be qfan, over. 

Bouge, V, a, to swell out. See Bulge. 

Bough, s. arm or branch of a tree; G. bog; Swed. bog; 
S. buh. 

Bought, pret. and part. pass, of the verb to Buy ; M. G. 

Boulder, a. round, bullet-formed ; G. boUotur, 

Bounce, s, a bound, a sudden noise, a boast ; B. bons. 
See Bound and Boast. 

Bouncing-girl, a buxom girl ; G. bogansom, obedient, 
jolly. See Buxom. 

Bound, ^. 1. a limit; P. bund; G. baund; T. buind; O. 
F. bonne, an inclosure or boundary. See Pound and 
to Bind. 

2. A vault or spring, an elastic movement partaking of 
a curve ; G. bugand from bog, a bow or arch ; Vault 
and Curvet have the same meaning. See the verb. 

Bound, v, a. 1, from the noun ; to jump, to spring, to 
move in a curve; F.bondir; W, pontiaw is also to 
bound, from resembling the arch of^a bridge. 

2. From the noun ; to limit 

Bound, ore^ and part. pass, of the verb to Bind ; as I am 

bouna by law, or by charter. 
Bounty, s. geaenmij, munifioenoe, kindness; F. bant^ 

from L. bonUas. 




BouRo. #. a oorporatHm town ; See Bubg and Borough. 
BouBOBON^ o. a. to bud or Bhoot ; F. bourgeoner, from L. 


Bov^oifS. l.a limitya boundary; G. brun ren; F. home: 
O^y. See Bbow. 

2. A brook^ a rivulet ; C. brunna from the verb to Bun ; 
S. brmn; Swed. brun; B. 6roiiy T. bam; Scot 6«nt. 

BousB^ V. a. to drink lavishly ; B. bmzen ; F. boUsm, 
drink, from L. B. bibaiio, bSbax, 

BouT^ #. a tum^ trial, a round ; G. bogt ; S. bugt ; M. G. 
6itiA<; corresponding with It voUa, from L. twlm>. 

BouTB, s, a match, a candle ; G. 6iito ; F. bomte^ a match; 
Swed. M/a, to kindle, should properly be bdia eld. 

BouTEFBU, s. a firebrand, an incendiary ; F. bomtrfem, 
from bonUt a match, nnAfeu, It. focus ; Swed. fyrb^ 
tare. See Boute. 

BouTiSALB, 8. a sale by setting up a lighted match or 
small piece of candle, during the burning of which 
any person may bid. See Bouts and Sails. 

Bow, V. a. to bend, stoop, curve, submit; G. buga; Swed. 
boya; S. bugen; T. oUgen; B. buigen; P. buge. 

Bow, #. 1. from the verb ; a reverence, abaisance, bending 
of the body. 

2. An instrument to shoot arrows ; G. boge; Swed. bog ; 
D. hue; S. bog; T. bogen; B. boog; I. boge; W. bwa. 

3. The round stem of a ship ; Swed. bog, signifying also 
a shoulder. 

4. A roll, a quire of paper, a volume. See Book. 

5. The ardi of a bridge, a fiddlestick, the double string 
of a slip knot, a net fixed on hoops. See to Bow. 

Bowel, #. a gut, an entrail ; O. bcelg; T. bauchlein ; B. 
beuUng, from belly ; fiiXn ; L. botillus ; It budello ; 
Aim.bouzel; F. boyel, a gut, a pudding. 

BowBB, s. in the present acceptation of the word, signi- 
fies a seat shaded with boughs, an arbour ; D. buur 
signifying a cage, is G. and Swed. bur ; S. bur ; T. 
hauer, a dwelling, an apartment, from G. bua. 

BowBB«ANCHOB, s. with US, appears to be named from 
the bow of the ship ; but in B. from having a buoy 
attached to it. 

Bowl, s. the hollow of a cup, a wooden ball, a round 
mass ; G. D. S. boUa ; Arm. bed. The G. word signi- 
fied rotundity, either concave or convex. 

BowLiNB, 8. a cord fastening the sails in a ship ; Swed. 
boglina, bolin ; B. boelyn ; F. boline. See cunt and 


BowsPBiT, s. the mast projecting from the bow of a 
ship. See Sprit. 

Box, *. 1. a case of wood; S. box, bosg ; B. bus; T. buchse; 
Arm. boest ; F. boete, signify a hon ox tube, and are 
supposed to be from L. buxus ; Russ. and Scot boss, 
means hollow, void. 

2. A shrub ; L. buxus. 

Box-H069> «. folding breeches, trunk hose; G. and Swed. 
byx, probably from boga, to fold ; D. buxur; B. boksen, 
supposed by some to be merely corrupted from G. 
brakes, breeches. 

Box, V. a. to fight with fists ; Swed. bocka ; T. boekm ; 
B. beuken ; f. buquer, signify to strike, or probably to 
butt like a buck goat ; and it is possible that this may 
have been the origin of our word ; for in America, 
butting was more used than what is now called box- 
^^- nii{; L. pugio ; Romance puis, however, signify 
the fist 

BoT, s. a male diild, a lad ; P. buck ; O. bmog, hmck, 
puik ; D. pog ; Swed. bagge ; L buau The root of 
this word, of Jock, Jack and Peggy, seems to be 6. 
tig; I. og, young. Arm. bucUl, and F. pmc^au, are 
from L. pueUus. 

Bbabblb, o. a. to clamour, to brawl ; G. ropa, to call 
out, produced B. beraep, altercation, and its frequen- 
tative brabbeL 

Bbacb, «. 1. a support, stay, energy ; Arm. breech ; W. 
braich ; It braccia ; F. bras, from L. bracJdum the 
arm, strength. 

2. A clasp, a bracket, a couple, a pair ; from L. brachia; 
a LSASH required a string. 

Bbace, v. a. from the noun; to hold together, to 

strengthen, tighten. 
Bbacblet, s. an ornament for the arm ; L. bracUoBs ; 

F. bracelet. 
Bback, s. a kind of dog used in the chase; G. brmkk; 

T. brak; F. braque ; It bracco; apparenUy the same 

with BACK, but supposed to be from rauck, smell. See 

Bback, s. a breach, a rupture. See to Bbbak. 

Bbackbt, s. a cramp, a stay. It bracietta. See Bbacx. 
Bbackish, a. saltish ; G. bar, a tide; A. bara, the sea. 
See Bbine. 

Bead, s. a point, a nail without a head; G. brodde; Swed. 

and D. brad ; W. bruyd. 

Bbao^ v. a. to affect bravery, to vaunt ; G, braga^ iroAv 
(from which we have our word brave; Id. brag; 
Swed. braee, a hero ; bragur, an extoller, a heroic 
poet, a ham,) D. bragska ; Arm. braga; P. braquer, 
to extol. See BBAVAna 

Bbagoet, s. a liquor made by mixing honey with water 

and aromatic herbs ; W, bragod ; l^ot bragmart. See 

Bbaid, v. a. to plait, to knit, to wreath; IsL br^da; S. 

bredan ; T. briden, from G. bry, a point, a knitting 

needle. See Bboideb. 

Bbaid, s. 1. from the verb ; a tress, a plait 

2. A sudden movement, a turn, a nod, a wink ; G. brad; 
Swed. bragd, from G. and Swed. bregda, to change, 
auga braga, a turn of the eye. 

Bbail, s. a brace line in a ship ; F. bresle, brile, breuitter, 
to reef. See Bbace. 

Bbain, s. the soft substance within the scull, sense, un- 
derstanding; G. kuam; Swed. hierna; O. £. hame ; 
B. brein ; S. bragin ; T. pregin, corresponding with 

Bbait, a. unpolished, rude ; F. brute; L. rudus. 

Bbake, 1. I. a thicket of brambles or fern ; D. br^^ ; 
Scot, bracken ; Arm. bruhag ; Swed. braecka, signifies 
to bum or heat ; for which purpose fern la stilTttfled. 
See Lino and Fbbn. 

2. Brushwood ; D. brtek ; B. bruig; Swed. brmek, ftom 
the verb to Brbak. 

3. A machine to crush flax ; Swed. brctck ; T. breche ; B 
braecke. See to Bbeak. 

4. A bit for young horses ; and also the body of a carri- 
age to tram them ; S. breac ; T. brauch. See Bbbak, 
to tame, to accustom. 

5. The handle of a pump. L. brachium. 
Bbamblb, s. the blackberry bush ; G. hramber; Swed. 

brambasr; T. brombeer; S. br^mbel, brier herrj ; T. 
bramt a prickle. 


B R E 

Bban, 1. the husks of corn when ground ; F. bran ; It. 
hrano ; Arm. and W. hrann. S^ Bbat> to grind. 

Branch, s, the limb of a tree, an arm of the sea; F. 
brancke; Arm. brank ; ^t^xf^f ; L. bracMum. 

Brand, «. 1. a burning coal, lighted stick, mark of burn- 
ing; met. infamy. G. Swed. 8. D. T. B. brand, fitnn 
G. brina. See to Burn. 

2. A burnished sword; G. brandur; It brando; fiom 
bruna. See Burnish. 

Brand new, a, newly polished ; from G. bruna* 

Brandish, i;. o. to flourish or wave like a sword ; Sp. 
brandear ; It. brandire ; F. brander, brandiller. See 

Brandling, s. a worm so named from its brindled 

Brandy, s. a spirit distilled from wine ; T. brande wein, 
burnt wine. 

Branole, v. a. to squabble, to bewrangle. See 

Brank, s. buck wheat ; Arm. brank, brae, barac, said 

ancientlj to have been the general Celtic name for 

grain. See Barley and Bread. 

Brank ursine, s. an herb called acanthus; L. B. 
branca ursina. See Bears breech. 

Brant goose, s. so named from its burnt colour ; B. 
brand gans ; Scot brannit, 

Brasibr, s, 1. a pan for holding fire ; F. brasier ; Sp* 
brasero, from (z. and Swed. brasa ; fi^ti, to bum. 
See Breeze. 

2. One who works in brass. 

Brass, s.l.a hard yellow metal; P. braj, burinj ; S. 
brass ; Swed. breni ass, purified copper. See Bronze. 

2. Impudence, effrontery; G. braz, assumed countenance, 
from bregda, to deceive. See Face. 

Brass, a, made of brass, brasen, impudent 

Brat, s. h A child ; G. berat ; Heb. bera, bar, berat ; 
W. bragat, a birth, what is brought forth. See Bairn, 
to Bear and Bring. 

2. A rag, a tatter, fragment, refuse ; G. brat, what is 
broken. See Brittle. 

3. A covering, a coarse apron, a smock frock, mean 
clothing; and in Scot signifyini^ scum or cream 
rising on milk ; G. and Swed. bregda, breiia ; S. bras^ 
tan, gebrtedan, to assume a different form, to change 
or dress, produced brat; S. bratt ; W. brath; cor- 
responding with our words shift and sham. See to 

Bravado^ s. affected courage ; It bravado, bravazzo, a 
pretender to bravery ; Scot bravery. See to Brag. 

Brave, a. bold^ generous, excellent ; G. brage^ excellent ; 
Isl. brage, a hero ; G. brake ; Swed. br^ ; B. braaf; 
D. andT. bran ; F. brave; It Sp. Port bravo; Arm. 
brao; I. bra; Scot, braw, gallant, courageous, ex- 
cellent, fine, adorned, and courageous, in the same 
sense that L. probus produced prowess. The word 
has not been mtroduced into M. G. or S. except as 
brege, a chie£ 

Bravery, #. eoun^, magnanimity ; and formerly gal- 
lantry, finery. See Brave. 

Brawl, v. a. to riot, to bully ; F. bravtUir, to affect 
bravery, to bravado, has been confounded with braiU 
ler ; B. brtUlen, to roar. See Bray. 

Brawl, s, 1. firom the verb ; a squabble, a great noise. 

2. A kind of dance ; F. branle; Sp. brando; It brand9, 
branla ; Scot brangel, from L. vibrando. 

Brawn, s. 1. boar's flesh ; L. aprugna; T. ebem. See 

2. Muscular flesh ; i^yfrnt ; L. brachiuni, strength, nerve. 
Brawny, a. from brawn; muscular, nervous, fleshy, 

Bray, s. in fortification, called also bas encdnte, is firom 
F. braye. See Breeches. 

Bray, v. a 1. to beat in a mortar, to pound, to grind ; 
F. broker; Arm. bremo; W. briwo. See to Break. 

2. To roar, to ciy like an ass; G. braska ; Swed. brosga, 
correspond with fi^dx^f; but Sp. borricare; F. bratre, 
are from borrico, a jack ass. See Brock. 

Brayl, s. the tail of a hawk ; T. brayer, from braye, 
the breech. See Breeches. 

Brazen, v. a. to be impudent or bold, to face a story 
out See Brass. 

Breach^ *. a gap, a rupture, a firacas ; Swed. brdck ; F. 
brecke. See to Break. 

Bread, s. food in general, victuals ; but particularly, 
now, what is made of ground com ; Isl. brcaid ; Swed. 
brod; S. breod, brod; D. breed; T. brod, brot; B. 
brood; Heb. barout ; /^tnk' JHeb. Syr. Sans. P. bar\; 
T. bere ; Arm. bara; W. bara; I. bar, appear to 
have the same origin with our bear, to bring forth, 
and signify, like L.Jruges, edible produce. Thus also 
L. far is from fero ; S. pic brod, pig's bread, was an 
aoom, and T. sow bread denotes, as with us, the root 
of the Cyclamen. G. brigga was a modification of 
the verb to bear; and brae, barac, is said to have 
been anciently the general name among Europeans 
for com. See Barley, Berry, Brank, Brew, 
Bear, Breed, Bhino. 

Break, it. a. 1. to fracture, to part by fbrce, crush, ruin ; 

G. breka; Heb. berek; A and P, bruqa; Eolian 

^fiytM»; T. brechen ; B. breeken; S. brecan; Swed. 

br&ka; Isl. braka ; I. bracam ; W. brigu ; Arm. brica, 

frica; L.frago,frango. 

2. To change, to assume a different form or appearance, 
to falsify; G. brega, bregda; S. brcegdan; Swed. 
bregda tru, to breaJc faith ; Scot breM, to deceive. 
With the Goths break of day, signified either the 
dawn or close of day; Isl. bregda lit, to change 
colour or countenance. See Barter. 

3. To accustom, to manage, to habituate, to tame ; G. 
breuka; S. brucan ; T. brauchen, brechen. See to 

Bream, s. a fish of the carp kind ; Swed. bressem ; B. 
braessm ; T. braehsem, bresm ; F. breme ; L. B. bra^ 
ma, abramis ; bright or brightsome, seems to have 
been the meaning of the G. name ; but some suppose 
Abrands to be from Auramen. See Bresse. 

Breast, s. part of the bodv, the thorax, the heart; G. 
briost ; Swed. brdst ; T. bruste ; B. borst ; S. breost ; 

P. bar. 

Breath, s. air drawn in and thrown out of the lungs ; 
As#; G. and T. athem, ahr of life; S. oraih, broth; T. 
brodem. See the verb. 

Breathe, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to draw breath, to 
rest ; S. oethian, bnethian. 

2. To nierce, to open a vein ; G. brydda ; Swed. br&da ; 

W. oratku, to puncture. See Brad and Broides. 
Bred, pret. and part, pass, of the verb to Breed. 

B R 1 

B R 

Bree, s, a kind of gad fly ; 6. bry; ITii^ ; D. brems. See 

Breecb, «. the division of tlie legs, the backside, the 
hinder part ; G. brek, a division, a fork ; Swed. bfwk ; 
T. bruche; S. brae; W. breg ; I. brisiig. See 

Breeches, s, clothing for the breech or backside ; 6. 
bnekur, brakes ; S. broCy brae, braccas ; Arm. braghis; 
I. brigU; W. brycean; It. braccas ; L. bracca ; F. 
braves ; but perhaps in another sense from 6. 6re^> 
6roi / W. brych : Arm. hrech ; I. 6reac, party colour- 
ed; I. briBcan, tartan cloth. The Gralli Braccati 
perhaps derived their name from that kind of clothing ; 
for coloured hose among the Helvetii was said to have 
been a dress of honour. 

Breed, v. a. to produce, generate, bring up, educate ; 
S. brytian, bredan ; T. baeren, from O. bera. See 
to Bear, to Bring, Brood and Brat. 

Breeze, j. 1. a gentle gale, a light wind ; 6. byr; D. 
b(Br ; B. breeze ; F. brise ; It. brezza ; Port, brizo, a 
wafting air, from the verb to Bear. See Gale. 

2. The gad fly, the Bree ; 8. briose ; B. brems ; It. brissio ; 
W. bruth, from G. bry, brodde, a point or sting. See 


3. cinders, burnt coals; F. braise; It bragia. See 

Breme, a. furious, fierce, stormy ; G. brim ; S. bretn. 

Bre88E, Bresm, s. a fish ; See Bream. 

Bret, s. a kind of flat fish ; T. breti ; F. bertonneau, 

either from broad or G. breii ; W. brith, spotted. See 

Brevet, s. from Brief, a letter patent ; F. brevet. 

Brew, v. a. to infuse grain in water ; but now princi- 
pally for the purpose of makin|^ fermented liquor; 
G. brjgga ; D. brtege; Swed. brtgga ; S. briwan; T. 
and B. brarven ; Russ. barw ; W. braga. The word 
appears to be cognate with S. brug ; Scot, and I. 
brochan; W. brtvchan, a farinaceous mixture. F. 
brasser; L. B. bracho, braxo, may be from brae, barac, 
grain. See Braooet, Bread, Brewis, Broth. 

Brbwis, s. bread soaked in fat potage; S. briu ; T. 
brosam ; W. bryrves ; Scot, brose. See Broth. 

Bribe, *. a gift to pervert honesty ; G. bry fm ; S. bred 
fcR, a perverting fee. See Break, to change, to falsi- 

BricKj *. a piece of burnt clay ; F. brique; Arm. briek ; 
It. bruchia, terra abruehiata, from G. and Swed. brmka, 
brasa ; It. bruggio, to bum. 

Bride, s. a new married woman ; Q. 6ru£^ ; Swed. and 
D. brud; B. bruid; T. braut; S. Aryrf/ Arm. finerfy 
W. prtM^ ,• from G. reda, 6ere<to ; S. beredian ; T. ^- 
ro/en, to betrothe^ to solemnize legally. G. rad ; T. 
heyrath, signified marriage ceremony, and S. bryd, 
was applied to any married woman. 

Bridewell, s. a house of correction ; formerly St 
Bride's hospital. 

Bridob, s. a platform or arch over water ; G. bro, brigg; 
Swed. brysgia; T. brueke; S. brieg; D. br^; Russ. 
6ftMf> borod; F. barah, from the verb to Bear. 

Bridle, « . a bit with reins, for governing a horse ; G. 
bridol from ride, and o/, a strap or rein ; bUd, a bit 
rein; Swed. Intul; T. brittel; B. 6ryife/y F. bride; It. 

Brief, a. concise, short ; L. broAs ; F. frr^; It irteve. 

Bribf, 1. a short extract, a letter patent; G. bref; T. 
brief; S. 6raice / F. brevet; It. 6nwe / all firam !«. ^re^ 

Brier, s, a prickly bush, a bramble, a wild rote tree ; 
G. bry; 8. brter; I. brier; W. broth; a prickle. 

Brio, «. a ship with two masts. See Brioantink. 

Brigade, s. a party or division of soldiers; F. brigade; 
It brigata ; Sp. brigada. See Brigb. 

Brigand, ^. an associated robber, a freebooter, a smug- 
gler ; F. brigand ; It brigante. See Brigb. 

Brioantine, s. a ship with two masts ; F. briganHne ; 
It brigantino, a pirate, a smuggler, either from brig' 
ante or G. berga to protect See Brigand. 

Brige, Brioue, s. contention, controversy, a fiictioo, 
combination ; L. B. briga ; F. brigue ; It. briga ; Sp. 
brega ; supposed to be from G. and Swed. brigdtu 
See Broil. 

Bright, a. clear, shining, splendid; G. biart, bart; M. 
G. bairt; S. beort, breaht, bry hi ; T. bert, brecki; W. 
berth; Swed. bar; G. ber, dart, our bare, signified 
not only naked, but manifest, clear, conspicuous, illas> 

Brill, s. a kind of flat fish ; W. brythyl ; Arm. brezd, 
a general name for spotted fishes. See Prill and 

Brilliant, s. a fine diamond ; F. brilliant ; It brillaaU; 
T. and D. brille, a magnifying glass ; supposed to be 
from beryl, which anciently was greatly esteemed, and 
used in sorcery. 

Brilliant, a. shining, sparkling, resplendent 

Brim, s. the upper edge, the top ; G. brim, brin ; T. 
brdm ; S. brymm ; Swed. bram. See Rim and Brink. 

Brim, v. a. to become salacious or in heat ; G. brima. 
See Brine. 

Brimstone, Brinstone, s. sulphur ; from G. brinna. 
See to Burn. 

Brindle, V, a, frequentative of brand, to variegate by 
fire, to produce different shades of singed colour. See 

Brine, s. the sea, melted salt ; S. brein, bryn, brym ; G. 
bara, the tide, the sea. 

Bring, v, a, to bear, fetch, conduct, produce, breed ; 
G. brigga ; M. G. brisgan ; Swed. brtnga ; D. bringe; 
S. brytian, bryeean, onngan ; T. baeren, bringen ; B. 
brengen. In the pret. and perf. tenses it became, in 
different dialects, brigt, bngd, brid, brat, brot, brogl, 
brokt. See to Bear and Breed. 

Brink, s. the edge of any place ; G. btryn ; Swed. 
brink ; T. and D. brink. See Brow and Brim. 

Brisk, a. lively, gay, sprightly, vigorous; G. rouk ; 
T. riseh, vrysg, breisk; B. fresek, brask; F. brusque. 
See Frisk and Brush. 

Brisket, s, the breast of an animal ; F. brichet. 

Bristle, s. hair on the back of swine ; G. byst, borst ; 
B. borstel ; S. brustle. See Bur and Brush. 

Brittle, a. frangible, easily broken; G. briia; Is). 
briota ; Swed. bryta ; S. brytan, to break, to divide. 

Broach, s. a spit, a tap, a point, pin, breast buckle ; 
G. brodde ; Swed. brodd; \V. brtvyd ; F. broche. See 
Broch and Broider. 

Broad, a. wide, extended, open ; G. braid; Swed. bred; 
S. brad; T. breit ; B. breed ; P. burdur. 

BtLQCADE, s, a silk or stuffy variegated with gold or 

B R O 

silver, embroidery; F. brocade; It hroccaia, from 
Broach. See Embroider. 

Broccoli, s. a species of cabbage ; plur. of It broccolo, 
sprout of cole. See Cacliflowbr. 

Brock, s. a badger; D. broakj S. broc ; F. broc ; It 
burco, apparently from 6. brak, brok, a scream, a 
yell. The imitation of bearbaiting is known to be 
a favourite amusement with the Laplanders. In the 
same manner, the brock was represented by the de- 
scendants of the Picts, in Britain, during the long 
nights. The actor began by imitating the first cry 
of the animal and of tne dogs, which he varied with 
great humour, in the different movements of attack 
and defence, till the scene closed with the triumphant 
shout of the hunters. See Gbat. 

Brocket, s, a young deer, whose horns appear point- 
ed ; F.brocari, from Broach. See Priokbt,Spitter, 
and Bur. 

Brooe, v. a, to strike eels with a spit; Scot, bt^, a 
prong. See Broach. 

Brogue, country accent, particularly of the Irish; 
I. brog, bruac; W. bra aeg, from bro, country, and 
aeg, speech. 

2. A shoe made of raw leather ; I. bro gwen, a country 
shoe ; W. gwintas, shoes. 

Broider, v. a. to adorn with figures in needle work ; 

Q. iroda ; D. brode ; W. brodw; F. brodir, from G. 

brodde, a point. See Brocade. 
Broil, v. a, to roast on the fire, to grill ; F. bnUer, brus* 

ler ; It brustolare, from fi^ti^ti ; U. brasa, brasta. See 

Broker, s. one who acts as agent, a factor ; B. bruiker ; 

T. braucher ; G. brakunar, brukunar, an accustomed 

person, one who understands affairs and languages ; 

S. broce, knowledge. See to Brook and to Break. 

Bronze, s. brass, copper colour ; It bronzo ; F. bronze; 
P. burinj, perhaps from G. bruna; F. brunir, to 
burnish, and L. as. See Brass. 

Brooch, s, a ring, a clasp ; G. and Swed. braiz, braz ; 
T. bratTX ; L. Sractea, a clasp. See Broach. 

Brood, s. the young of animals, particularly of birds ; 

Swed. burd ; T. brut; S. brod, byrd» See Bird, 

Brat, and Bring. 
Brood, v, from the noun ; to produce young, to hatch, 

to sit on eggs; to meditate, in the sense of L. incubo; 

B. broedan. See to Breed. 

Brook, v. to accustom, endure, habituate, use ; G. bruka; 
S. brucan ; T. brauchen ; D. bruge ; B. bruiken. See to 

Brook, s. a small stream, a rivulet ; G. broka ; S. bruck ; 
B. broek ; P. birku. 

Brooklixe^ s. a plant found near brooks. See Bog* 


Broom, $. a shrub, a species of genista ; T. broem ; S. 
brom ; B. brem ; G. 6ry ; W. ber, a point, a prickle. 

Broth, s. the liquor flesh is boiled in, but originally 
any liquid preparation of sodden herbs or meal ; S. 
broth; T. br4he; B. bruwe; It brodo; Arm. berwad. 
See to Brew. 

Brothel, s. a bawdy house. See Bordbl. 

Brothbr, 8. a male of children bom of the same par- 
ento; G. broder; M. G. brother; T.bruder; S. brothur; 

. Swed. broder; D. broder; B. broeder; P. brader, birader; 
Heb. berith; ^^ihn^; Sclav. Russ. PoL Bohem. bradr. 

B U C 

broth; Arm. braud; W. brodor; Lbrather; h. f rater; It 
Sp. Fort. /rate; F.frere; G. brud, byrd: B^imw, a foetus; 
W. bru, the womb ; Chal. Heb. P. Syr. bar, a child, 
are all cognates of our verb to Bear. See Brat, 
Bairn, Birth. 

Brought, /Nzr^.po^f. of the verb to Bring ; Swed. 6ro^// 

D. bn^ ; S. brohte. 
Brow, a. the edge of a place, the forehead ; G. bruy brun; 

Swed. bryn ; S. brasw ; T. braw. See Brink. 
Browbeat, v. a. to depress, bear down, dismay; to 

make the countenance fall. But perhaps G. and S. 

brog; W. braw, terror, may be the word. 
Brown, a. a dark reddish colour; G. brune; Swed. 

brun, braun; T. brown; S. brun; B. brum; F. brun; It 

bruno, from G. brina, to bum, correspondinyBr with 

Brown Bill, *. a polished battle ax ; from G. bruna ; 
Swed. brifna, to polish ; It brum, bright, and bUl, an 

Browse, v, a. to feed on young shoots or branches of 
trees; It broscare; F. brouter, from L. abrodo, or 
B^mncm; but see Brushwood. 

Bruisb, v. a. to crush, beat, mangle; S. brysan; T. 
brisen; B. bryzin; Arm. brUa; F. briser. See to Bray. 

Bruit, *. noise, report, rumour ; Arm. bruit ; F. bruit ; 
Sp. ruido. See Bout. 

Brunt, $. shock, act of violence; Swed. branad; B. brand, 
ardour, vehemence, from G. brenna, to bum. 

Brush, «. 1. an instrument made of bristles or hair; 
Swed. borst; D. bar$t; F. broise. See Bristle. 

2. A sudden effort, a strenuous act, an assault; G. 
brash, bradska; Swed. brosdska; Scot brash; B. brush; 
F. brusque; It brosco, impetuous. 

Brushwood, «. young trees or branches that are stunted 

by cattle;^ T. brusch; F. brusc, brosse, brossaUte; It 

brosca. See Browse and Risewood. 
Brustle, v. a. 1. to crackle like the burning of sticks ; 

S,brasiUan; T.brasteln, from G. brasa; Swed. brasta, 

to bum. 

2. To raise the bristles like a boar or hedgehog. See 

3. To make a noise like the rubbing of silk. See Rus- 

Brute, s, an irrational animal; from L. brutus; F. 
brute; It. bruto. 

Bubble, s. a small bladder of air in water ; L. buUabula ; 
Sp. bubuUa; Swed. bubla ; B. bobble; Sans, boolboola. 
BuBBT, s. a woman's breast; It poppa, boppa. See Pap. 
Bubo, s. a swelling in the groin ; fiMt. 

Buccaneers, s. a name assumed by pirates oii the coast 
of America, from boucan, a kind of wooden frame us- 
ed by the savages of Cayenne tor drying flesh or fish. 
See Barbecue. 

Buck, s, I. the male of deer and goats ; G. Swed. T. B. 
boch; S. bucc; Sans, boh; P. booz; /3iin»; W. bwch ; 
Arm. bouc ; F. bouc ; It becco. 

2. A tub or cask; G. bauh; S. buc; B. bah. 

3. A lie for washing, urine; T. bauch, lauch, laug, 
which seem to be ibrmed from ach, auch, aug, water. 
See Lie. 

Buck, v. a. to wash with lie; T. bauchen ; Swed. byha ; 

F. buquer; Arm. buga ; It bucaia ; Sp. bugada, a wash* 

ing. See the noun. 
BucoKUAN, s. marsh trefoil See Boobban. 

B U F 

B U L 

BuoKBT, #. diminutive of buck ; a small tub ; Arm. 

hugei ; ¥. haquet. 
Buckle, «* a circle, a link, a small rinff for ftstening a 

shoe, a ringlet, an ornamental curl of hair ; G. haug ; 

T. bauMn ; Swed. Imkkel, huckla ; W. and. Arm. bemcl; 

I. bucki; F. btmde, from G. boga, to bow, or curve; 

whence F. bagme, 
6voKi«EB, 1. a shield, a target ; supposed to be cognate 

with BUCKLB, in the sense of circular ; as G. roniM^ 

was also a shield ; but G. bog ; Swed. bog, signified 

the shoulder ; and leder, a skin, leather, was contracts 

ed into ler ; B. leer. See Bow. 

BcMJKBAM, 8. a kind of cloth stiffened with gum ; but 
formerlv called treliit from ito lattice-like texture ; 
It buenerame, from bucaro, buchero, to make a hole ; 
buca, an aperture ; F. boucran. See Bocassin. 

BocKBAMs, s. wild garlic ; from buck a goat, and rams. 

Buckthorn, s. a kind of prickly bush ; D. bukketom. 
Its botanical name Tragacantha has the same mean- 

Buckwheat, J. a grain called Saracen and Turkish wheat 
S. boc hueaie, boeckweyt, from its resembhince to beech 
mast. See Beech and Whbat. 

Bud, 8. the first shoot of a plant ; S. bula ; T. butz ; B. 
bot ; W. bot ; F. b(mUm, See Boas and But. 

Bud, v. a. to put forth the germ of leaves ; B. baiten; 

T. bau88en ; F. boulonner. See the noun. 
Budge, v. n. to cede, to stir^ to move off; G buga ; S. 

bugan ; Swed. botja ; D. boge; F. bouger. 
BuDOB, a. bluff, surly, formal; G. bolg; S. baslg, bolg; 

W. 6dcA, puffed up, arrogant, angry. See Bouob. 
Budge, 8. lambskin prepared like fur; from G. baug; 

Swed. bqf, a curl. See Buckle and Bay yabk. 
Budgbt, 8. a wallet, a sack ; F. bougette; D. bueet, from 

G. baslg; T. balg; L. B. bulga; It bfigia, volgia, boU 

Buff, 8. 1. a put off, a refusal ; from Be offy as Doff for 

Do off; he would neither buff nor stay ; he was un- 

2. A blow, a stroke ; Swed. boff; B. boff; D. puff; F. 
bouffe ; L. B. buffo ; Umim ; L. pavw. 

3. leather made from buffalo skin, any thing of that 
colour, the human skin. 

Buff, v. a, from the noun ; to beat, to cuff. 

Buffalo, 8, a kind of wild bull ; L. bubuhu ; It. buffalo ; 

Buffet, 8. 1. diminutive of buff ; a blow witli the hand, 

a box on the ear ; It. boffetio. 

2. A cupboard for plate, glass or china used in drink- 
ing; F. bouvette; It buffeito, bivioio, a, drink-stand, 
from bivo, L. bibo. 

3. A low footstool with two pieces of board instead of 
feet ; S. bufet, both feet, bipedal. 

Buffle, a. ^ick-headed, dull, stupid ; from buffalo, as 
German ochsig, oxlike, signifies bull-headed, dull; 
but F. bouffi, Scot buffer, thick-chop, Jolter-head, 
seem to be derived from L. bucca, which m Lombar- 
dy is bufo. 

Buffle, v. it. to be puzzled, at a loss, stupid. See the 

Buffoon, *. a merry andrew ; It. buffone ; F. bouffon ; 
It bdffa, beffa, seem to be T. affen, beaffen, to ape, to 
mimic ; but Sp. momo,fqfo, gmo, btrfo, are all perhaps 
from M«ffMf ; iBolian v^mh , wnich ttgnified inoeeency. 

scandal, obkxmy, obscenity, and all such mirdi aa de- 
lighted the gods of the Gredis. In Lombardy 4 however, 
bufo, from L. bucca, signified -the mouth, and was tt>- 

EUed to those who imule comic grimaces to excrte 
lughter. The Italians believe it to be from L. ht^ 
a tMd, which, in anger, is said to puff and awdL 

Bug, 8. 1. a stinking insect ; It bozza, pozxa ; AmL pug; 
F. punaise, from L. puteo. 

2. Fear, terror, fright ; G. bugg, from t^ / S. o^, ter- 
ror ; P. bak ; A. bau ; W. bw, buog ; I.l^ka. Ogre, a 
term in heraldry, signifying a monster, a buUy, a 
giant, is also from Oga. See to Cow. 

3. Bulky, large, great See Bio. 

Bugbear, s. a frightful object ; from bug, terror, and 
be ogre, a frightener. See Bull-bbgoab. 

BuGOBB, 8. a sodomite ; F. bougre, is said to be a eor- 
rupt pronunciation ci£ Bulgaria, whence the Albigenses 
received their religious tenets ; and in the cry Msinst 
heresy, every crime was imputed to heretics. Ketier, 
in German, signified a heretic and a sodomite. 

BuGOV, 8. a small wheeled carriage ; G. and D. (mf^, 

a cradle, a large basket 
BuGLOSs, 8. the herb ox-tongue ; L. bugUueue. 
Build, v. a. to erect an edifice ; G. bua, bulada ; Swed 

bua, bylja, to construct a dwelling ; S. boU, an edifice. 
Bulge, v. a. 1. to spread out as a ship does when fi«c- 

tured by striking on the ground ; G. bulga / Swed. 

bulgja, to swell out, protuberate. 

2. To take in water, to leak. See Bilgb-watbb. 
Bulk, 8. magnitude, quantity ; G. bulke; Swed.bolk; B. 

bulke, buike ; Sp. buque, from G. bol; Swed. b (^ large, 


Bull, in composition, signifies great, large. See Bulk. 

Bull, 8. 1. the male of black cattle; Sans, bual; Hind. 
buel; P. bahal; A. bu, bukal, hakar; fiu; L. bubalu8;S. 
and B. buU; W. bual; G. 6m, ba^l; Swed. bdl, signifiad 
properly farming cattle, including oxen. 

2. A sealed letter, a short written document, authorised ; 
L. bulla ; It bolla ; F. bulle, signifying originally a seal ; 
but when applied to a mandate of the Pope, supposed 
to be fiuxii, counsel. 

3. An equivocal expression, a blunder; I. W, jphrase or 
fashion, may be cognate with W. biau, peculiar. 

4. A fright, contracted from boggle ; B. buUe. See Bvq, 
BuLL-BEGGAB, 8. a bully, a frightener ; supposed to de- 
note the insolence of Uiose who begged on authority 
of the Pope's bull or mandate ; but me word was pro- 
bably Bull, a fright, and be ogre, a terrifier, as in bug" 
bear. See Bullt Back and Bug. 

Bullfinch, 8. a bird called in L. rubiciUa ; T. blodfinke, 
bloodfinch. It is also known as the Alp, Olp, Ouph, 
Nolp, Nope, from G. olpa, a priest's hood. 

BuLLACE, 8. a wild plum ; Arm. boloe ; I. bulo8. Round 
fruits, or capsules of herbs, were called bul or bUl, 
both by the Celts and Gkyths. 

Bullet, 8. a round ball of lead or iron ; G. boll; Arm. 
b(dol ; F. boulet. See Ball and Bowl. 

Bullion, 8, gold or silver either in mass or of uncer- 
tain standard ; F. billon ; Sp. billon. It boUoni, fitrni 
L. bulla, signified every kind of metal ornament worn 
by the people, which was collected by agents lor the 
use of the mint Something of the same kind seems 
to have occurred in Spain, where it iua called velkm, 

Bullock, e. a young ox or bull ; S. buUacm ; L. bubul' 
CU8. See Bull. 


B U E 

BuLLTy s, a noisy blustering fellow, one who endea- 
vours to inn>ire others with fear ; B. hmUemaiu See 
Bull and Buo. 

BuLLYBAOK, BuLLTBUO, 9. a fH^itening bully; B. 
btdkbak. See Bully and Buow 

Bulwark, s. a fortification, security*; O. hohoerk ; 
Swed. and B. Mwerk; either ftam bol, jpreat, or 6. 
boly the trunk of a tree; F. bouievard; It bolvardo, 
have G. ward, defence, instead of work, labour. 

Bum, s» the backside ; contracted from bottom ; B. bom ; 
P. Swed. W. and I. bon. See Bottom. 

Bum bailiff, 9, a beadle bailiff, a messenger who arrests ; 
G. bodum ; S. bodt; B. boo, a message ; but some su]>- 
pose the word to be properly Bound Bailiff, firom his 
giving security to the sheriu. See Bbadlb. 

Bum boat, 9, a message or errand boat ; from G. boium* 
See Bum bailiff. 

Bump, 9. a blow, or the lump raised on the skin by a 
blow ; Isl. bom'p ; n«/M^«f . 

Bump, v. a. from the noun ; to strike to sound like a 
thump ; Isl. bompa. 

BuMPEB, 9, a glass filled to the brim ; B. bov boord, 
above the border or edge. See Bbim. 

Bumpkin, 9. a down, a country lad; perhaps finr 
boobykin ; Swed. bondkin, a huAandman. See Boo- 

Bun, 9. a sweet cake ; It bugna ; F. big;n€t ; Sp. hunda ; 
IU99 was a honey cake offered to the gods, and S. beon 
bread, honeycomb. 

Bunch, 9. 1. a cluster, a knot; G. bmnd9i D. bmndi; 
Swed. bunt, tied together, a bundle, stopper. 

2. A hump, a boss ; Swed bunke, from Isl. bynga, to 

BuNDLB, 9. various things tied together, a package ; G. 

bindel; Swed. byndel; B. bonM, See to Bind. 

BuNQ, 9. a bunch, a plug, a stopper; D. bundt ; F. bon* 

don. See Bunch. 
BuNOHOLB, 9, the hole in a cask to receive the bong ; 

but with the vulgar bung is supposed to mean the 

BuNGLB, v. to botch, to stop up clumsily ; T. bunglen. 

See Bung and Cobblb. 

BvNOLBB, a. from the verb ; a patcher, a dumsy pieoer. 

See Cobblbb. 
Bunniom, 9, a wart, a round tumor ; It bugno; ^mmu 

Bunt, 9. a swelling, the middle part of a sail wiien fill- 
ed with the wind ; G. bogt ; S. buguni ; D. bug^ bugt : 
B. bogi, what bows out See to Bbnb. 

BfiNT, «. It. to swell out like the sail of a ship when fill- 
ed with wind. See the noun. 

BuNTXB, 9. a ragged wench, a slut; B. voien koer, 
from vod, a rag, a wad; but S. butan hure was a 
hedge whore, an outlier. 

Bunting, 9. 1. a kind of lark ; W. bontinaug, fkt nunp ; 

B. bunting, however, signifies qpeckled. 
2. A kind of thin open stuff used for ship's oolours ; 

corrupted from bolting cloth. 

BuoT^ 9. a float set in the water, a kind of tub fastened 
to die anchor of a sbip to mark where it lies ; B. boei; 
F. boye; It boya ; D. 6a^e. 

Bixnr» V. 0. to float, to elevate ; B. boeyon; opboe^fen. 
BuB, 9. 1. a prickle^ the head of the Burdodc ; O. bor. 

broddftLfobatiT. borrj 8*bor; D. and Swed. borre ; 

Scot, bur, a tlustle. 
2. The point of a deer's horn when piercing the skin* 

BuBBOT, 9. an eel pout; F. barbot, from its prickles or 

BuBDBN, 9. 1. a load ; P. burdan ; S. hyrden; G. burd ; 

Swed. borda ; S. beart : from bbab, to carry, as ^^iw 

from ^c^. 
2. The purport or beoringof a song ; but perhaps It. 

bordone; F. bourdon; W. byrdon, the bass or drone 

in music; G. bijar dyn, the sound of bees. 
BuBDOCX, 9. the Uiistle dock; L. B. bordacan / F. bar* 

dane. See Bub. 

BuBBAU, 9. a cabinet, a desk, an office; F. bureau^ ap- 
parency firom G. bur, an apartment ; S. hur, a cabinet. 

Bubo, Buboh, 9. a plaee of 8trength,a fortress, a walled 
town; A.6oor;/Chald. temutt/ nit^yni 8wed.bor£, 
a tower; G. om, biarg; S, beorg, a mounts a hill; 
G. 6org ,* S. T. B. burgj Arm. and L burg ; W. hwrg ; 

F. bourgj It borga, a walled town ; sometimes con- 
founded with Borough, whidi apparently has the 
same root in G. berga, to defend, oee Habboub and 


BuBOANBT, #. armour for the head; F. bourgenote, 
from G. bersa j S. beorgian, to defend, and kastp the 
head. See Habbbgbon. 

Ti*TAn»a» ' L '• ®^® ^^® ^"^ ^® freedom of a town or 
B^iB, P"«' *■• f^^e^' T. burger. 

BuBOLABT, 9. housebreaking; G. and S. bur, a dwdl- 
ing, and G. lerka, to brealK ; but Norman F. lory is 
from L. UUrocinium. 

BuBiNB, 9, a ffraving tool ; It burino ; F. burine, from 

G. bor, a point See to Bobb. 

BuBL, v. a. to raise the nap on doth with a bur or thistle ; 
F. bourler, 

BuBLBSQUB, 9. ridicule, lampoenenr ; It burluco ; F. 
burle9que, from It burlare ; Sweu. borla, to jest, to 

BuBLT, 0. 1« turbulent, boisterous; Swed. onAtg, be 
oroUg, the contrary of ro, bero, repose, quietness. 

2. Big, rustic, rude, properly Boorly. See Boob and 


BuBN, V. to consume by fire, to be hot; G. brenna, 
brina, perhiqps from arin, fire, P. buryan ; T. bren* 
nan ; S. biman, beman ; L. buro ; Heb. buur, from 
Chald. and Heb. ur; Uv^ ; L. pruina, 

BuBN, 9. a small stream of water, a rivulet; G. brun ; 
Swed. hrunn; T. brun^ bum; firom G. rinna; Isl. 
brynna, to run. 

BuBNXSH, V. a. to polish, make bright, G. bruna ; 

Swed. brynea; B. bruina9; F. bruner, bruni99tr ; 

Port bruncer; It brunire. 
BuBB, 9, a rim, the lobe of the ear ; contracted from 


BuBBEL PBAB, 9. F. beuri, buttery. 

BuBBBL FLY, 9. the gad fly. See Bbbb and Bub. 

BuBBBL SHOT, 9, case shot ; It borra ; F. bourre, bour- 

tM, from ^tUt. 
BuBBow, #. i. properly bobouoh, a corporation town. 
2. A hole in the ground, a den, a concealment See to 


BuBBOw, «. o. to make holes in the ground for conceal- 
ment ; from the noun. 



BuBBARj 1. 1. the treasurer of a coHege ; L. B. hurtarius ; 
F. bourse, a purse. 

2. A scholar who has a pension from the college ; F. 

BuRSB, s, an exchange house^ or guildhall ; 6. biorghtu, 
an exchange house; Swed. bars ; B. beurs; F. bourses- 
It. borsa; T. bursck, a guilds a fellow craft. See 
Borrow and House. 

BuRST^ V, a. to breaks fly open, rupture; G. bmsla, 
borsta; Swed. brista ; B. borsten; S. burstan ; T, 

Burthen^ s. a load ; S. byrthen. See Burden. 

Burton, ^. a farm yard ; 6. and S. 6tir, a dwelling, and 
ton, an inclosure. See Barton. 

Bury, as a termination in the names of places, is gene- 
rally Burg or Burrow ; but B. bouwery from G. bur, 
byr, beer, a dwelling, signifies a village or farm ; and 
in some instances the word may be aerived from the 
verb to Bury. See Berry and Barrow. 

Bury, v. a. to hide, conceal, put into a grave ; G. burja, 
byrgia ; S. burgian ; T. bergan, to conceal, to inter. 
The hopes of a resurrection prevented the Jews and 
Egyptians from burning the bodies of the dead ; but 
among other nations they were committed to fire, 
which was the emblem of the deity. See Barrow. 

Bush, s. a thick shrub, a thicket; Swed. buske; 6. bosch ; 
D. buske; T. husch ; It. bosco; F. bois. See Boscage 
and Shaw. 

Bushel, s, a measure of eight gallons ; F. boUseau ; L. 
B. bisch^la, scheJUa, from Zm^ ; bischejila, a modus. 

Busk, s. a strengthener for women's stays; F. buis, 
buisque, a slip of boxwood. 

Buskin, s. a half boot worn on the stage ; It. borzachino; 

F. drodequin, from L. pero. 
Buss, s. 1. a kiss ; P. bosu, from boos, poos, the lip ; L. 

basiutn; F. baiser ; It. bacia, which may all have 

the same root with kiss, by the frequent intermu- 

tation of K and P. See Pbep. 

2. A fishing boat; G. busa ; Swed. buz; B. buis ; T. 

3. Used only in composition, as in blunderbuss, but 
common in all G. dialects, as boss, bus, buscke, a barrel, 
a tube, supposed to be from L. buxus. 

Bust, s, a half statue; It. busto; F. buste; L. bustum, 
ustum, from uro, buro, to bum, because such statues 
were placed over the ashes of the dead 

Bustard, s. a bird resembling a turkey ; L. B. and It. 
tarda, avis tarda ; It. avaiarda ; F. ouiarde. L. tarda, 
slow, does not apply to this bird, unlesis in the sense 
o£ late in taking wing ; and tarda may be adopted 
from B. traat, traat gaas, the trotting goose, from its 
running. 'Urif denoted its quickness of hearing. 

Bustle, v. a. frequentative of Busy ; to hurry, to stir, 
to have much to do. 

Busy, a. employed, active, officious, industrious ; S. 
bysig ; B. oiztg, from G. bua, to arrange, prepare. 

Busy, t;. a. to intermeddle, to engage actively, to be 

But, coni. 1. except, besides, moreover, further, with- 
out ; P. budur ; S. bute ; Swed. but, utan, butan ; B. 
buitan, from G. ut, be ut ; we also use out as con- 
tinuance in out\i\e, outdo. 

2. Only, no further, not more. It was formerly ne 
but, the negative article being now culpably omitted. 

But, s. for Be out ; what is out or outermost, a pro- 

jection, an extent, a boundary, a limit; Swed. but; T. 
butt ; F. bout, bute, an extreme end or object 

But, a. thick, round, large; G. butt ; T. butt; Swed. 
butt; R bot. It seems to mean Be out, extending ; and 
was apjplied to denote several kinds of flat fishes ; B. 
bot, a nounder. See Turbot. 

Butcher, s. one who kills animals to sell ; L. B. buca^ 
dor, from L. boves casdere, was an ox-killer; F. boucher; 
but It. beccaro seems to be from becco, a goat, the 
flesh of which was probably most common in ancient 

Butler, *. a house steward ; T. beuteler, from beuicn, 
Swed. buta, to buy, beutel, a purse, signified a purser ; 
but F. bouteiller is one who has charge of the bottles 
or cellar. 

Butment, s. from But ; an outer support, the pier on 
which the end of an arch rests ; F. arc boutant. See 

Butt, j. 1. an object of ridicule, a mark to shoot at ; 

F. bute. See But. 

2. A large cask ; G. bytta ; Swed. bytt ; S. butt ; T. 
buitte; F. botte, boute; It. botte. 

3. From the verb ; a stroke or thrust in fencing ; It, 
botta ; F. botte. 

Butt, v. a. to push, to thrust, to strike with the head ; 
T. buitten, to push out; but Swed. bockta, is from 

G. bocka, to strike like a buck goat. 

Butter, s. an oily substance procured from milk, pro- 
perly of cows ; /Safrvjo ; L. butyrum ; S. buitere ; B. 
bolter ; T. butter. 

Butter, a. greater, larger ; comparative of But, large. 

Butter bump, s. the bittern, and bump from its cry. 
See Bump. 

Butterfly, s. a beautiful, large winged insect ; S. 
butter'fiege ; B. boter-Jliege, from butter, large, and 

Butter bur, s. the large burdock, from butter, large. 
See Bur. 

Butteris, s. a farrier's paring tool ; G. botar tsar ; T. 
better eisen ; S. beier isen, a dressing iron ; F. boutoir. 

Butter tooth, s. one of the two broad fore teeth ; 
either from butter, large, or be outer. 

Buttery, s. repository for provisions, the pantry ; pro- 
bably from bait, food, corresponding with /Sim* ; W. 
bwytta. See Batten. 

Buttock, s. the thick of the hip, the rump; fro 
but, thick, round, and hock, a joint. 

Button, s. a knob, a bud, a stud used in dress; It. 

bottone ; F. bouton. See Boss and But. 
Buttress, s. a prop, support; S. butereis, from but, 

external, and G. reisa, to raise. 

But-wink, s. a lapwing, from but, large, and fving. 

Buxom, a. joUy, obedient, good humoured, wanton; 

G. bugsam ; S. bugsutn. See to Bow. 
Buy, v. a. to purchase, procure by giving a price ; M. 

G. bufgan; S. byggan; Swed. bygga, byta; T. beuten; 

P. biutan ; O. F. biguer ; Sans, andf A. biccu ; S. 

bige, traffic. 
Buz, s. a humming noise, a whisper; from Bees, as 

L. musso from musca ; and F. Itourdim, a drone bee, 

a murmur. 

Buzzard, s. a kind of hawk ; P. buz, baz; F. buzard; 
L. buteo. 

B Y 

By, prcD, at, near to, in, on, with ; M. G. bi ; Swed. S. 
hi ; B. by ; T. bei ; A. and P. 6i, ha ; ba Khooda, by 
God. G. /, ij, siffnified in or at, and was formerly 
used with us for by, as y God, y faith, to which d 
was merely a prenx. G. and Swed. hia was used 
like By and *£«■«. 

By, *. 1 . repose, tranquillity, sleep ; P. bu, repose ; G. 
hia, bida; D. bie; Scot, be, Cnaucer wrote abie, to 
wait, to remain, to repose ; By by, used by nurses 
to children, corresponds with fimvCMti. 

2. A hamlet, township, dwelling ; P. hay ; G. and 
Swed. by ; S. and D. bye. it enters with us into 

B Y W 

the names of many places, as Apleby, Thorby, Ash- 
by, Beding, G. bytking ; D. byeling, a civil court, 

3. A deviation, bending, cessation; G. baug; D. bie; 
T. bay ; S. beak, from G. beiga ; S. bugan. 

Bye, s. contracted from be with ye; as Good bye. 
Good be with ye. 

By-law, s, a law made for a society; G. by lag; S. 
bilage ; L. B. bilagium, from by, a hamlet or society, 
and law. 

Byway, *. a sideway, private way ; D. bivey, afvey. 

■ ■• I 




CTHE third letter of the alphabet, has two sounds ; 
y one like k, before &, o, u, and all consonants, as 
call, cord, cut : the other like s, before e, i, v ; as 
cede, cinder, cylinder. In Saxon and Irish it is in- 
variably pronounced like k. 

Cabal, s. 1. Jewish tradition concerning the Old Testa- 
ment; Heb. cabala. 

2. Something mysterious, a private consultation, an in- 
trigue ; It. catala; F. cabale; from Heb. cabala. 

Cabal, v. a, to unite mysteriously, to intrigue, plot ; F. 
cabaler ; It. cabalare. 

Cabbage, s. cole cabbage, headed cole ; F. choux cabus ; 
It. cauU capucci, capiiati, from L. caput. 

Cabbaqb, s. what is taken or purloined in cutting out 
clothes ; It capezza, roba copula, from L. capio. 

Cabin, s, a cottage, a room in a ship ; A. qoobbu ; Heb. 

kaba; P. khrvab ; Chald. hhuba ; It. capanna; F. 

cabane; W. caban ; T. ^o6enjr all cognate "with L. 

cavus. See Chapel and Alcove. 
Cabinet, s, a small chamber, a repository, a chest of 

drawers ; F. cabinet ; It. cabinetto, dimin. of Cabin. 
Cable, s. a thick rope for an anchor ; A. kabl ; Heb. 

khebel; K«^A«(; 6. kadel ; Swed. and B. kabel ; F. 

Cacao, s, an American pod containing small nuts, of 

which chocolate is made. 
Cackerel, s. a fish which voids excrement when pur- 
sued ; from L. cacare. 
Cackle, v, a. to cry like a cock or hen, to giggle; 

Swed. kackla ; T. kicheln ; B. kaeckelen. See 


Cad, Cadis, Oadew, s. a water insect called the case 
worm. See Cade. 

Caddt, f . a tea case ; P. and Hind, chada ; B. kaOd. 

See Tea. 
Cade, «. a small cask or barrel ; Ki»}«f ; L. cadtu ; It 

cado. See Cag and Kit. 

Cade, v. a. to follow, attend, cherish, to breed up ten- 
derly; O. F. cadet, cadeler; It caudeare, codeare, 

C A I 

from L. Cauda, to go afler; and like L. sequor, to 
cherish. F. cadeler, to make ornamental tails to 
capital letters, signified afterwards to ornament ; and 
thus cadeau was a tail, a flourish, a treat, and a suite. 

Cade Lamb, s. a pet lamb. 

Cadet, s. a volunteer in the army without a commission, 
a follower, a younger brother ; F. cadet ; It caudato, 
codato, cardeto, from L. cauda; F. queue, retinue, suite, 
may have had the same origin with L. sequor and 

Cadger, s. a higgler, a carrier ; T. kautser and kaupster, 
a dealer, are cognate with chapman ; but T. ketscher 
is a carrier. See to Kedgb. 

Cadi, s, a Turkish civil magistrate; A. kazee, cadee. 
See Alcaid. 

Cadow, 8. a bird, a daw. See Jack daw. 

Caesar, s. the name of a Roman family which produc- 
ed several emperors ; Chald. and P. kasr, signified a 
royal house ; kasra, kesra^ kosra, a prince, which be- 
came Cosroes and Cyrus. From tne same root we 
have caste, a pedigree. It will be seen that the Rus- 
sian czar is a different word ; and although the G. 
kayser, may have been afterwurds blended with ctBsar, 
it appears to have signified an elected chief, from 
kiosa, kesa; S. ceosan, to choose; from which also 
kur, kur^rstj T. kieser, signified an elector. Kisa 
or Cissa, the South Saxon king, was the elected. 

Cafrb, s. a name given to some of the African savages ; 
A. koqfr, kqfr, paganism. 

Cag, s. a small cask or barrel ; Swed. kagge ; B. kag ; S. 

ceac ; L. B. caucus ; F. cogue. See Cade and Cask. 
Cage, s. a place of confinement, a prison, a coop for 

birds,' * cage ; It gaggia, gaobio; B. kovi; L. 

Cajole, v. a. to flatter, sooth, deceive ; F. cajoler ; G. 

goela, gagoela, to entice. See to Gull. 

Caitif, a. mean, miserable, dastardly, knavish ; It. cat- 
tivo, a captive, a slave, a wretch ; F. chetif; Romance 
cot^tn, from L. captivus. 



Cakb, «. a small flat bread, a sweet biscuit ; P. iiak ; A. 
kaak ; Swed. kaka ; T. kack ; B. kotk ; W. roGceii. 

Calabash^ 9. the shell of a gourd used in hot countries 
for water pots and basons ; JCi/A«-if ; Sp. caMaza ; F. 

Calamancho, 8. a sort of woollen stuff; L. ctmla monkha, 
from being used by monks. See Cowz*. 

Calaminb^ s. ore of tin ; F. calamine ; L. lapis calamin" 

Calash, s. a kind of light carriage ; P. kidas; T. and 

D. kalesch ; F. calecke. 
Calculate, v. a. to compute, to reckon ; from L. cufetf- 

//, pebbles, with which accounts were kept on a table 

resembling a chess board. 

Caldron, s. a large pot or boiler; L. caldarium; F. 

Calendar, s, an almanac, yearly register ; L. calendar 

Calender, s. a hot press, an iron cylinder filled with 

hot coab ; L. cylindrus. 
C^ALF^ s. 1. the young of a cow ; T. kabU, kalbe; S. cealf; 

Swed. kalf; Arm. kdve ; apparently from G. ko, a cow, 

and alf, progeny ; ala, qfia, to bring forth. 

2. The thick part of the W; G. kalf; B. kalf; 
Swed. kttffwa, kqfle; G. ana Swed. ^q/te is a round 

Caliber, s. the bore of fire arms ; F. calibre, from L. 

cava lUfra, measure of a tube ; but ;c«x« was an in- 
' strument for measuring. 
Calico, s. a kind of cotton cloth brought from Calicut 

in Malabar ; F. calicut . 

Calxff, Caliph, s. a vicar, a lieutenant, one who holds 
the place of Mahomet. 

Calk, v. a, to stop the seams of a ship ; supposed to be 
from keel, which originally signified the hull: but 
Swed. kalfatra ; D. ktSfatre ; B. kalfaten ; F. calfaler ; 
Hind, kalaputla ; A. kalqfa, kilajat ; KMkufmmf, are 
used in the sense of our word. 

Call, v. a. to name, to speak aloud, to invite ; MJoia ; L. 
calo ; W. and Arm. galw; G. kalla; Swed. kola; 
T. and B. kaUen; Heb. kd ; A. qal, the voice. See 

Callow, a, unfledged, naked; S. calu; Swed. kohl, 
skallig, fh>m L. calvus. 

Calm, a. quiet, still, easv; F.calme; It Sp. Port calma; 
X/»>Mm ; It ca&>, signify to lower^ ^l*y> atiate ; but pos- 
sibly L. fute/wnt, qwAiUnKm, qidlUntt, irakquillutn may 
have produced cahn. 

Calottb, s, a coif worn by eccleslaidcs ; F. caloie, said to 

have been escalole, fh>m G. senile, the skull. See Caitl. 
Calotbr, #. a €hreek moiik ; from imoW yi^tn, a good 

old man. 
CAI.TBOP, t. a thistle, a tribulus or iron spike with point- 

ed branches fbr impeding a charge of cavalry ; S. 

coitrappe ; It. calcaireppwo, fVom L. calcare and trihu^ 


Camber, s. an arch or curve; from L. camurus ; F. 
camhre; P. khamu 

C!am£L, s. a large animal common in Asia and Africa; 
A qumel, boogumeUm, gimel, gibd; Heb. gamalf 
K«^4A«f ; L. camelus. 

Camelot^ s. a kind of stuff, supposed to be origindly 
of camels hair. 

(Umbo, s. a name origtaally given to an onyxj in soolp* 

ture, when one coloiir was fbund to serve for the 
figure in rdiefi and another for the ground ; it is now 
applied to a painting of one colour ; P. kamachitia ; F. 

Cami&ado, s. an attack made by night with troops 
disguised in shirts ; It camisado ; F. camisade, from 
KMfu^m; A. kamis; It c'amisa ; F. chemise; S. comes. 

Camock, s. the herb restharrow ; S. cammoc ; G. hama ; 
Swed. hamma, to stop, to impede; ham ok would 
therefore correspond with F. arrest boeuf. 

Camomile, s. an herb ; xfiH^l'"^* I ^' chamamelum. 
Camos, Camoyb, s. flat noaed ; F. camus ; L. smus. 

Camp, s. 1. the place and order of tents fbr soldiers in 
the field ; S. camp corresponds with L. caMtrum, f\rom 
Q. kiamp, a sddiier; Swed. kdmp ; S. eamp; Arm. 
kimp ; W. camp ; L campa : It cawpo ; ¥• cum, a 
contest or place of arms, a military station in the field. 
The root of the G. word is kapp, a contest, from which 
we have our verb cope, to contend ; but L. campus 
has beto blended, no doubt, with our application of 
the word. 

2. A field, plain or open country ; L. campus ; It cam^ 
po; F. champ. 

Campaign, s. an extensive plain country, the season 
that armies keep the field ; F. campagne. 

Camphire, s. a white resinous gum ; tUpit^ ; A Heb. 
P. kqfoor; Sans, kupoor; F. camphres L. camphora. 

Camus, s. a kind of shift See Camisaix). 

Can, s. a drinking vessel, a cup ; Swed. katm ; T. kanna ; 
S. canne; Arm. can ; F. canettes L. caniharus. 

Can, v. b. to be able, to have power ; G. kaun ; S. can ; 
T. kan, present tense of G. and Swed. kunna; T. and 
B. konnen ; S. cunnan* 

Canaille, s, a pack of dogs, rabble ; It canagUa ; F. 
canaille. See Kennbl. 

Canal or Cannbl Coal, a kind of coal remarkable for 
vivacity in burning. See Kindle. 

Cancel, v. a. to erase, make void, annul ; from L. can^ 
celli, lattices, the mode of obliteration. 

Canary bird, s. a kind of linnet brought from Canaiy 
or Candelaria ; where, in its wild state, the colour is 
nearly that of the srecn linnet Each flock continues 
quite distinct, and will not pair with another. The 
varieties are all produced in domesticity. 

Candle, s. a light made of tallow or wax ; L. candela ; 
A. aundel; P. candel; F. chandeUe, supposed from 
canaidus, white; but G. ktfndel, from kynda'el, is a fire 
match, and kundU, S. candel, a torch, a light ; Kma, to 
bum. See Kindle. 

Candlestick, s. what holds a candle ; S. candelsiicca, 
candelireow, a stock or tree for a candle. 

Candy, v. a. to conserve with sujnr, to incrust with 
congelations ; fW>m Sans. khand;P. kandi; A. alkende, 

Candy, s. a plant called lion's foot ; brought fWim Can- 

Cane, s. a reed, a tube, a walkihg stick ; tuLwm; L. canna ; 

Heb. kauneh; It canna; F. canne, 

Canistbr, s. a small basket, a case for tea ; L. canis" 

Castnon, s. a tube, a piece of orchiance ; It cannons; F. 

csmmm, from Canb. 
CaancBB, -s; a eorrodfa^ humour^ a gangrene. See 



Canoe^ s. a small boat formed from a single tree, said 
to be so named by the natives of St Salvador, when 
Columbus arrived there ; but L. canna also signified 
a small boat ; Sp. canoa ; F. canot. 

Canon, s. a rule of the church, a dignitary ; L. canonicus, 
from jMiwy. 

Canopy, s. a cloth of state, a tester; xantnriUfi L. B. 
canopium ; F. canopeC\ 

Cant, s. 1. a peculiar form of speaking with some classes 
of men, a whining pretension to goodness, a dialect 
and tone assumed by jugglers and vagabonds; L. 
canto signified to repeat -often the same thing, and 
also, as adopted in It. to juggle, to deceive ; whence 
cantimbanco, a mountebank, egli canta, he fibs. 

2. A piece, section, square or angle. See Canto. 

3. A side, an edge ; 6. and Swed. kani ; It. canta, 

4. A sale by auction, from L. quanta ; It. incanio ; F. I 

Cant, v. 1. to flatter, wheedle, to preach in an affected 

manner. See the noun. 
2. To set on the edge, or on one side. See the noun. 
Canteen, s. a place or vessel for containing liquor ; It. 

cavina, cavettna, cantina ; F. cantine. 
Canter, s. the gallop of an ambling horse, in which 

one side moves before the other ; called ludicrously a 

Canterbury gallop, because Kent and Canterhury are 

also from cant, a side. 
Cantilivers, s, pieces of wood to support the eaves 

of a house ; from cantle and eavers. 
Cantle, ^. I. a small piece, a fragment ; from Cant ; 

F. ckantelle, chanteau. See Scantling. 
2. From Cant; a small angle. 
jCantle, v. a. 1. to cut into pieces ; from the noun. 
2. To project in small angles ; from the noun. 
Canto, «. 1. a section, division, part, portion, piece ; A. 

kata ; iucr«r, ie«rr«, »«rr« ; L. cento ; It. canto. 

2. A poem, a song ; L. cantus ; It. canto. 

Canton, s, a district, division of a country ; F. canton ; 

L. centena. See Canto. 
Canty, a, gay, joyful, wanton; G. kat, kiat ; Swed. 

katja ; whence F. caiWy a woman of pleasure. 
Canvass, s, coarse hempen cloth, sail cloth, sifting cloth; 

P. kanu ; L. cannabis ; F. canevas ; It. canavaccio. 
Canvass, v. a. from the noun ; to pass tlirough canvass, 

to sifl, examine, solicit votes. 
Canzonet, s. a little song or air; It. canzoncita; F. 

chanson, from L. caniio. 
Cap, s, a covering for the head ; Swed. kappa; S. aeppc; 

T. kagfe; B. kappe; V.kah; Arm. cab; W. cap; tmirxtt ; 

L. B. capa; apparently cognate with L. caput; It. and 

Sp. capo; F. cAff, the head. See Coif. 
Cap, w. a. 1. from the noun ; to cover the head. 
2. To contend ; from G. and Swed. kapp ; S. camp, con- 
test. See to Cope. 
Capable, a. having ability, sufficient, qualified; F. 

capabk, from L. capio and habilis. 
Cap a pis* from head to foot ; cap, the head, and F. pie; 

L. pei, the foot. 
Caparison, s, dress, accoutrement ; F. capara^n^ Sp. 

caparazoH, from L. capio and paro* 

Cape, «. I. a headland; F. cape; It. capo, from L. caput. 
2. The neck-piece of a garment ; S. cmppe. See Cop. 
(Iaper, 4. A skip, jump, frolic; It, capricola ; F. eapriokt 
from L. caper, a friak like that of the goat 


Capouch, s, a monk's hood; L. capitium; F. capuce ; It. 

Caprice, s, a frisk of the mind, a freak, a fancy ; F. 
caprice ; It. capriccio. See Caper. 

Capstan, s. a windlass ; B. kaapstand ; F. cabestan ; It. 

cabcstrante, from ;^&k and ftUr. 
Captain, s. the head or chief of a military company or 

corps, the commander of a ship ; F. capitaine ; It. capi- 

tano, from L. caput. 

Captious, a, given to cavil, peevish ; L. cajdiosus ; F- 

Capuchin, s, an order of monks so called from wearing 
a capouch. 

Car, *. a cart or chariot; L. carrus ; It, carro; W. Ann. 
I. carr ; T. karre; Swed. kdrra, a wheel carriage, 
are supposed to be from G. kara ; T. keren ; S. cyrren, 
to turn, go round. See Quern and Churn. 

Carabine, s, a small musket ; ¥. carabine; It carabi/io, 
dim. of L. B. carrabaUstan, a field bow mounted on -a 
carriage, attached formerly to cavalry. 

Carack, ^. a Spanish galleon ; Sp. carracca; F. cwr- 
raque ; T. krackc. See Cargo. 

Carat, s. a weight of four grains; xt^urut; L. ceratium; 
A. keerat; P. char at ; F. carat; It carcUto. 

Caravan, s» a convoy of merchants or pilgrims, a large 
carriage ; A. and P. kerwan ; Turk, kervan ; F. cara- 
vanne ; It. caravana. 

Cara VANCE, s. a kind of kidney beany Sp. gar^an^a. 
See Carobance. 

Caravansary, s. a halting place for a caravan, an in- 
closure to lodge travellers ; A. and P. kerwansura. 
See Seraglio. 

Caravel, s, a small ship; G. karje ; A. karab; L. cara- 
bus ; It. caravella ; F. caraveite. 

Caraway, s, a plant with warm seed ; L. careum ; It. 
carvino ; F. carvi, from x'^^* to make glad. 

Carbonade, V, a, to broil on coals, to cut across as meat 
for broiling, to hack ; from L. carbo. 

Carbuncle, s, a precious stone, a pimple of that colour; 
L. carbunculus. 

Carcanet, s. a kind of pillory with a chain, a necklace; 
Y.carcan; B.karkant; Scot, carcat; Uhkuerk; Swed. 
quark, the neck. 

Carcass, s. 1. a dead body, the shell of a building ; F. 
carcasse ; It. casso, carcasso, from L. caro cassa, 

2. In gunnerv, a bomb filled with various missiles and 
combustiraes ; Jk»^x^f9 ; L. carchesium ; It carcasso ; 
F. carquois, carcasse, a quiver, the whole contents of 
which are discharged at once. 

Cajm>, V, a, to comb wool; F. carder; T. karden, from 
L. carduus, teazle, which was originally used for this 

Card, s. 1. from the verb; an instrument to break wool. 

2. A paper, a written note, painted paste-board, a map ; 
F. carte, from L. charta. 

Care, s, solicitude of mind, attention, charge, caution ; 
L. cura; M. G. kar ; S. care, cear. 

Career, s, course, race ; F. carriere ; It carriera, from 
L. currere. 

Caress, v, a, to treat with fondness ; F. caresser ; It. 
carezzare, from x/m^ti ; L. cams. 

Cargo, s, a load, the burthen of a ship ; It carca, carica; 
Sp. cargo ; V, cargaison. See Charge. 

Cabs, s. anxiety ; S. care ; T. karg. See Ca&b. 



Cabl, Cable, «. 1. a rustic^ a rude raan, a churl; G. 

karl^ kail; S. ceorl; B. kaerle; W. carl; Scot, kerl, a 

2. T. kerl; Swed. karl; B. kaerel, fromG. kar; S. ceor; 

Scyth. aer, a man. 

Cablings^ s, square pieces of timber in a ship ; F car- 

Ungues, from L. quadri Ugnei, 
Carmine^ s. a beautiful red colour ; F. carmin, from P. 

kerm. See Cbiubon. 
Cabnival, «. shrove tide> a time of feasting before lent> 

when animal food is forbidden; F. carnival ; It. ear^ 

nivale ; said to be L. came vale. 

Cabob, s, a tree bearing large pods called St John's 
breads or locust ; A. karob, garoba ; Syr. charauba ; 
Mod. Greek Kt^tAtXf ; Sp. carobo ; It. carruba ; F. 
carroube, signifying originally a pod. 

Cabobance^ CABAVANCEy s. a kind of kidney bean with 

pods like the carob ; Sp. garovanza. 
Cabochb, s, a coach, a chariot; Km^ux^t; L. caruca ; 

F. carosse ; It. carozza. See Cabbiage. 
Carol, s. a song of joy or devotion ; L. choraula ; F. 

carolle ; It. carole, nrom X»^%U. 
Cabousal, ^. 1. a chariot race, a tournament ; It. carro- 

selloy carotello ; F. carrousel, from L. currus lusus and 

curis lusus. 

2. From cabouse ; a bout of drinking. 

Cabousb, v. a. to drink copioudv, to quaff; F. carrousse, 
from G. hareisa, harattsa ; T. rauschen, gerauschen ; 
Swed. krausa, from rus; O. £. raus, drink, de- 

Cabp, s. a fish brought from Cyprus ; F. carpe ; It car' 
pione ; L. cyprio, cyprinus. 

Cabpenteb, s. one who works in wood ; F. charpenUer, 
from L. carpenlum. 

Cabpbt, s. a covering for a floor ; It. carpdta, properly 
a kind of embroidered stuff with figures, from 

Caabiaob, s. 1. a. vehicle, a conveyance; F. carriage; 
It. carriaggto. See Caboghb. 

2. Comportment, conduct, behaviour. See to Cabby. 

3. A load, what is carried or contained. See<^HABGB. 

Cabbion, «• the dead body of a beast ; bad meat ; G. 

hras ; S. hrena ; B. kreng, a dead carcass, seem to 

have been confounded wiui L. c/iro, in forming 8p. 

carona ; It. cart^pui ; F. charogne. 
Cabbot, s. an esculent garden root / L. B. carota ; F. 

caroUe, from Km^^i^»^ for Kiff ^«, the yellow root 

Cabby, v. a. to contain, bear, convey, go on with, be- 
have ; Sp. acarreary from car, a venicle, is used in 
the sense of our word ; F. charier ; T. karren, also 
from car, signify to convey ; but prop^ly in a car- 
riage. See Cab, Chabob and CABoa 

Cabt, s. dim. of Cab ; a carriage with low wheels ; F. 

charetie; It earreite; S. crtet. 
Cabtbl, s. a paper of agreement between enemies for 

the exchange of prisoners ; F. cartel; It carteUo, 

from L. ckariula. 
Cabthaxus, s. a plant, bastard saffiroD ; L. B. cariha» 

Mus : It carlamo ; F. cariame ; A. kortatfL 

CutTON, Cabtoon, s. a painting on large paper; It 

carUme ; F. carton, from L. ckarta. 
Cabtouch, s. a charge of gunpowder and ball |>ut up 

in paper, vulgarlr called cartridge ; It cartocdo; F. 

cartouche, from L. jckarUh 

Cabvb, v. a. to cut, to sculpture; G. ketfa; Swed. 
karfwa; S. ceorffan ; T. kerben; B. kerven. See 

Cascade, s. a waterfall ; It cascaia ; F. cascade, from 
L. caso and cado. 

Case, s. 1. a box, sheath, cover ; F. caisse ; It cassa ; 
Sp. caxa, from Ktift^a ; L. capsa ; M. G. ibi«, a ves- 
sel ; Swed. kassc ; Hung, kass ; I. cash ; Scot cassie, 
signify a basket. See Chest. 

2. An event, condition, contingence : F. cos ; It caso ; 
L. casus. 

Casemate, s. a fortified platform, a vault or arch in a 
bastion; It casa armata, casa matta; F. casemate, 
from L. casa armata. 

Casement, s. a sash window, one with hinges. See 
Chase, a frame. 

Case wobm, s. the cadis, so named from its sheath or 

Cash, s. money in coffer or case, coin, ready money ; 
F. caisse; It cassa ; Sp. caxa, a money-chest 

Cashieb, s. a cash keeper in a banking house ; F. cas- 
sier ; It cassiere. 

Cashieb, r. a. to discard, break, disqualify; L. B. 
cassare ; Sp. casar ; It. cassare ; F. casser, from L. 
cassus. See Cassate. 

Cask, s. 1. a helmet, a headpiece ; F. casque, from L. 

2. A wooden vessel, a barrel; F. casque, from L. cadus ; 
M. G. kas. 

Casket, Cassette, s. a small box, a jewel case ; Sp. c/ix^ 
eta ; It cassetta ; dim. of case. 

Cassate, v. a. to vacate, invalidate, annul ; from L. cas- 
sus. See Cashieb. 

Cassia, s. a name given to the wild cinnamon, and also 
to a species of senna ; Kmrnm ; L. cassia. 

Cassava, s. I. the root of the manioc made into paste 
and dried in the sun ; called casabi by the S. Ameri- 
cans ; F. cassave. See Yucca. 

2. A kind of brown sugar, now confounded with casada 
or cask sugar ; Coptic cassab, a reed, denoted the sugar 
cane, which appears to have been originally from the 
Nile. The Hindoos call it missree, from Missir, the 
ancient name of Egypt. 

Cassidony, s. the name of a plant. See Stigkadobe. 

Cassock, s. a clergyman's garment; G. kausak; D. 
kasjack; Swed. kasika, kasjacka; S. kassuc ; Arm. 
keseg; W. casog ; F. casaque; It casaco; Sp. ca- 
saca ; L. sagum. See Jack. 

Cast, v. a. 1. to throw, shed, bring forth immaturely, to 
form in a mould ; G. kasta ; D. kaste ; Swed. kasta. 

2. To defeat in law. See Cassate. 

Castanet, s. a small piece of wood or ivory resembling 
in shape a cbesnut, two of which are struck together 
to mark the time in music ; Sp. castaneta, ftom L. 

Caste, s. a family, a tribe; A. kazah; L. casa, a house, 
produced A. kazda ; Sp. casta ; It easata, a fiunily or 
race; which was apphed to the different classes of 

Castle, s. a fortified house ; G. kastali ; Arm. kestell ; 
W. castell ; It castello, from L. casteUum ; dim. of 

Castbbl, s. a kind of hawk ; F. crecerelle ; L. celer 

crepUtUa. See EjusTmsL. 
Cat, s. 1. a domestic animal ; A. kith ; P. kait ; Heb* 


C H A 

kat; Turk, kadif; Russ. koie ; Pol. kol; Armen. 
citio ; hap-gato; It. cuius ; W. catk;; Arm. 
caz; It gaito;; 8p, and Port. goto; andkat 
or kaize m all the 6. dialects. 

2. A ship of burthen ; B. kat ; Sp. ckaia, from G. akat, 

3. A whip, an initrument of castigation^ from F. chatter ; 
L. cashgare. 

Cat and Ball, a kind of game ; B. kaatsbal, from It. 
cacchia, what we call the chase at tennis. 

Cat fish, s, so called, in the West Indies, from having 
a head like a cat ; but our cat fish is B. kat, so named 
from having prickles like the claws of a cat. See 
Anoel fish. 

Cat o' ninb tails, s. a whip with nine lashes. See 

Cat's foot, s. a plant so called from its resemblance to 
the foot of a cat. 

Catch, v. a, to seise, ensnare ; L. capto ; 6. hafta ; S. 
gekcefian, have exactly the same meaning; and Caught, 
in the pret. tense, is a G. construction. 

Catchpole, s. a sergeant, a bailiff; L. captor ptthlicns. 

Cats, s. provision, food. See Cates. 

Catbpak, s. one who changes from one party to ano- 
ther, a mercenary chief, a turncoat ; L. B. catapanus; 
KmrfwrnfMy corrupted from capitaneus. 

Cater, v. a, 1. to provide provisions by begging or 
buying ; a word introduced at the convents ; Sp. ca- 
tar ; It. accatare, from L. captare ; F. qnUer, from 
L. qucero, quetito, to seek, examine, taste. 

2. To purchase delicacies for the table ; F. acheter ; O. 
F. achapter, from G. kaupa ; S. ceapan ; T. kauten, to 
buy; whence also, S. ceapi; T. kani ; F. ackapt, 
achat, table expence, called achats, and by Jonson, 

Catbbpillab, s, a worm produced from the egg of a 
butterfly or moth ; F. chaUpeliie, the palmer worm, 
from its resemblance to a cat; while others were called 
chenille, from being liker a dog. 

Catbbwaul, v. a, to cry like a cat ; B. katerhuUen, to 
cat howl. 

Cates, Acatbs, s, pi. delicacies bought for the table. 
See Cater. 

Catkins, s. the male blossoms of the willow and some 
other trees, which resemble kittens ; B. kattekms ; F. 

Cattlb, s, beasts of pasture ; properly the stock of a 

farm ; L. capitalia. 
Cataloadb, s. a procession on horseback ; It cavalcaia ; 

F. cavalcade, from lUiC«AA«f ; L. cavallus ; It caoaUo ; 

F. cheval; T. gaul ; Arm. capal; I. capul, a horse. 

Caudle, s. warm gruel, with wine and other ingre- 
dients, given to women in childbed ; F. caudeau, 
chauddle, from L. callidus. 

Cave, s. a hollow place, a cavern, a den ; F. cave ; L. 
cavus ; A. kokj, a grotto. 

CAVB860N, 1. a kind of halter ; It And Sp. cdbessem, ; 
L. capistrum. 

Caviare, s. the roe of fish pickled ; It. cax'xaro, called 
xkari by the Russians. 

Cavil, tr. «. to raise frivolous objections ; L. cavilldf jpi 
F. caviller. 

Caul, v. 1. ia woman's capi the inside of a wig; Isl. 
koU; P. kulah: P. kuUa; O. kuUe, the head See 

3. The omentum ; S. cille ;• G. kyl ; KmAm, the belly, a 

Cauliflower, s. the flower of cabbage; F. chaux 
fieurs. See Oolb. 

Causey, s. a raised or paved way ; F. chassie ; Scot 
calsay ; It cahata, from L. B. calceata ; L. calcata. 

Caw, v. a. to cry as a rook or a raven ; G. kaia, a crow. 
See Chouob. 

Cecisbeo, s. a male friend permitted by a husband to 
attend his wife ; It dcisbeo ; P. chuspudgee, attach- 

Cblandine, s. an herb frequented by swallows ; L. 
cheKdamum, from ZiAiSivf . 

Ci»LBKT, 1. a winter salad-herb; F. celeri; T. zellery ; 

It seliHe, from ZiAiMf. 
Cblibacy, s. an unmarried state, a single life ; L. cor- 

lehs, from KanAtnf^ for num xu4^, 
Cbll, s. a cave or hut, a close dark room, a partition in 

plants; Heb. cefe/ K«iXk; L. cella; F. celle; T. zell ; 

W. ceU. 

Cbnsb, v. a. to perf\mie. 

Centinel, s. a soldier on guard ; Sp. centinella. See 

Obrbcloth, s. cloth smeared with wax ; A. kir ; Chald. 

kera ; K^^of ; L. cera, wax. 

Ceremony, s. form of an external right; L. ceremotiia ; 
F. ceremonie, from it^i ftvtn, religious observance, 
confounded in L. with the rites of Ceres. 

Cbsabian, a. achirurgical operation in midwifery ; from 

L. aesare. 
Chafe, t;. a. to wkrm, to heat by rubbing, to fret, to 

fume ; F. echaufer, from L. caUfado. 

Chafer, s. a May bug, a kind of beetle that feeds on 
the leaves of trees ; S. ceafor ; T. kiever, literally the 
chewer ; called also cockchafer, for clockchafer : and 
chietv, caw, caw, with the peasants, have the same 
meaning : as lady cow, or lady bug, the holy virgin's 

Chafbby, s. a forge in an iron mill. See to Chafe. 

Chaff, *. husks of corn ; P. khah ; S. ceaf; T. kaff ; 
Arm. scaff. 

Chaffer, v. a., to higgle, to bargain ; from Heb. co- 
pker : Q. kaupr ; T. kauffer ; Arm. gwobr; L. caupo; 
a buyer or seller. See Cheap. 

Chaffinch, s. a small bird, the male of which, during 
winter, frequents barn-doors, when the female emi« 
grates; but its name may be from Scot chepe, to 
chirp, and^itcA. 

Chaobin, s, displeasure, vexation, discontent, peevish- 
ness ; F. cha^H ; perhaps from It sgradire, the con- 
trary ofgrattare, to please, from L. gratus. 

Chain, s. a line of links, a fetter ; F. €/haine ; L. catena. 
Cbaib, s. a moveable seatj a sedan; Chald. gahar ; 
Kmifi^ ; F. chaire ; Arm. and W. cadair. 

Chaisb, i. a carriage with one bench, a seat; F. chaise; 

It. ^tggta ; W.see ; from L. sedes. 
Chaldron, s. thirty-six bushels of coals, being four 

measures or baskets at the pit See CHAunteo^. 
Challenge, s. a demand, an appeal, a call to fight ; L. 

B. calagium, ^alansiminf a caihng on, corresponding 

with appeal. See Call. 
Chalot, s. a iunall onion. See EacHALor. 
Chamajib, s. the beat<yf a dmm for a parley ; It chia- 

maia ; F. chamade ; from L. lAama. 

C H A 


Chaubbr^ ^. a Cavity, a room, an apartment ; KjtfU^ ; 
L. camera ; It. camera; F. chambre; Swed. kammar. 
Chamber lie, s. urine used for washing. See Lie. 

Chamblet, V, a. to give the appearance of watered 
cameloi, to variegate. 

Chamois, s. a wild sheep; Sans, and P. methj Swed. 
eumse; G. gems, perhaps for gemesh ; T. gemse; 
Sp. gamuzas L. B. comes ; It camozza ; F. chamois : 
Ki^. See Shammy. 

Champ, v. a. to bite the bit as a horse does, to mash 
with the teeth. See to Chaw. 

Champaign, s. a flat open country, a province of Fraiice ; 

F. champaignes It campagna, from L. campus. 
Champignon, s. a species of mushroom; L. campi 

fungus ; F. ckampignoH* 

Champion, #. a warrior ; F. champiou : It campume ; 

G. kiampur; T. haempe; S. cempa. See Camp. 
Chance, « . an event, accident, haarard ; F. chance, ftcm 

L. coMv, cadentia. 

Chancel, s, a place inclosed with cross bars or lattice 
work, Uie eastern part of a church ; L. canceUus ; F. 
chancels It cauceUo, 

Chancery, Chancellery, s. the high court of equity; 
F. chancelerie. See Chancel and Bar. 

Chancre, ^. a malignant ulcer; F. chancre; It can^ 
chero ; L. cancer. 

Chandler, s, a dealer, one who deals in coals or can- 
dles; Swed. handlare; T.gehandler. See to Handle. 

Change, v. a. to alter, commute, barter ; L. B. cambire ; 
perhaps from kftMt^ x^*^ > ^^ camhiare, cangiare ; 
F. changer; Arm. kimmen; L. commuio, 

Channel, s, the course of a stream of water, a course 

of procedure^ a longitudinal cavity ; L. canalis ; F. 

Chap, s. 1. an opening, aperture ; B. gap. See Chop 

and Gap. 
2. In vulgar language, a lad ; G. skapur, a boy, from 

skapa, to beget 
Chape, s. 1. the tip of a scabbard, a cover ; F. chape ; 

2. The catch of a buckle; F. ecliope; S. schappe, from 
L. capio. 

Chapel, s, a place of worship; Heb. kaba eli ; A. 
kaahaeU; Coptic, caph el; Ktlmi EAi, the house of 
God ; G. kapeil ; It. capella ; F. chapeUe. 

Chaperon, ^. a hood, the cap of a knight of the garter, 

a hood worn by duennas who had the charge of younff 

females; F. chaperon; B. kaproen. See Cap and 

Chapiter, s, the head of a column. See Chapter. 
Chapman, s. a dealer in goods; S. ceapman. See 

Chapter, s. the head or top, the head of a discourse, 

division of a book, convocation of the clergy ; F. cha- 

pitre; It cdpUello; L. capUulum, 
Char, j. 1. a kind of trout; L. scarus ; I. cear, red, 

from Kjffn^ 

2. A turn, a job, a day's work ; T. kar; S. cerre, from 
Swed. kdra ; S. cerren ; T. kerren, to go about, to 

3. Wood burnt to cinders; L. B. carbo; F. charbon, 
from KjUtt, 

Chard, s. a kind of thistle, an artichoke ; F. charde ; 

Li. carduus. 
Charsy, a. careful, attentive, saving ; T. cherig, kareg, 

karg. See Caek. 

Charge, s* 1. care, trust ; L. curatuK 

2. A load, weight, pressure, attack, imposition, expencet 

command ; F. cnatge ; It carica, carca ; S/p* cargo* 

See Carriage and Cargo. 

Charge, v. a. to load, press upon, attack, onerate, im- 
pose, command; F. charger; Sp^carar; It caricare. 
See the noun. 

Charity, s. love, kindness, alms ; L. carUas ; F. cha^ 

Chark, v. a. to make charcoal. See Char* 
Charlatan, s. a mountebank ; F. charUUan s It ciar' 

UUano, a market crier, a quack; from ctarlare; L. 


Charles's wain, s. the northern constellation called the 
Bear ,- karl wagn, in the G. dialects, is supposed by 
some to be named after Thor, who was callea Karl; by 
others fhmi Charlemagne. 

Charlock, s. a kind of wild mustard; S. cerlice; W. 
chwerwhfs, bitter-weed. 

Charm, s. a spell or enchantment ; F. charme, from L. 
carmen. See Spell. 

Charnel house, s. a vault in which dead bodies are 
deposited ; F. chamier ; L^ camarium ; but supposed 
to nave been originaUy cranarium, a place of skiuls. 

Charvel, s. a pot-herb ; F. cerfeuUle ; L. chagrephilum. 

Chase, s. pursuit after game, hunting-ground ; Isl. and 
Swed. kas ; F. chace ; It caccia ; Qt.^a^a, jaga,jagsa, 
kagsa ; Scot ca ; M. G. kesen ; T. jetchen, jagen, to 
drive, pursue, hunt. 

Chat, v. a. to converse at ease, prate ; G. kueda ; S- 
chedan; B. kouien ; T. chiten, to speak; gakueda; 
F. caqueter, to chatter. 

Chat, s. 1. from the verb ; familiar conversation. 

2. A twig, a young shoot See Chit. 

Chatter, i;. a. I. frequentative of Chat ; to talk idly. 

2. To twitter, to make a noise like birds, to sound like 
the teeth when shivering with cold ; Isl. kuttra ; D. 
jaddere. See Twitter. 

Chatwood, s. small wood. See Chat. 

Chavender, s. a small fish ; F. chavesne. See Chub 
and Cheven. 

Chaudron, s. 1. the entrails of a beast; G. kuidron, 

kuUhron, a paunch ; S. cwUh ; Swed« qued ; Scot 

kite, the stomach. 
2. A measure bf four baskets of coals; L. qualemus ; 

L. B. caterma; O. F. chattem ; T. cliotern. See 

Chaw, v, a. to champ, to masticate; T. kauen; B. 

kaawen ; S. ceowan. See Chew. 
Cheap, a. at a low rate or price, at small expence; 

Swed. kdp; T. kauff; B. koop ; S. ceap, a bargain; 

Swed. goai kop ; F. a bonne march^ ; O. F. achapl, 

achat i aceajd, a purchase ; from G. kaupa. 
Chbaping, Chipping, in the names of places signified 

a market ; Swed. /S3ping ; S. cyping. See Cheap. 

Cheat, s. a deception, fraud, an imposture; S. ceat ; 
from Isl. and Swed. kykiy to change ; L. captio, capttts. 

Check, s. I. account or reckoning, a note of sums. See 

2. A restriction, restraint, a warning to the king at chess. 
See Chess. 

3. What is variegated by cross lines like a . chess-teUe ; 
T. schaek ; Swed. skask ; Sans, chuok. See Exche- 
quer and Chess. 



Check, v. a. from the noun ; to restrain, impede ; F. 
ienir en echec. 

Checkbr, V, a. frequentative of Check ; to variegate, di- 

Checkmate, #. the termination of the game at chess ; 
A. thekh mat; P. shah mat, the king dead or confound- 
ed ; F. echec et mat. See Chess. 

Cheek, *. the side of the face ; D. kiewe ; Swed. kak ; 
S. ceac ; B. kaah ; Arm. chic. See Jaw. 

Cheer, s, 1. provisions in an entertainment ; It. cxera ; 

F. ckere : Sp. xira ; L. charts ; x'^i^' 
2. Gaiety, good spirits, animation ; x^^», gladness ; ku^, 

heart, courage. 
Cheese, s. food made from milk curds; L. caseus ; 

It. cascio ; S. cyse ; T. hose ; Swed. lea ; W. catvs ; 

Tartar and Turk, aous, coagukted milk, produced 6. 

and Swed ost, curds. See Biestings. 

Cherish, v. a. to cheer, nourish, shelter; F. cherir, 
from L. charus. 

Cherry^ s. a fruit said to have been brought from Ce- 
rasus to Rome by Lucullus ; M^ewi ; L. cerasus ; F. 

Chert, s. a kind of flint ; F. T. Swed. quartz ; L. sUex 

Cherub, s, an angel of the second order ; Heb. cerub, 

plur. cerubim. See Seraph. 
Cherup, s. the note of a bird. See Chirp. 
Cheslip, s. the hog louse ; G. sceslip ; Swed. sugga 

loppe, sow louse ; T. schrvein laus ; It. porcelletto, from 

its shape. 

Chess, s. an intricate game; Sans, and Hind, chaturanga, 
the four bodies ; A. and P. shatranj ; G. skack ; Swed. 
.skak, schak ; T. schach; B. skaak; It. scacco ; F. 
echecs. In Europe it seems to have been confounded 
with A. shekh ; P. shah ; Sp. xeque, a king, a chief, 
because the issue of the game depends on a piece 
so called in the east. The expression Check to the 
king, in this sense, is tautology, as shekh alone sufii- 
ciently intimates that he is in jeopardy ; and, if he 
cannot be rescued, A. shekh mat, the King dead ; P. 
shah maty the king confounded, terminates the contest 
Sans, and Hind, chuok is a square or check, from chuo, 
four ; chuok pourna, to make squares. As four with 
them is used like our decimal, it would seem that this 
game may have originated in numerical calculations 
on the Abacus, which, according to the Lord Chancel- 
lor's arms and the brewers' signs, contained similar 
squares, connected evidently with our words exche- 
quer and check in most of their significations. 

Chessom, s. loam, fertile mould ; G. gicesam, for giced- 

sam ; Swed. gddsam. 
Chest, s. a large box or coffer, the cavity of the breast ; 

K/ru ; L. cista ; G. kist ; P. kisti ; T. kasten ; S. cyst ; 

Swed. }dst ; B. Idst ; Arm. W. I. cist. See Case. 

Chester, Caster, in the names of places, are S. ceaster, 
from L. castrum, a fortification. See Castle. 

(^hevalier, s. a horseman, a knight, a person entitled 
by rank to appear mounted in the field. 

Chevaux db prise, s. a military fence, which would 
.signify in F. Friezland horses; but perhaps the real 
word is echqfaud de Jraises, a scaffold with spikes ; 
Arm. freus is a barrier of the same kind ; but it ca- 
vallieri is the same machine. 

Cheven, jr. a small fish ; F. chevesne, from chef, the 
head. See Chub. 

Chew, v. a. to masticate; T. kieurven, Idefen ; S. ceonJan ; 

F. chiqutT. See Chaw. 
Chicane, s. 1. legal disputation, sophistry; F. chicane, 

from AampW ; L. dica, law-pleading. 
2. A trifling petty quibble; A. dig; Sp. and Port- 

ckico ; F. chic, petty, subtile, small ; F. chicoter, to 

Chichb, s. a vetch, an eruption on the skin with that 

appearance ; F. chiche ; L. deer. 
Chicken, *. a pullet in its earl]j state ; S. ciccen, cUcian ; 

T. kuicken ; Isl. kicka, to quicken, to hatch, signified 

generidly the anhifati6n of any foetus ; and its resem- 
blance to €)ock may have made it be considered as the 

dim. of that word. Scot ehuckie; It ckioccia, from 

clock, to hatch, is a hen. L. fnpio, however, by the 

usual intermutation of P and K would become kikio. 

See Peep. 
Chicken pox, s. an eruptive disease appearing like small 

freckles ; properly chichen pox. See Chiche. 
Chide, v. a. to reprove, blame, scold; G. kuida; 8. 

Chief, s. the head, principal person, a leader ; F. chef; 

It capo, from L. caput. 
Ch IE VANCE, s. a tax on the real value of any property ; 

from chief, ci^ital. 
Chilblain, s. an ulcerous sore produced by cold. See 

Chill and Blain. 
Child, s. an infant ; G. kyld, kuUd, from eld, a foetus ; 

S. cild : G. kulla, to beget Kyld aigni6ed particularly 

legitimate offspring; but bairn was applied to any 

condition ; Scot chiel; Sp. chula, a youth. 
Chill, s. shivering with cold ; G. kiala ; Swed. Ary/w ; 

S. cele. See Cool. 
Chime, s. I. harmony, musical ringing of bells ; L. ca- 

mena, from eoncino ; Swed. kimma ; Xvfipmff*. 
2. The top or end of a cask ; L. cima ; F. cime ; B. kirn. 
Chiminage, s. a toll for passage ; from F. chemin ; It 

and Port, camino, a roaa ; P. gam; W. cam, a pace or 

step ; lutfMni. See Jamv. 
Chimney^ s. a fireplace, a passage for smoke ; ztifuui 

from xiUtt, to bum ; L. caminus ; F. cheminei ; A. 

Chin, s. the lowest part of the face; G. kinn ; Swed- 

kinna; S. cinne; T. kinn ; riwf ; Arm. gin ; W. gen. 
Chincough, s. a convulsive cough ; T. kink host ; Swed- 

kikhosta; F. quinte; Scot kink, is applied to a violent 

fit of laughing or coughing, from G. kaugian, kikna ; 

B. kichen ; S. aceocan. See Choke. 
Chinch, s. a bug; Sp. chinche ; It cimice; L. cimex. 
Chine, s. the backbone ; F. echine ; It. schienna, from 

L. s^na, by the usual mutation of P into K. 
Chink, s. 1. a small opening, a crevice ; S. cyna ; G. 

ginca, from gia, gina ; S. cinan ; x/i^ttt. 
2. A slang word for money; from chink, chinkle, to 

sound. See Jingle. 
Chints, s. printed calico ; Sans, cheet ; Hind, cheent ; 

P. chinz, spotted, stained. 
Chioppine, *. a kind of shoe worn by women ; Sp. cha- 

pin ; It. scarpino, screpino, from L. crepis. 
Chip, Chipping, in the names of places signifies a 

market See Cheaping. 

Chip, v. a. to cut in small pieces; Swed. kippa ; T. 
kippen ; dim. of Chop. 

Chirp, s. the note of birds ; anciently chirm ; S. cyrm / 
Sp. chiar' See Chirre. 


C H U 

C L A 

Chirbs^ v. a. to murmur^ to coo ; O. kura ; P. koor ; S. 
ceorwHy kttT€n» 

Ghirurgeon^ s. a medical operator^ a surgeon ; F. 
chirurgien; Xu^v^yW. 

Chisbl^ s. a carpenter's paring tool ; Sp. sincel; F. ct- 
seau, ciseUe ; ti, B. scissula, from L. scindo. 

Chit, *. 1. a child, formerly kit. See Kitten. 
3. A germ or shoot ; 6. kigt ; S. cett ; M. 6. kigan, to 

3. A vetch, a freckle of that appearance. See Chichb 
and Chicken-pox. 

Chitchat, s. trifling talk ; T. chit, a saying ; dim. of 


Chitterlings, s. the small guts, dim. of 6. kuider ; S. 
cuither; T. kuitter, the paunch. Sec Chaudron. 

Chivalry, s. knighthood, exploit, adventure ; F. cAe- 
vcderie ; It. cavaueria. See Chevalier. 

Chivbs, s. 1. the threads rising in flowers with seeds at 
the ends ; from It. cima ; L. cyma, 

2. Very small onions ; F. cives ; L. cepe. See Cibol. 

Chocolate, s. a small nut, and a liquor made from it ; 
F. chocolat ; It. cioccoLata. See Cacao. 

Choice, a. select, of great value. See to Choose. 

Chokb, v. a. to suffocate, to kill by stopping the breath, 
to shut up, to stifle ; 6. kuaugian ; S. accocan ; "Ayx^, 

Choose, v, a, to select, pick out ; 6. kiosa ; T. kiesen ; 
Swed. k€9a ; S. ceosan ; F. choisir. 

Chop, s. 1. a piece cut off, a slice of meat, the mark of 
a cut, a scar ; from xiwlit ; Swed. kappa ; B. kappen ; 
D. kappe; F. couper, 

2. A bargain, an exchange ; 6. kiop ; T. kaup ; S. ceap. 
See Cheap. 

3. The jaw ; Isl. kiafl ; Swed. kctft ; Scot chaft^ from 
chaw. See Jaw. 

Chopin, s. a wine measure ; F. chopine ; S. sciop ; T. 
schopfen ; L. scaphiwn. 

Chopping, a, 1. large, healthy, stout ; 6. skapung ; S. 

scop geong, a shapely child. See Shape ana Ing. 
2. Cutting, hacking ; part, of to Chop. 

Chough, s, a kind of daw, a sea bird frequenting rocks; 
A. ghak ; P. kutva ; Sans, kak ; Hind, kaea ; 6. kaxa ; 
D. kaje ; S. ceo, kayke; B. kawe ; T. kauch; W. gawd; 
I. caag ; F. clioucas ; Sp. chava. See Jack daw. 

Chouse, v. a. to impose upon, to trick ; 6. gaswika ; S. 
geswican ; Isl. kouska. See Swindle. 

Christ, s, the anointed; X^ii^;, synonimous with 

Christmas, s, the festival of Christ See Yule and 

Christmas-Box, s. now a small box, but formerly an 
earthen pot into which spare money was hoarded till 
Christmas, and could not be got at without breaking 
the vessel ; B. spaar pot. 

Christ's Thorn, s, a species of buckthorn, very com- 
mon in Palestine, with which Christ is supposed to 
have been crowned. 

Chub, s. a small fish with a large head ; F. chabot ; L. 
capito; D. quahe. See Chevbn. 

Chuck, v. a. 1. to throw ; h.jacto. 

2. To call as a hen ; It. chioccia ; Scot chuckie, a hen. 

Chuckle, v. a. frequentative of Chuck, to call as a hen ; 
to laugh convulsively. See Giggle. 

Chvff^ a. fat headed, clownish^ surly ; G. kuuf; Swed. 

kuf; Scot, cufe, signify a mean fellow, a churl ; and 
are apparently conrounded with Chub. 

Chum, s. a fellow lodger ; S. cuma is a guest ; but our 
word is perhaps contracted from Comrade. 

Chump, s. a thick heavy piece of wood ; T. kumpf. See 

Church, s. a place of divine worship, a body of Christ- 
ians, the clergy. See Kirk. 

Churl, s. a rustic man, a surly fellow, a niggard ; G. 
karl; Swed. karl; T. kerl; B. kaerl ; S. ceorl; W. 
carl, a boor: S. eorl and ceorl, noble and plebeian, 
high and low. 

Churm, s. a confused murmur or noise; S. cyrme. See 

Churn, s. a vessel to make butter in ; G. kern ; D. 
kieme ; B. kam ; S. cyrn ; Swed. kerna ; from G. 
ka^a ; S. cyrran ; T. keren, to turn. See Qubrn. 

Churr-worm, s. an insect called a fan cricket ; from 

Chymistry, s. the art of separating the different sub- 
stances in mixed bodies by fire. See Alchymy. 

Cibol, s. a small kind of onion ; L. cepula ; Scot, ^et- 
how. See Chives. 

Cicely, s. an herb, dwarf hemlock, myrrh ; L. cicutela. 
Cicisbeo, s. a gallant, an attendant on a lady. See 

CiD, s. a chieftain, a prince; A. said, syd; Sp. cid. 

Cider, s. the fermented juice of apples ; F. cidre ; It. 
sidro : L. sicera was a general name for liquor made 
of grain or any fruit except the grape. 

Cierge, s. a wax candle ; F. from L. eera, 

Cimeter, s. a Turkish hanger; Turk, shimeler; P. 
shimshir ; A. self ; i/^t, corresponding with G. skio^ 
mer; whence F. cimeterre ; It. scimitario. See Sabbe. 

Cinder, s. hot coal that has ceased to flame ; L. dnis ; 

It cinere; F. cendre ; G. sinder ; D. siunder; W. 

sinidr. See Tinder. 
Cinnabar, s. a red mineral ; L. cinnaharis ; F. cinnahre. 

Cinnamon, s. a spice, the bark of a tree resembling the 
laurel ; Malabar, kannema, signifying sweet wood ; 
Heb. kanam ; P. kinnamon ; F. cinnamone : ¥im§i(Mtfi*f, 
seems to have been Kivm t^futfut. 

CiON, s. a sprout, a young shoot. See Scion. 

Cipher, s. the figure O in arithmetic, a secret cha- 
racter for writing ; It. cifra ; F. chifre, from A. sifr ; 
Heb. sepher, numeration. 

Cipher, v. a. from the noun ; to write in numerical 

Cithern, s. a kind of guitar ; P. kiiar; Kjid^a ; L. ct- 
thera ; Sans, chatar, four : P. sitar, is something of 
the same kind of instrument, from, sih, six, and tar, 
a string. 

Citadel, s. a small fortress, a castle ; It citadella ; F. 

citadelle, the small town. 
CiTBiNE, a. yellow, ct^ron-coloured. 

CiTBON, s. a large kind of lemon ; L. ciirea mala from 

P. cUt ; Heb. cout, the name for Media. 
CiVBT, s. a kind of perfume ; A. xibethi ; P. zibed ; It 

zibetto ; F. civctte. 
Clack, s. continued noise, a mill clapper; G. klak ; 

S. clec ; F. claque ; W. dace ; xXM^yn. 

Claim, v. a. to require, to demand of right ; F, clamer, 

from L. clamo, 



C L O 

Ci«AMBBtt^ V, a. to dimb with difficulty ; IsL klifra ; T. 
klimberen ; D. klavre. See Claxp. 

CiiAMM, V. a. to clog, to stop up ; D. klame, to stick ; 

S. clam; B. klem, wet clay ; T. Urn, gelim, glue. See 

Claxp^ s. a claw, a grapple, a brace; 6. klauf; D. 

klampe ; B. klamf; T. kiatnmer ; S. clatntn ; F. clamp. 

Clan, s. family, race, breed ; I. clan ; W. Uan ; Scot. 
clachan, signify a village with a church, an area or 
place, a community ; iT clain j Scot, calan, a boy, a 
youth, as well as clan, seem to be from O. kylla, to 
procreate. See Child. 

Clap, «. 1. a sudden motion, a blow or sound of colli- 
sion, the noise of thunder ; Isl. klapp; D. klap; Swed. 
klappj S. clapp; B. klap; T. klopp; W. clap. 

2. A gleet, a venereal infection, a dripping; 6. hlaup; 
T. gelupjpe, gelauf; B. geloop, a running ; T. gelippe, 
venom, infection. 

Clarbt. s. red wine, principally from Bourdeaux in 
France ; the name seems to have been applied origi- 
nally to a light coloured wine, F. clairel, from L. 
clarus ; G. klar, signified wine, and riod, red. 

Clarion, «. 1. a trumpet; It. clarinoj F. clairon; T. 
klarin, perhaps from L. clarus; but S. hfyrian, to 
trunipet, is from O. and Swed. ludr, luur, a trumpet. 
See Loud. 

2. A small bell ; F. clarine ; L. clarisonus, 

Claby, s. a vulnerary herb ; L. salvia sclarea, from O. 

skarlauk ; T. scharlach ; B. skarley ; It schiarea. See 
Soar and Lbbk. 

Clash, s. opposition, collision or the sound proceeding 
from it ; T. klats ; B. klits, from L. coUido. 

Clasp, s, a holdfast, an embrace; G. klas, klops ; S. 
dypps, from clyppan, to embrace; Scot c^pf. See 
to lTlip. 

Clattbr, s. a tumultuous confused noise ; G. klutr ; 
Swed. klutter ; B. klater ; S. hUother, deadur. 

ChAw, s, the toe of a beast or bird armed with sharp 
nails ; properly a division of the foot ; G. klo, kkt ; 
Swed. klo ; S. claw ; B. klaaun. See to Cleave. 

Clay, s. a tenacious sort of earth ; T. kUy ; B. kleg ; 
S. closg ; Pol. kley ; W. clai ; P. gU ; L. glis. 

Clean, a. free from dirt, pure, elegant ; S. clam, which 
does not appear to have any cognate, unless it be 
hlasn; T. Swed. and B. klein, thin, slender, small; 
whence B. kleinzen, to purify liquor, to make it thin, 
not thick. Our word fine is also thin, small, pure, 
briffht ; but the S. word may have been confounded 
wiu gUtn ; Swed. glan ; W. glan, bright, fair, pure, 
neat, corresponding with Clear. 

Clear, a. bright, manifest, pure, free; F. claire; 
Swed. klar ; T. klar, from L. clarus, seem to be cog- 
nate with G. gler. See Glaire. 

CiiBAVB, v. a, 1. to adhere, to cling; G. klqfia, klafa; 
Swed. kUhha ; B. kleeven ; D. klebe ; S. clyppian ; W. 

2, To divide, separate, split ; G. kliufa ; Swed. klyfiva ; 
8. cleqfan ; T. klieben ; B. klieven ; T. kloeben ; uJm. 
Hence cliff, a division of a rock ; claw, a division of 
the foot ; club, an apportioning of expenditure ; and 
clipping, a fragment. 

Cleaver, s. h a plant, aperine or goose grass ; T. kleb 
kraut, from its adhering quality. 

2. A chopping knife ; from Cleave, to divide. 

Clbp, s, a key ; F. drf ; L. clavis. 

Clept, s, a crack, crevice, opening ; from to Cleats. 
Clepe, V, a. to call, to name ; S. clypian ; L. clueo, 

Cleboy, s. the whole order of divines ; F. cUrg^ from 
iSikMt ; L. clerus, which signified the inheritance, viz. 
of God or the church. 

Clebk, s, 1. one of the clergy, a priest ; F. clerc, from 
L. clericus. 

2. A scribe, a man of letters ; because the clergy at 
one time were almost the only persons who could 

Cleveb^ a. dextrous, skilful, smart, intelligent ; G. 
ghgr ; Swed. glugar ; S. eleawra ; T. klugger : y>M- 
^v^^f is a different word, although used in nearly the 
same sense. 

Clew, s. a ball of thread; B. klewin; S. cliew ; T. klowe; 
P. kulahu. 

Click, v. a. to make a sharp successive noise ; S. klicken ; 
F. cliquer ; dim. of Clack. 

Clipp, s, a precipice, a rock, a steep hill ; G. and Swed. 
klif, klippa ; T. klippe ; B. kUf; S. clif; L. clivus. See 
to Cleave and Cbao. 

Climate, s. air, tract of country, space ; F. climat. See 

Climb, v. a. to ascend, to get up a diff; G. klipa ; Swed. 
klffwa ; T. and B. klimmen ; S. climan ; from cliff, as 
to mount, from mount, a hill. 

Climb, s. a circular segment on the globe dividing re- 
gions ; tJjfm ; L. clima ; A. iglum. 

Clinch, s. a hold, a catch, a pun, a crotchet, a fold ok' 
a cable ; B. kUnk ; D. klinke ; Swed. klinka ; S. klincke, 
for gelincke. See Link and Crank. 

Cling, t;. a, I. to adhere, to stick together, to shrivel, 
grow flaccid; S. dingan; D. klinge ; Swed klena. 

Clink, v. a. to sound like metal ; Swed. klinga ; T. and 
B. klincken. 

Clinquant, s, glitter, embroidery; F. clinquant; B. 
klenkant ; Swed. klink ; S. glamge, from G. gha, to 
shine ; glan, bright. 

Clip, v. a. I. to embrace, confine ; S. clyppan ; Scot 
clip. See Clasp. 

2. To cut, shear, divide ; G. Mippa ; D. klippe ; Swed. 
klippa ; S. clepan. See to Cleave. 

Cliveb, s. stone clover, the plant melilot ; T. and B. 
stein claver. 

Cloak, s. an outer garment, a cover ; L. B. chca, sup- 
posed to be from T. and S. lack ; Swed. laken, cloth 
or a garment, in which sense Chaucer uses lake ; A. 
khaluk is a loose robe. 

Clock, ^. I. an instrument to show time, a bell ; G. klok ; 
Swed. klocka; B. klok; T.glocke; Am. dock ; W. 
clocc ; F. doche, from G. kloka ; S. cleccian, to strike, 
to sound. 

2. The ffusset of a stocking ; B. kUuk, from G. galuka ; 

S. gcuukan, to close. See Look. 
a A kind of dirty beetle ; D. kakalak, kaluk; O. £. ka^ 

kerla, a dungroUer, from L. cacaloco. 

Clock, v. a. to hatch chickens ; G. kkeka ; Swed. kUf 
ka ; S. cloccan ; T. klocken, like L. glociio, from the 
call of the brooding hen. 

Clod, s. a lump ^f earth; G. klode; Swed. klot, jord 
klat ; B. khiit, aerd klot ; T. Idoss. See Clay. 

Cloo, s. 1. from LOO ; a hindrance, an inconvenience, im- 
pediment, a wooden shoe. 

C L U 

C O C 

2. To stick, close, obstruct; Scot clag; KdAAMw; S. 
clog ; D. kloBg, glue. See Clot and Cloom. 

Cloister, s, an inclosure where religious devotees are 
confined; F. cUnstre; S. clautter ; T. kloster ; L. 
claustrum. See Closb. 

Cloom, Clbam, v. a, to close or stop up with glutinous 
matter ; S. clannan. See Cloo. 

Close, s. an inclosed place, a field, a termination ; F. 

dos ; T. klosty from JL. clausus. 
Close, v. a, from the noun ; to shut, terminate. 
Closh, s. lameness, the founder in a horse ; F. cloche, 

fr<Mn L. claudus. 

Clot, s. what is curdled, concretion ; B. kloot ; F. cail- 
let, from L. coagutatum ; sometimes confounded with 

Clot Bur, *. the burdock; S. elate; T. klette ; F. 
glouteron, from G. kloat ; T. klcU, a claw. 

Cloth, *. what is woven, a web, originally of wool ; 
G. klasde; T. kleid; B. kleed ; S. dad, clath, from 
Swed. lo ; Isl. lod, hlod, wool. 

Cloud, *. 1. a body of vapours in the air, obscurity, a 
spot or stain ; S. li(ft, getuft, the air, the sky, a cloud. 
I^e LiPT. 

2. A multitude of people, an host; G. li/d; S. leod ; T. 
Hut, the people, the multitude ; S. hloth, a crowd, a 

3. A dell in the mountains, a rock, a cliff ; G. klett ; S 
clud, hleoth, hlith. See Clouoh. 

Clove, s. a kind of spice ; F. cUm ; P. kcdqfur ; A. ka* 

roph ; garyophyUon of Pliny. 
2. A head or portion of the bulb of garlick ; S. chife ; 

T. klovelauch, garlick. See to Cleave. 
Clover, s, a species of trefoil ; T. klee ; B. klaver ; 

Swed. klqftver; D. kliver ; S. cUefer, from its cloven 

Clouoh, s. 1. a vale between cliffs ; S. dough ; Scot 

clofve. See Cliff and Cloud. 

2. Allowance made for reweighing goods in retail ; 
sometimes written Cloff ; G. klqftvasg; Swed. klotvagh. 
See Cleave, to divide. Club and Weigh. 

Clout, j. 1. a rag, a piece, a patch; P. lutta ; G. klut; 
B. kluts ; S. dut ; Swed. ktut ; D. klud. 

2. A clown, a booby ; Swed. klut ; B. kloet, a mean rag- 
ged fellow. See Lout. 

3. A cuff, a blow with the hof or hand ; B. klouw, a 
blow with the hand. 

Clown, s. a boor, a peasant ; either from L. cohnus, or 

our loon, a hired servant. 
Clot, v. a, 1. to satiate, surfeit ; G. kligia, kleij, nausea. 

See Cloo. 
2. To spike gims, to drive a nail into the touch hole ; 

F. doner, n*om clou ; L. clavis. 

Club, s, 1. a, heavy stick, a mace, a suit of cards marked 
with a club, or rather with a clover leaf; Swed. 
kluhha ; D. kluh ; T. klopfe ; W. clwppa ; L. clava, 

2. A portion or apportioning, a division, a society pay- 
ing equally ; G. kluff ; Swed. kluhh ; B. kloof: T. 
kluh; T. cluiben, kloehen, signified to apportionate 
church-rates and assessments. See Cleave and Scot. 

Cluck, v, a, to cry like a hen to her brood ; S. doccian ; 
W. claucan ; L. glocUo, See to Clock. 

Clue, v. a. to tie, close, bundle ; KAuW ; L. claudo ; F. 

Cluelines, s, lines that clue up the comers of the sails 

in a ship. S«e Clue. 

Clump, s. a tuft of trees; G. klimpa; Swed. , it/iTiip, 
klump ; B. klomp ; W. clump, a mass, a lump. 

Clumst, a. heavy, thick, unhandy ; formerly Clumpsy, 
from Clump. 

Clung, v. n. to dry or shrink as wood. See to Cling. 
Cluster, s. a bunch like grapes; Swed. klaster ; S. 
cluster ; D. class ; T. klos, from G. klaur. 

Clutch, s, a talon, a grasp, a gripe ; G. kloast ; T. 
klatz. See Claw. 

Clutter, s, a noise, a bustle, a jangle ; G. klutr ; 
Swed. klutter. 

Coach, s, a large covered carriage; F. coche; lUcocckio ; 
T. koische, kutsche ; Swed. kusk ; D. hidsk : F. coche, 
signifies also a passage-boat on a river ; B. koetze is a 
couch and a coach. Kao tche is said to signify with 
the Huns a high waggon. 

Coal, s, ignited wood, fossil fuel; G. kd; Heb. gehd; 
Swed. Sd; S. col; T. kohle; B. kod; G, kd, akeL. 
calor, signified fire or heat, apparently from G. ala ; 
S. celan, to burn. 

Coarse, a. gross, rude, rough ; L. crassus. See Gross. 

Coast, s, a side, land next the sea, the shore ; L. costa ; 

F. coste; It costa; B. kust; Swed. kust. 
Coat, s. a man's upper garment, the hairy covering of 

animals ; Heb. cutton ; Chald. kiton ; ;^in^y ; T. kutte; 

F. cotte; It. cotta. Our word, however, is supposed 

to be cognate with It. and Sp. cappotto ; F. capote ; 

Swed. k&fta, a mantle, from L. capttium. 

Coax, v. a. to wheedle, to flatter, fawn ; G. kuska ; B. 
keozen ; T. kosen. See Cocker. 

Cob, s. I. a head, a round knob ; KyC«. See Cop. 

2. A sea-fowl; T. kepf; Kw^; L. cepphus, from its 
levity. See Gull. 

3. A spider ; G. eiter koppo ; S. copp, atter coppe ; G. 
eitur; S. atter, venom, and koppa, a cup, a honey- 

Cobalt, s. a mineral found in Bohemia ; T. kobalt ; F. 
cobalt ; Sclav, cob, cov, metal. 

Cobble, v. a, to mend coarsely, to botch, to put toge- 
ther ; F. cobler ; Swed. kobla, from L. cupolo. Rabe- 
lais uses cobler, to botch. P. kubal is a snoemaker. 

Coble, s. a small boat; S. cuople ; T. kubd; W. ceu- 
bel; KvfiCn. 

Cobra Capello, s, the hooded snake; Port, cobra; 
L. cdubra, and capello ; F. chapeau, a hat or hood. 

Cobweb, s, a spider's web. See Cob. 

Cochineal, s. an insect used for dying scarlet; Sp. 
cochineUo, a cheslip or sow bug, was applied to an 
insect of that kind which feeds on a dwarf oak, in 
Spain, and may have been coccina ilicis, from jcMUMf, 
red; but the name is now given to another insect 
found on the Opuntia in SouUi America. 

Cock, s, 1. the male to the hen, a domestic fowl, and 
generally applied to the male of birds ; M. G. kok ; 
S. coce ; F. coq; Arm. coc ; Sclav, kokos ; Hung. 
kakas ; Sans, kukkut ; JUtxtuf ; from the call of that 
bird, as L. gallus, from G. gala ; S. galan, to crow. 
The L. name, however, may be cognate with P. khayu ; 
Heb.kilioh; Q. giatl ; Swed, gall; S. gal; B.geile; 
T.geil; L. cdeus ; W. caill; Arm. cail; I. cadah; F. 
coudle; It coglio, a testicle; whence Arm. and W. 
keilloc, ceiliog, ceilliau, signifying also a cock. 

2. A vane, screw, pivot, spiggot, style of a dial, appa- 
rently from having the figure of the bird to indicate 
the position ; It. galletto ; han or hen in the G. dialects, 
and Celt ceilu^ are used in the same sense. 

c o c 

3. The notch in which an arrow was placed on the bow^ 
the hammer which holds the flint in fire-arms; It. 
cocca; F. coche, from L. cassiOf which the Germans^ 
however^ call han, from the form^ when applied to a 

4. Little^ diminutive ; O. kog ; P. kak. 

5. A master^ one who domineers or triumphs as a cock ; 
F. coq is used in the same sense ; but G. and Swed. 
ktekj T. keck, animated, bold. 

6. Submission ; Scot, to cry cock, O. E. to cry cockles, 
to be vanquished ; G. kug. See to Cow. 

7* A red colour ; Kmumi ; L. coccus. 

8. The head, the top or upper part, a round heap, an 
elevation; Isl. kock; Arm. cook, are probably like 
our own word from cop, by the usual inter mutation 
of P and K ; Sp. coca ; Scot, cock, a hat or head.* See 

CooKADB, s, a mark of distinction, a ribbon worn on 
the hat; F. coquard. See Cock, the head or hat, 
and Ard. 

CocKAHOOP, ad, in high mirth or joy ; perhaps from 
cock, triumphant. See Goo and Hoop. 

CocKAiON, s. abundance, jollity, pleasure, joy ; F. cau- 
cagne, cocagne; It cocagna, from Romance gaug, 
caug ; F. gogo ; L. gaudium ; O. £. to cogge, signified 
to please, to rejoice, to flatter. See Cocker. 

CocKAii, s. a game with boys ; formerly Hockle, be- 
cause made of a sheep's jomt or hock ; F. osselet. 

Cock apparel, s, a gay dress ; Romance caug, gaiety. 
See CocKAiON. 

Cock boat, s, a small boat ; G. kugge ; Swed. kogg; 
T. kogge, kocke ; B. kogge ; W. cwch ; It. cocca ; F. 
coquet ; Chaucer wrote cogge* See Cock, little. 

Cocker, v, a. to pamper, fondle, indulge; Romance, 
cauger. See Cockaion and Coo. 

CocKET, s, an official seal, a custom-house certificate ; 
F. cachet ; It. costo, ascosto, from L. conditus. 

CocKBT BREAD, s, the finest wheaten bread. See 

Cockle, j. 1. a name given to the corn rose and wild 

Eoppy ; F. coqulicot ; W. cocklys ; L. coccus Idium ; 
ut S. coccel is supposed to be from ceocan, to choke. 
See GiTH. 

2. A shell fish ; F. coquille ; L. cochlea ; ti^^mt. 
Cockloft, s, the room over the garret, the top. See 

Cockney, j. 1. a citizen of London ; G. kauptona, an 
emporium ; T. kauiney, kolheney, an exchange ; Arm. 
couchine ; L. cocio, cocionis, a merchant. The nobility 
and their vassals, despising the citizens for their igno- 
rance of country life, may have connected the word 
cockney with gatvken, a coxcomb, a jack sprat, as 
haudet was applied to a Parisian by the gentry of 
France ; but cockagney may have denoted the good 
fare of the city. See Cockaion. 

2. A child reared delicately. See to Cocker. 

CocKWEED, s, scurvy grass ; L. cochlearium. 

CocoA, s» the tree and small nut of which chocolate is 
made. See Cacao. 

CocoA NUT, *. the very large nut of a palm tree ; Sp. 
coco ; F. coco, from K«yx<i '» ^' concha, a bowl or shell, 
for which it is used. See Cocoa tree. 

Cocoa tree, s. a palm tree of most extraordinary uti- 
lity. It serves tor timber ; the fibres of the bark for 
oakum; the roots for coarse mats; the leaves for 


baskets, hats^ umbrellas, fine mats, thatch, ceiling, 
walls, curtains, and instead of writing jiaper ; the 
young shoots are used as cabbages or pickles, and 
the pith for sago ; the husk of the nut serves to make 
cables, coarse cloth, stuffing for mattresses, scrubbing 
brushes ; the shell for botSes, bowls, dishes ; and its 
contents for drink, bread, oil, soap, sugar, and distil- 
ling into spirits. See Cocoa nut. 
Con, s, the bag or husk of seeds; G. kodde; Umim; 
W. cod ; Swed. kudde ; Scot, cod, a bag or pillow ; 
Swed. kod; T. kod; S. codd, the scrotum. See Poo. 

Codfish, s, a sea-fish with a large head; L. capUo; It. 

cavallau ; B. kabilfaufv, from Ki^aA* ; Scot, headock, 

which is a species of it, from head. 
CoDWORM, s, a dew-worm, named from being kept in a 

cod with moss, to become transparent before used as 

a bait. 
Coffee, s, an Arabian tree, berry and fruit; A. quhwa; 

P. kafveh ; F. caffe. 

Coffee-house, s. a house of public entertainment, now 
understood as a room where people drink coffee ; but 
perhaps originally from G. kaup ; T. kauf; L. caupo ; 
Scot, coffe, a merchant ; Arm. covi, a tavern or sub- 
scription meeting, where refreshments are sold; which 
words were apparently in use before coffee was known 
in Europe. 

Coffer, s, a chest, a receptacle; Isl. kqfe; S. cqfc ; T. 
koffer ; Swed. koffert ; B. koffer ; Sp. cofre ; F. cqf^ 
fre : Arm. coffaur ; W. coffr ; I. cojra. See Cove. 

Coffin, s, a chest for dead bodies ; F. cqfin ; W. ca/l 
fyn, a chest, a trough, from cone ; L. ca\ius : A. kujun 
is a shroud. 

Coo, s, a wedge, a wooden tooth ; T. kog ; Swed. kugg ; 
B. kegge : L. B. coga. See Coione. 

Coo, V. a. 1. from the noun ; to wedge, give a [bias to 
dice, to play unfairly,, to deceive. 

2. To please, flatter, wheedle, coax. See Cocker. 

Coif, s, a cap, a head-dress ; F. cwfe ; Sp. cofia ; It. 

ct^a, cognate with cop ; A. kuehf, the head. See 

Coione, s, an angle, a wedge, a die, an instrument to 

stamp money ; Vmm ; L. cuneus ; Sans, konu ; F. 

coigne : L. B. cuneus, the mint. See Coin. 
Coil, v, a. to roll up a rope in circular folds ; It. cog- 

liere; F. cueiller, from L. colligere; perhaps from 


Coin, s. money stamped legally. See Coione. 
CoiSTREL, s, a mean fellow, a dastard : G. kost thral 

was one who served for his food ; but see Custrel. 
CoiT, s. a flat stone or iron to pitch at a mark ; B.gooid, 

Segooid, what is thrown or cast ; T. kote ; B. ^oo^, a 
lirow at Jice or cockal ; K*tt«(. 

Coke, s, charcoal ; L. lignum coctum. 

Cold, s. without heat, frigid ; G. kald ; Swed. kM ; T. 

kalte ; S. cdd. 
CoLB, CoLEWORT, s, a kind of cabbage ; G. kal ; Swed. 

kaal; T. koM ; B. kool ; S. col; K«vAh; h, cauUs ; 

W. cawl; Arm. caul; I. cola; ¥, chou ; It. cavolo: 

P. kulla is cabbage, from kuU, a head. See Kale and 


Collar, s, 1. something round the neck; Heb. koUar ; 
L. coUare ; F. colier, 

2. Meat tied together to be cooked ; F. Her, coUer; L. 

Collop> s, I. a small chop of meat made tender by 


beating; Swed. kMop; T. kolps; Swed. klam>a; T. 

klopfen, to beat. In early times the Scandinavian 

monks are said to have adopted their culinary terms 

from the English ; but afterwards from the French. 
2. A child; Q. kuU, progeny; kifUa, to beget. See 

GoLONBL^ s. the chief regimental oflBcer ; O. P. coronel; 

T. coronel, from L. corona, the summit or top ; It. 

colonnello ; F. cohnelle, are supposed to signify the 

leader of a column^ from L. columna. 
Ck>LT^ s. a young horse; S. colt, Swed. kult, like L. 

puUus, signify the young of any animal^ from G. kylla, 

to beget. 
Colt, v. a. to play like young animals ; but apparently 

partaking or G. gaUla. kauia, tn wanton, to be lasci- 
vious, bee Cock. 
Comb, *. 1. an instrument for dressing the hair ; Swed. 

T. B. kam; S. camb ; Kiftn; L. coma, hair of the 


2. The crest of a cock ; Swed. kam ; T. kamm, from 
being pectinated. 

3. The small cells in which bees deposit their honey ; 
G. koppa; D. kube; B. kom, koomb ; T. kump; S. 
camb ; KvftHf ; S. aimb ; Scot, cap, a bowl or dish ; 
all of which seem to be cognate with cup. 

4. a valley, a hollow place; S. comb; F. combe; W. 
cumm. See Cove. 

Combat, v. a. to fight, to contest, oppose ; F. combat^ 

tre; It. combattere, from L. com and batuo. 
CoMBOOSE, COMBHOUSB, s, the cooking place or dish 
house in a ship ; B. koombius ; Swed. kabysa. See 
Comb, a dish, and House. 
Come, v. a, to draw near, arrive, happen ; G. koma ; 
Swed. komma ; T. kommen ; B. komen ; S. coman. 

Comely, a. decent, pleasing, graceful, handsome ; G. 
kuarmlig; S. qucenuig ; D. quamlig ; T. kuumndich ; 
S. cweman, to please. 

Comport, s, support, consolation, joy ; F. contort ; It. 
conforto, from L. conforto, to make strong. But with 
us It is associated with an idea of warmth ; a cold din- 
ner in summer may be delightful, yet is not called 
comfortable. In the same way, to live warmly, signi- 
fies to be comfortable. 

CoMFREY, s, an herb now called Consolida ; L. confirm 
ma, from its strengthening quality. 

Command, v. a. to mandate, order, direct, govern ; F. 
commander ; It. commandare, from L. com and mando. 

Commonwealth, s. government of the people, repub- 
lic ; from common, public, general, and G. wold ; S. 
wald ; T. tvalt, dominion. See to Wield. 

Companion, s. an associate ; F. compagnon ; It. com- 
pagno ; G. Swed. B. kompan ; T. kumpan. Although 
so general in the G. dialects, it has no connection with 
that language. See Company. 

Company, s. an assembly of persons, an association in 
trade, a band of soldiers ; op. campana ; F. compag^ 
nie ; It. compagnia, from L. compago, compango, com- 
pingo, to join together. 

Compass, s. a circle, a limit, an instrument to measure 
circles; F. compas; It. compasso ; Sp. compas; L. 
B. compassus, from L. circum and passus. 

Compass, v, a, to encircle, include, contain ; F. compass^- 
er; It. compassare. 

Complement, s. fulness, perfection, completion; F. 
complement; L. complementum. 


Compliment, s. an act or expression of civility; F. 
compliment ; It. complimento. See to Comply. 

Comply, v. w. to yield, suit, accord ; F. pUer, compiler, 
from L. pUcare, 

Comrade, s. an associate, an intimate ; T. chambrade, 
comerade ; F. camarade ; Sp. camarado : It. camerata 
was a chamber in a college, for conversation, a club 
room, the members of which were associates. P. hum- 
rah, a companion, a fellow traveller, is from hum ( L. 
cum,) and rah, a way, a road. 

Con, V, a. to know, observe, notice, acknowledge, ^ in 
the memory, learn; G. kunna; S. connan. See to 

CoNCH, s, a shell, a shell fish ; L. concha ; It. conca ; F. 

CoND, V. a. to give notice ; G. kunde. See to Con. 

CoNDER, s, from Cond ; an observer, one who stands on 
the shore and makes signs to the fishermen of the 
course the herrings are taking, which is known by the 
rippling of the water. He was also called a erver or 
hewer, from S. eawan, to show. See Balker. 

Conor, Congee, s. leave, concession, permission, a bow 
in taking leave ; F. conge ; It. congedo, from L. con^ 

Conoer eel, s, F. congre ; L. congrius. 

Constable, s. a military chief, a peace officer ; F. con- 
nestable; It. contestabile : L. B. comes stabuli was 
master of the horse, corresponding with Mareschal ; 
but comestabulus, a peace officer, seems to have been 
L. comes, to which G. stab, office, had been added ; 
as with us it is the badge of a peace officer. See 

Contrive, v. a. to find out, invent, plan ; F. controuver. 
See Trover and Retrieve. 

Control, *. restraint, check, authority ; F. controle, 
from L. contra rotula, a counter roll, or check book. 

Convoy, s. a protection on the way, an escort; F. con- 
vol from L. B. conviare, the root of which is L. via. 
See Envoy. 

Cony, s. a rabbit ; L. cuniculus, from Fm/a, a hole ; It. 
coniglio; F. connin, connil, and common to nearly all 
European languages. 

Coo, Croo, s. the sound made by doves ; P. koor ; G. 
kur; W. coo. 

Cool, a, tending to cold; G. kula ; S,col; B. koel; 
T. kuhle. See Cold. 

CooM, s, 1. soot of an oven; G. kam, black; Swed. kim, 

2. Filth, refuse, black grease that works out of the 
wheels of carriages ; G. kam ; M. G. gawam ; F. cam^- 
bouis. See Gk)ME. 

Coomb, s. a corn measure of four bushels; S. cumb,JUd- 
cumb ; T. kump, signify a large vessel, corresponding 
with Kv^K 

Coop, *. 1. a barrel, a cask ; Kv^«s ; F. cuve ; T. kufe; 
S. ci(f; B. kuip. See Kievb. 

2. A case, a wooden inclosure for poultry ; B. kotn ; 
It. gabbia ; L. cavea. 

Coot, s, a small black water fowl ; B. koet ; F. cotei ; 
from its chatter. See Chat. 

Cop, s, the head, the top, a tuft on the head of birds, 
a round heap ; S. cop ; B. kop ; T. ko^f; W. coppa, 
correspond with L. caput; it capo, and with G. 
A^^; Tartar hotf, the he^ui 



CoPE^ s. from Cop ; a priest's hood^ a canopy, a concave 

CoPE^ V, a, 1. to put on a top or cover. 

2. To contend^ strive against ; G. and Swed. kapp ; S. 
comp, a contest. See to Cap. 

CoPBSicATi^ «. a plighted mate; Isl. kaup; Swed. k(^y 
a covenant, a bargain. 

CoppBL, s, a small cup for trying metals, a crucible ; It* 
coppeUa ; F. coupeue ; T. kopeL 

CopPBR, 9. a red metal ; L. cuprum ; P. cuivre. 

Copperas, s. a kind of vitriol ; from copper. 

Coppice, Copse, s, a low wood where poles and faggots 
are cut ; F. coupon, from couper ; JUiwlti, to cut See 

Copy, s. a transcript from an original, any imitation, ex- 
ample to write afler, a picture drawn from another 
picture ; It. and Sp. copta ; F. copie, L. copta, appa- 
rently from CO opes, was plenty ; out from co opus it 
signified assistance, additional resource, and a tran- 

Copyhold, s, land held by possessing a copy of the roll 
of register in the lord's court. 

Coquet, v. a. to court attentions, to encourage several 
lovers at the same time ; F. coqu^ter, quiter, from L. 
qucesito, to seek after, to affect ; corresponding with F. 

CoBAN, s, the Mahometan Bible ; A. qoran. See Al- 

CoRANT, s, a kind of sprightly dance ; F. courant ; It. 
correute, from L. currere, 

CoRBAN, s, an alms basket ; It. corbanne, from L. corbis, 

CoRDWAiN, s, fine Spanish leather ; G. korduna ; Swed. 
kardetvan; T. kurdewen, korduan; F. cordouan; It 
cordoano; supposed to be from Cordova in Spain, where 
sheep or goats' skins might have been dressed like 
what is called Morocco leather ; but Sp. corto d'owno 
signifies sheep's leather. A. karta, a city, Phoenician 
Cartheia, Punic Cartheja, the new city, was Carthage, 
corresponding with A. kartaba and Cordova. 

Core, s. the heart, the inner part of a thing ; L. cor ; 
F. coeur. 

Cork, s. the bark of a tree made into stoppers for bot- 
tles; Sp. corcho; T. kork ; B. kurk, supposed to be L. 

Corking-pin, s. a large pin anciently worn in the hair 
by Irish women, and still used in Switzerland and 
part of Italy ; I. curcois pion, from cuaire, the hair, 
and pin. 

Cormorant, s. the sea crow; L. corvus marinus; F. 

Corn, s. 1. grain; G. kom ; D. Swed. T. korn; B. 
koorn ; S. com ; L. granum ; It grano ; F. grain. 

2. A homy excrescence in the flesh ; F. cor ; L. cornu. 

Corn, Core, v. a. from the noun ; to granulate, to sprin- 
kle with salt in grain, to powder ; Scot. kern. 

Cornel, s. a tree, the cornelian cherry ; F. cornouille ; 
L. cornus. 

CoRNEMUSE, *. a bagpipe; It. cornemusa; F. come- 
muse, from L. cornu and ^r» ; It. musa, music. This 
instrument is used by the Tartars, Malays, the moun- 
taineers of Spain, Portugal, Savoy, Scotland, and 

Corner, s. an angle ; F. comiere, from L. cornu ; A. 

kom ; Heb. hetan, corresponding with 6. horn in aU 

Cornet, s, 1. a kind ni trumpet; F. comet, from L. 

2. An ensign of cavalry; F. comette : It comeito; L. 
cornicularius, a military standard. 

Cornice, s. the ornament at the top of a wall or column ; 

It cornice; F. cormche; L. coronis. 
CoRNUTE, V. a. to give horns, to cuckold ; from L. cor- 

nutus; It cornuto. See Horn and Fornication. 
CoRONEB, s. an officer to ascertain on the part of the 

crown; from L. corona ; but as some suppose, from Isl. 

krof; W. corf, a corpse ; and S. cunner, an inspector. 
Corporal, s. an inferior military officer; It caporale; 

F. caporal : T. karporal, the hiad of a file, from capo, 

the head. 
Corporal, Corporeal, a. belonging to the body mate- 
rial; L. corporalis; F. corporal; It corporale. 

Corps, Core, s. a body of soldiers, a regiment; F. 
corps; L. corpus. 

Corpse, s. a dead body, a carcase; G. krtf; Swed. 
krop; L. corpus. 

CoRRinoR, s. a gallery round a building ; F. corridor ; 
It corridore, from t. cursitare. 

Corsair, *. a pirate, a rover; It. corsaro; F. corsair; 

L. cursor. 
Cosier, s. a patcher, a botcher; F. couseur, from L. 


Cossack, s. a kind of Tartar; Mogul, Sans. Tartar 
quzzak, a robber. 

Cosset, a. house fed; O. E. cothset; S. cotsceta; F. 

cosset, housed, cotted ; It casiccio, from L. casa. 
Cost, s. 1. expence, price, value ; Arm. coust ; W. cost; 

F. coHste ; It costo, from L. costo, consto. 

2. An aromatic herb ; A. kost ; K«Vh ; L. costus. 

Costard, a. costard apple, fruit for the table ; T. and B. 
kost, cognate with our cost, expence, signified provi- 
sion for the table, in the sense of cates. See Cost 
and Ard. 

GoBTARD-MONOBB, s. a fruiterer. See Costabd and 


Coster, s. the head ; supposed to be copster. See Cop. 
Costive, a. bound in the body, constipated ; F. con- 

stiv4 ; L. coHstipatus. 
CosTMARY, s. a kind of mint imagined to have the odour 

of cost, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. 

CosTREL, J. 1. a flaggon, apparently for canistrel, from 

L. canistrum ; A. kosta is a flask. 
2. A mean fellow ; F. costerel, a cottager, from Cot 
CoT, *, 1. a peasant's dwelling; G. kot ; P. kud; T. and 

B. kot ; S. cot. See Hut. 

2. A han^ng bed used by sailors ; Kmyh ; L. cubitus ; 
Swed. koite; W. cot. 

Coterie, s. a society, assembly ; F. coterie ; It costiera, 
side by side, from L. costa. . 

Cotillion, s. a kind of dance ; F. cotillon, side by side, 
from cot^ ; L. costa ; the contre dance had two oppo- 
site lines. 

Cotquean, s. a man who busies himself about women's 
affairs ; T. koiten, to chat ; B. kout keuchen, a kitchen- 
talker; but Swed. kotte, signifies a friend. See 

Cotton, s. a plant, and the fine down it produces ; A. 
qotn ; F. cotton; It cottone, supposed to be from 

c o u 

C B A 

Couch, #. a bo&l, a bed ; F. caucke, from L. cubitus. 

CoucH^ v. 1. to squat or lie down, to recline. 

2. V. «. To lav, place horizontally, depress ; F. coucker, 
from L. cubito. 

CovB, #. a small creek, a hollow place, a shelter, an 
arch; Isl. kqfe; S. cqfe; T. hove; Arm. cauf; 
Kv^W ; A. kuhf, qoobbu. See Comb, Cave and Al- 

CovEB, V. a. to overspread, hide, protect ; F. cauvrir ; 
It cuoprerey frt>ra L. cooperiar. 

CovBBLBT, s. the upper bed covering ; F. couvrelit, from 
corner, and L. lectus. * 

CovBT, t^. a, to desire beyond proper bounds, to lust 
after ; F. canvoUer, covoiter, from L. con and voveo. 

Cove Y, ^. a brood of birds ; F. ccuvei ; It cova, from 
It cQvo; L. cti6o, to hatch. 

CouoB, s, a convulsion of the lungs ; A. qubhu ; Hind. 
kuf; O. kutf ; B. AnurA ; the Q. word signifies suffo- 
cation. See H0U8T. 

Covin, «. fraudulent agreement, collusion; from L. con* 
venHim. L. B. conventarium was a compact for exclu- 
sion, called Coventry. 

Could, imp. tense of the verb can ; Swed. kond; S. cond; 
T. konte; the /has been introduced, instead of n, 
from our use of should and would. See Can. 

Coulter, s. the sharp iron of a plough, the share ; L. 
cuUer ; F. coutre. 

Count, v. a. to compute, number, tell ; It contare ; F. 
compter ; L. computo. 

Count, s. 1. frt>m the verb; reckoning, number ; F. 

2 . A title of nobility ; F. comte ; It conde ; L. comes. 
See County. 

Countenance, *. behaviour, appearance, face ; F. ccm- 
tenance ; It. contigno, from L. contineo, corresponding 
with Behold. 

CouNTEB, in composition, signifies opposite, against; 
L. contra ; F. contre. 

Counter, s. 1. a table for reckoning upon ; F. comp* 

toir. See to Count. 
2. Something to count the game with at play. 

CouNTERBAND, s. prohibited, unlawful; It contrabanda; 
F. contrebande. See Counter, and Ban or Band, re- 

Counterfeit, s. imitated, forged, spurious. F. contre^ 
fait ; It contrqfatto ; L. B. contrqfactus. 

Countermand, v. a. to reverse an order ; F. contreman'- 
der, from L. contra and mando. 

Country, s. a tract of land, a native place; F. contre^; 

It. contrada; h. B. comiterra, comitaria. See County. 
County, s. a district, a rustic community ; It. contea ; 

F. comt^ ; L. comitatus ; tJiftn, Knfutm. 

Coupee, s. a step in dancing ; F. coupei; K^tv, a cut. 

Couple, s. a pair, a brace, two rafters joined together ; 
F. couple ; It. copula. 

Courage, s. heart, spirit, bravery, fortitude; F. courage; 
It. cuoraggio, from L. cor. 

Course, s. a race, career, progress, method, procedure ; 
L. cursus ; F. course. 

Court, s. I. a seat of government, hall of justice, resi- 
dence of a prince ; F. cour ; L. curia. 

2. Civility, obsequioasness, flattery, insinuating man- 
ners of a court 

3. An inclosure round a house, a cattle yard ; F. court i 
It. corte; L. cokors. See Yard. 

Courtesan, s. a woman of the town, one who practises 
general courtesy for money, a harlot ; F. courtisane ; 
Li. B. cortisana. 

Courtesy, s. civility, complaisance, kindness ; F. cour* 
toise6 ; It. cortesia. See Court. 

Cousin, s. a distant relation, the child of an uncle or 
aunt ; F. cousin ; It cugino, from L. consanguineus. 

Couth, a. known, intimate, familiar; S. couth from 

Cow, s. I. the female of a bull ; P. gaw ; Sans, gau ; 

G. ku; Swed. koo; B. hoe; T. kuhe ; S. cu. 
2. A kind of beetle, a may fly, a lady cow. See 


Cow, V. a. to depress with fear, intimidate ; G. kuga ; 

D. hue; Swed. kuftva, to depress, subdue, seem to 

have been confounded with 6. kuga from tigga ; S. 

oga, {ear, terror. See Buo and Quaid. 
Coward, s. from to Cow ; a dastard, a poltron ; F. cou- 

ard ; Sp. cobardo ; It codardo. See Abd. 

Cower, v. a. to crouch down, to nestle, stoop, lurk ; 

F. couver; It covare; W. civrrian, from L. cubare. 
CowiTCH, CouHAOE, s. an herb with a very stinging 

pod; Sans, ketvanch. 

Cowl, «. I. a monk's hood; S. cut, cugle; Swed. hufl; 
W.cwl; L. cucuUus; V. koolah, a cap, from kuUa ; 

G. and Swed. kuUe, ihe head. 

2. A vessel for water, usually carried on a pole between 
two persons ; S. counsel; Arm. caueL See Kieve. 

Cowslip, s. a kind of primrose, a paigle ; S. cuslippe^ 
oxa slippa ; Swed. ox Idgga ; D. hoe blom; Swed. 
Idgga signifies to lie, to repose, and S. slippa is ap- 
parently from slepan, to sleep. 

Coxcomb, s. a fop, a conceited fool, a vain pretender ; 
Isl. giek ; S. coeg ; T. gauch, signify a fool, a buffoon, 
and comb or cop, a crest or helmet ; licensed fools 
were formerly obliged to wear a particular kind of 
cap or head-duress. See Cop. 

Coy, a. I. wary, reserved, shy; L. cautus ; It. cheio; 
F. coi. 

2. Modest, decent, timid ; L. quietus ; It. queto ; F. 

Cozen, t;. a. to flatter, trick, defraud ; T. kosen, lieb" 
kosen, to wheedle, supposed to be cognate with F. 
gauser, from L. gaviso. 

Crab, s. a shell fish ; KUfttCt; L. carabus ; T. krabbe^' 
Swed. krabb ; S. craboa ; F. crabe ; Ann. crah. 

Crab, a. sour, harsh, wild; It garbo; Arm. crah; L. 

Cback, j. 1. a fissure, a flaw, the noise of something 
breaking, a blow; T. krack, krach ; B. kraak ; F. 
crac ; 'P«yif . 

2. A story, a boast ; Scot, crack ; from the verb. 

Crack, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to split, burst, erase, 
make a sharp noise ; K^ouv 

2. To speak, relate, story, boast; G. reka; S. racen, 
gerecan ; Scot crack. 

Cradle, s, a wicker crib, a child's bed; S. cradel, from 
L. craiicula. 

Craft, s. efficacy, art, cunning, skill; G. kntft; D. 
Swed. T. krqfi; 8. crtgfi; B. kracht; W. cr^. The 
original meaning seems to have been power; but, 
like art and cunning, used in a bad senae. 

C R A 

C R I 

Craft^ s, sea vessels ; either from the noun as signify- 
ing naval means^ or O. karfi, shipping. 
Craq, ^. 1. a rock J a declivity^ a precipice; G. hraug, 

hraun ; T. hrag ; W. carreg, craig ; S. creag, a rock ; 

P. raghi a declivity. The word is apparently from 

crack, to split, as cliff from the verb to cleave. See 

2. The neck ; G. kuerk ; S wed. kuark, krage ; S. crage, 

krage; Scot craig ; I. kraeghe. See Craw. 
Cram, v. a, to press into, to stuff; G. kratna; S. cram^ 

man; D. krame; Swed. krama. 
Crambo, s. a play with scholars, where one gives a word 

to which another finds a rhyme ; from cramp, diffi- 
Cramp, *. 1. a contraction of the muscles, a spasm ; G. 
. kram, kropu; D. krampe; Swed. kramp; T. kramp ; 

P. crampe ; It. granfo. 
2. A piece of crooked iron, to hold things together, a 

crook; Swed. krampe; F. crampon, from G. kram, 

krum ; T. krum, crooked. 
Cramp, a, difficult, crooked, knotty. See Cramp, a 

crook, a catch. 
Cranberry, s, a hindberry ; S. kran, a hind. See 

Crane, j. 1. a bird with a long beak ; Tt^etft ; L. grus ; 

F. grue ; It. grua ; T. kranech ; S. cran ; B. kraan ; 

Swed. kran ; W. garan, 

2. An instnmient resembling the neck and beak of the 
bird, with hooks and pulleys for weighing. 

3. A crooked pipe for drawing liquors out of a cask, 
called a crane's neck ; B. kraan ; K^«y« is a fountain. 

Crank, s, a circle, a hook, a turn, a winding passage, 
a crotchet, a whim, a lively conceit ; G. and Swed. 
kring ; T. krang ; B. krink ; S. hrinc ; from Ring. It 
is translated into L. amhage, and signifies subtilty, 
and sinuosity. 

Crank, Cranky, a, 1. gay, lively, nimble, brisk ; from 
the noun in the sense of L. verfutus, 

2. Sick, unhealthy, crazy, unsteady ; G. Swed. T. B. 

Crankle, V, a, to run in and out, to form windings or 
sinuosities ; Swed. krengla ; T. krenglen ; B. kron^ 
kelen, krinkelen ; from Crank. 

Cranny, s. a chink, sinuosity, corner ; from crank, a 
turn, corresponding with L. crena. 

Crape, s, thin stuff used in mourning; from L. crispus; 

^It. crespo ; F. crepu. 
Crapnel, s, a drag, a hook to draw up with ; T. krapp, 

a hook. See Grapnel. 
Crash, v. a, to break with great violence, to make a 

noise like breaking ; Isl. krasa ; B. krassen ; Swed. 

krasa ; M. G. kriustan ; K^i^*>. See Crush. 

Cratch, s, a frame to hold hay or straw ; F. creche ; L. 

Cravat, s. a neckcloth ; G. kravad ; Swed. krage rvadd; 
F. cravate ; It cravaia. See Craw, Crao and Wad. 

Crave, v. to ask earnestly, beg, desire ; G. krefa ; S« 
crefian ; D. krcsve ; Swed. krdfwa ; W. crefu. 

Craven, s, a person vanquished in fight, a coward ; 

supposed to have been from crave, to beg mercy ; 

but F. creant, anciently craan^, crara»/ / It. credente ; 

was an acknowledgment of homage to a superior, 

and signified submission ; from L. credo, to put into 

one's hands. 
Craw, s. the throat, the crop of a bird ; G. kraw ; 

Swed. krdfwe; B. kroppa; D. kroe. See Crao and 

Craw-fish, Cray-fibh, s, the river lobster; F. ecrevisse; 

for crab-fish. 
Crawl, v, a. to creep, to move slowly ; G. krafia ; T. 

kraelen ; B. kriewelen ; D. kratvle ; Swed. krdla. See 

to Creep. 
Crayon, s, a lead pencil, a pastil, or painting in chalk ; 

F. crayon, from craie ; L. cteia, chalk. 

Craze, v. a, to break, crack, impair the intellects ; T. 
krachen, krachsen, seems to nave been confounded 
with crash, in forming oup word ; crack-brained and 
crazy-headed having the same signification. 

Creak, v. a. to make a harsh protracted noise as a door 
on its hinges ; T. krachen ; S, cearcian ; JH^mtm, See 
Shriek and Cry. 

Cream, s, the oily part of milk, the best part ; x^^fut ; 

G. krum ; It. cresima ; F. crime, corrupted into G. 
Worn ; S. ream ; T. rahm ; I. raimhe ; Scot ream, 

Creance, s. belief, credit ; F. creance ; L. B. credentia, 
from L. credo* 

Crease, v. a. to mark by folding or pressing; G. 
kreisia ; Swed. krysta ; Arm. crisa, to compress, to 
leave marks of compression. See Crush. 

Creature, s, what is created, a word of contempt and 
tenderness ; F. creature ; L. creatura. 

Creek, s, a nook, a hook, a small inlet from the sea, a 

turn; anciently crook, from S. crecca; B. kreek. 
Creep, v. a. to move softly and crouchingly, to move 

on hands and feet; G. kriupa; Swed. krypa ; S. 

krypan ; B. kruipan ; T. krupen ; D. kryhhe ; Arm. 

cropa ; W. croppian ; "E^Trti ; L. repo. See Crawl 

and Cripple. 

Cress, s. a warm salad herb ; Swed. krasse ; B. kersen ; 

S. cerse ; T. kresse ; F. cresson. 
Crevice, s, a crack or fissure ; F. crevice, from L. crepo. 

Crew, s. a gang, a ship's company, a set of men ; G. 

frua ; P. guruh, kuruh ; S. cread ; Arm. and W,gre ; 
t cricca ; L. grex. See Crowd. 

Crewel, s, a kind of worsted ; F. crue, ecrue, from L. 

Crib, s, a manger, stall, rack, a small couch, a cottage ; 

S. crybhe ; Swed. kruhha ; B. krehhe ; T. krippe. 
Crib, v, a. to finger, snatch, purloin, steal; T. krippen; 

F. gripper. See Gripe and Grab. 

Crick, s. 1. the noise of a door on its hinges ; dim. of 

2. A painful stiffness in the neck ; G. hike, a contrac- 
tion ; dim. of Crook. 

Cricket, *. 1. a game formerly played with a crooked 
bat ; dim. of Crook. 

2. An insect that chirps about fire places ; P. churghid ; 
B. krekel; W. cricciad. See Churrworm. 

Crimp, v, a. to take unfairly, snatch, kidnap. See Crib. 
Crimp, a, brittle, friable ; from S. cruman. See Crumb 
and Crumble. 

Crimson, *. a deep red colour ; P. kermesy, kurmesy ; F. 
cramoisie; It creniesino. See Kermes. 

Crincum, s. a crotchet, a whim, a conceit; dim. of 

Cringe, y, a. to bend, crouch, bow, fawn ; G. kringa, 
from ring, to curve. 

Crinckle, V, a, to form into sinuosities or wrinkles ; B. 
krinkelen. See Crankle. 


C R O 


Cripple, s. one who caimot walk upright, a lame per* 

son; G. krypil; T. kriupel; S. crypd; from Crebp. 
Cboak, v. a, to cry like a crow or frog ; Swed. kraka, a 

crow ; S. cracettan, to crow-diat, corresponding with 

L. crodlo ; tt^uvyii, the noise of a frog. 
Crock, s. an earthen pot ; Isl. krd ; T. kruge ; Swed. 

krog, kruka j 8. crocct^ B. kruick ; F. crucke ; W. crO' 

chan. See Cruise. 
Crocodile, s. a voracious amphibious animal; K€|^ 

htXf ; L. croGodilns; F. crocodile; It crocodrillo. The 

name was originally sdven by the lonians to a large 

yellow lizard, either from feeding on saffron, or from 

its saffron colour. See Alligator. 
Cropt, s. an indosure round a house ; Swed. krqfl ; S. 

croft, cruft; L. B, crqfta: apparently from G. graup, 

a mtch, corresponding with H^vwla, 
Croisadb, s, an army devoted to the holy cross. See 

Croise, 9, a pilffrim, a Christian soldier devoted to the 

cross ; F. crois6, from L. crux. 

Crone, ^. 1. a toothless old ewe ; Scot crokkan : B. 
krukken is to languish, to be helpless. 

2. An old and intimate acquaintance, a confidant ; from 
T. kronen, to whisper, to tell secrets ; G. and Swed. 
runa ; T. raunen ; S. runxan, gerunian. See to Round. 

Cronet, s. the short hair projecting over the hoof of a 

horse; F. couronne; L. corona; B. kroon; T. krone. 
Cronet, s. a confidential friend, an intimate. See 

Crook, s. a hooked stick, any thing curved ; G. and 

Swed. krok; B. kruk; T. krucke ; S. cruce; W. 

crwcca; F. croc. 

Crop, s. 1. the throat, the craw of a bird; Swed. kropp; 
S. cropa ; B. krop ; T. kreppe. See Craw. 

2. The top of a tree, an ear of grain, a cluster of grapes, 
what is gathered or reaped, shorn or cut ; S. crop, 
gerop, from ripan, gerypan, to reap, corresponding 
with TM^irit ; L. carpo. See to Reap. 

Cross, 1. s. one straight body laid at right angles over 

anodier, the gibbet on wmch Christ suffer^ death, 

adversity, misfortune; G. kross; Swed. kors ; S. 

cors ; T. kreuz ; F. croix ; It croce; W. croes, from 

L. crux. 
2. a. Athwart, adverse, difficult, untoward, peevish; 

from the noun. 
Cross, v. a. from the noun ; to pass or lay over, to place 

athwart, to thwart, impede, vex. 
Crotch, s. a hook, the fork of a tree ; F. croche. See 

Crook and Crutch. 
Crotchet, s. a small crotch, a mark used in music 

and printing, a clinch, an odd fancy, a whimsical 

conceit ; F. crochet ; D. krogeU 
Crotels, s. the dung of a hare ; F. crote. 
Crouch, v. a. to stoop low, to bend, cringe; Isl. kreika; 

T. krcechen ; from crook. 
Croup, s. the buttock of a horse; F. crouppe; It 

eroppa; G. kropp; Swed. krump; S. crump; T. 

kropf, krump, the curve of the hip. See Rump. 
Crow, s. a ravenous bird ; Swed. kraka ; D. krage ; B. 

kraai ; &• crawe ; P. kro ; K«(«{ ; L. corvus ; Hind. 


Crow, v. a. to make the noise of a cock, to boast; M. G. 

hrukjan; T.krdhen; B.kraifen; 8. crawan. 
Crowbar, #. ^ claw bar, an iron lever with a cloven 

end; Isl. krao; D. kroe, a crook. 

Crowberrt, s. a bilberry ; Swed. krakbar ; D. kra^ 

Crowd, *. 1. a multitude, a throng ; P. gorooh ; G. 
grua ; Swed. krola ; S. cruth ; W. rhaud. 

2. A corded instrument, a fiddle ; W. crtvih ; I. cruit ; 
L. chorda. 

Crown, s. the top of the head, a diadem, money stamp- 
ed with a crown ; Heb. keren ; K«(«ni ; L. corona ; 
F. couronne. 

Crown-scab, *. a sore about the hoof of a horse. See 

Crucible, *. a chymist's melting-pot ; L. B. crucibu- 
lum ; It crosola ; perhaps from cruise and G. ajla, a 
furnace. It is said, however, that Uiese pots were so 
named ftom being marked with a cross, to prevent 
the devil from marring the chemical operation. See 

Crud, s. coagulated milk. See Curd. 

Cruel, a, fierce, savage, hard-hearted; F. cruel; It 
crudeU; L. crudelis. 

Cruet, s. a phial for vinegar or wine; perhaps gruet. 
See Crane and Cruise. 

Cruise, *. 1. a cup; H^ttvcr^-, T. krus; B. kroes ; Swed. 
krus ; F. cruche. See Crock. 

2. From the verb ; a roving voyage. 

Cruise, y. a. to cross, to pass backward and forward, 

to sail in quest of an enemy ; F. croiser. See to Cross. 
Crum, Crumb, s, a small piece, the soft part of a loaf; 

G. krome; Swed. kram ; S. cruma; T. krume ; B. 


Crumble, v. a. from Crum ; to break into small pieces, 
to moulder; Swed. itram/n. 

Crump, a. crooked, hump-backed, bent; G. and Swed. 
krum ; S. crump ; T. krumm ; B. krom ; W. crwmm ; 
L. curvus. 

Crumple, v. a. to rufl9e, corrugate ; either from crump, 
or S. gerumple. See Rumple. 

Crunkle, v. a. to cry like a crane ; T. kranecheti. See 

Crupper, s. a leather to hold the saddle to the croup of 

a horse ; F. croupier ; It. groppiera. 
Crusade, s. a holy war. See Croisade. 
Cruset, s. a goldsmith's melting-pot. See Crucible. 
Crush, v. a. to bruise, squeeze, press down, subdue ; 

Isl. hreisa; G. kritta; S. hrysan; Swed. krossa ; 

Arm. eras ; F. ecraser. See Crash. 
Crust, s. the hard part of a loaf, an outer covering of 

that nature ; L. crusta ; It crosta ; F. croute. 
Crusty, a. 1. from the noun ; covered with a crust 
2. From Cross; surly, snappish. See Curst. 
Crutch, s. a support used by cripples, a crook ; G. 

krok ; Swed. kruka, kryck : S. cricc ; T. krucke ; B. 

kruk ; It. croccia. 

Crt, s. a voice, a call, a shout, a proclamation ; H^vyn ; 

Y.crie; Arm. crei; W.cri; It. crida, grida; Sp. 

and Port grita, all of which, like G. greita ; Scot. 

greet, signify also to wail, to weep. See Greet. 
Cryal, Cryer, s. a heron ; F. gruyeUe, from grue, a 

crane; Arm. crechel; W.cregyr. See Crane. 
Cryer, s. the heron falcon, or falcon gentle ; F. gruyer. 

See Cryal. 
Cub, s. the young of a beast ; F. cheau, from L. catellus. 
Cube, s. a regular solid body with six square and equal 

sides, a die; kXh ; I»* cuhus ; It cubo ; F. cube; A. 



C U L 


CvBES, s. a kind of pepper; A. kubabu. 

CuBiT^ s. a measure, which was originally the length 
from the point of the middle finger to the dhow ; L. 
cubitum. See Elbow. 

CuGKiNO-sTOOL, s. a madune used for punishing scold- 
ing women, a tumbril, called a ducking-stool ; M. G. 
oAofi/an, to suffocate; Isl. kafna, to oiFC; O. kuitf, 
iueg, immersion, suffocation; Swed. kuf, kug. See 

Cuckold, s. the husband of a woman whoee diildren 
by another man he rears as his own ; F. coch ; Sp. 
cucliUo, a person modced by the taunting note of the 
cuckoo, which lays its egffs in the nest ofanother bird 
to be hatched and reared. 

CocKOO, s. a bird of passage, which in most languages 
has been named from its note ; K«»sv( ; L. cuculus ; 
F. cocu, coucou ; It cocco ; D. koe ; T. kokok ; Scot. 
gowk. A vulgar tradition prevailea that a white frothy 
liquid containing a small insect, which is found on 
some plants at the season when that bird appears, 
was its spittle ; whence cuckoo sorrel, cuckoo bread, 
cuckoo nower. 

Cud, s, food brought from the stomach to the mouth 
wd rechewed by ruminating animals ; T. kSder, from 
kutien, to chew. See Quid. 

CuoDEN, CuDDT, f . a dolt, a clown, a low cottager. See 

CuDDLB, V. to lie low or close, to hug ; It. covado signi- 
fies nestled, couched, concealed, from L. cubiio ; but 
our word is confounded with F. chaudiler, from L. 
callidus, to warm. 

Cuddy, s, the antechamber in a ship ; P. kudu^ an 
apartment, a lodge ; Swed. kajuia ; D. kahytte ; T. 
kajute ; B. kajuyte ; F. cahuete. 

Cudgel, s a club, a truncheon ; B. kudsel for knudsel; 
T. knutlel, from G. knut, 

CuDLE-FisH, s. the ink-fish, the sepia ; S. cuticle. See 

Cudweed, s. the cotton weed ; gnaphalium. See 
Cat's foot. 

Cue, s. 1. a t^, a mace of that shape, the last word in a 
page as an indication to the next, a hint ; F. queue, 
from L. Cauda. 

2. Mind, disposition, humour; G. hug; S. hige; D. 
hu, the mind, gehu. 

gouf: from Isl. kuffwa ; T. kuffen ; P. ku/tan, to beat 

with the hand. 
Cuirass, s. a breast-plate of steel, formerly of leather ; 

F. cuirasfe ; It. corazzo, from L. corium ; but some 

suppose from L. cor, as a covering for the heart 
CuisH, s. armour for the thigh ; F. cuisie ; It coscxa ; 

L. coxa, the thigh. 
CuLDEEs, s. formerly a kind of monks in Scotland and 

Ireland; supposed to be from L. colere deum; I. 

caile, however, is a servant, and Dei, of €k>d. Caile 

y ban, a servant of all work, a drudge. 
CuLBRAGB, s. the herb called arsesmart ; L. cuhu ; F. 

cul and rage. 
Cull, v. a. to select, choose, pick out ; F. cueiller ; It 

cogliere; L. co eligere. 
CuLLBNDBB, CoLANDBB, s. a draining vessel ; F. cou- 

loir ; Sp. coladero, from L. colum. 
CuLLiON, s. a testicle, a mean fellow ; It coglione ; F. 

couillon, from L. coles. 

Cully, i. a man befinkd by a woman; either from 
cull, to pck up, or gmIL 

Culprit, «. a crimiiial ; but, aocordiiKg to the nurit of 
English law, a person arraigned fior a crime; L. culpce 

CuLTEB, 9. a wood-p^peon ; 8. culfre, from L. colmmba. 

CuLVBRiN, #. a spedea of ordnance ; F. coUmvrine; It 
colubrino ; L. coluber. 

CuLVBBTAiL, s. a kind of j<miery; from other, a 

CuLVBR-KBY, s. the flowcT columbine. See Cultbit 
and Kby. 

Cumber, s. 1. care, anxiety, trouble ; T. komber; Swed. 
kymber ; D. kummer, from G. gaumbera. 

2. Obstruction, inconvenience, burthen ; F. combre, en- 
combre; L. B. cumeratio; L. cumeratus. See In- 

Cummin, s. a plant resembling fennel; A. kamoom; 
Kvfunf ; L. cuminum ; F. ctuniii. ' 

CuN, V. a. to direct the person at the helm how to steer. 
See Con and Cono. 

Cunning, s. science, skill, artifice, craft; from S. c«»- 
nan. See to Know. 

Cup, *. a drinking vessel, the calix of a flower; A. 
auub ; P. cub ; Heb. ca'p, caba ; Chald. cuba ; Syr. 
lopha; KvCC«; Sans, kupee; Hind, kup ; L. cuppa; 
G. kopp; Swed. kopn ; B. kop; T. kopf ; Sclav. 
kuppa ; Russ. kub ; Hun. kup ; It coppa ; Sp. copa ; 
Port, copo ; F. coupe ; Arm. cup ; W. cwpan ;- \, ct/- 
pan ; all corresponding to and apparently cognate 
with Heb. caph ; L. cavus. 

Cupola, s. an arched roof, a dome; It cvpecla: A. 
quuba, like It cuppeo, signifies a beehive, to which 
this kind of dome has resemblance. 

Cur, s. a vulgar dog ; L. B. curiis, custos curtis, a cattle 
dog ; but our name is apparently an abbreviation of 
curtail. Such dogs as did not belong to the lord of 
the manor were mutilated ; and G. haugkali, from 
hogwa, gehogtva ; Scot cow, to cut, and kali, a tail, 
may have produced Scot coley, a peasant's dog ; W 
cwla, signines cropped ear. &(ee Bobtail. 

Curb, s. part of a bridle, a restraint ; F. gounne. See 
to Curb. 

Curb, v. a. to restrain, to check ; L. curvo ; F. courber, 

to bend, subdue. 
Curd, s, coagulation of milk ; F. caillard, from caillcr ; 

L. coagulate. 

Curl, s. a ringlet of hair, undulation of water ; former- 
ly crul; T.kroUe; B. krul ; D. krasl; Swed. krol, 
from Isl. kra, a crook, a turn ; but It. ciurlo, zur- 
lo, from Fv^iif ; L. circulo, signified a drcle and a 

Curlew, s. a kind of water fowl ; F. corlieu, corlu, 
perhaps from L. curro and lUtus ; but supposed by 
bufibn to be so named from its cry. 

CuRMUDOEON, s, a miscr, a churl ; S. car modig, from 
care; T. kars, chary, avaricious; and G. wod ; S. 
mod, the min£ See Cabk and Mood. 

Currant, s. the name of a berry and a shrub ; crand, 
cranberry, and hindberry, seem to have included this 
fruit; which was afterwards confounded with the 
small raisins brought from Corinth. 

Currier, s. a dresser of leather; L. coriarius ; F. 

c u s 

C Z A 

CoBBT^ V. o. 1. to dress Unned lesther. See Cubribr. 

2. To rub, scrape ; F. couroyer, from L. corrado. 

3. To seek, to be solidtous after, to flatter ; Sp. guerer; 
F. querir; L. qtutro, 

CuRRT powDBR, 9. a mizture of turmeric used in cook- 
ery ; from Hind, qpormu^ to stew. 

CuRSB, V. a. to imprecate evil in the name of the cross, 
to afflict ; Swea. korta ; S. curnan ; T. karsen ; It 
crociare. See to Cross. 

CuRSB, s. from the verb ; a malediction, a cross, a vexa« 
tion ; Swed. and D. kars; It. croce. 

CuBST, part, of the verb to corse ; deserving evil, wick« 
ed, hateful. 

CuBST, a. peevish, malignant, cross. See Crusty. 

CuBT, a. short, diminutive ; L. curhu ; F. court ; It 
corio: W. cor : P. Aw, hord: Swed. hort; D. hurt; 
B. kort: T. kurtz; S. sceort. See Shobt. 

CuBTAiL, #. a dog mutilated according to the forest 
laws ; from curt and taiL See Bobtail. 

CuBTAiL, V. o. to cut off, to shortcn, diminish ; from 
curt and F. tailler, to cut See Tallv. 

CuBTAiN, #. a screen, a protection, a covering, a part of 
a fortification, of a bed or window ; F. courtine, cau* 
vertine; It copertino; L. B. cartina. See to Covbb. 

Cushion, s. a pad to sit on, a pillow for a seat ; It 
cotcino; F. coussin, from L. coxa; It cotda; F. 
cuisie, the thigh, the hip : But 6. hodde; Swed. ctfi- 
da; Soot coa; T. ihi^seii, ihtMeii ,* F. coustm, a bag, 
a pillow, have apparently a common origin. 

CusTABD, 1. a sweet food made of milk and eggs ; W. 
cawstard; It ca$cita, cacUa, from L. coieui. See 

Custom, i. usajo^, fashion, habit, usual duty on goods 
exported or imported ; F. coHume ; It costume, from 
L. coiuetum, cotuuetum. 

Custbbl, s. a shield-bearer to a man-at-arms ; F. €co«#- 
titlier, couHiOier; Scot ctuifVfvn, from 'LM.tcuteUarius, 

Cut, v. a. to divide, separate, carve, hew ; Swed. kolta, 
quatte; KUlit; F. couper; Sans, kutan; F. couteau, 
a knife. 

Cut, s. from the verb ; a piece cut off, a wound, a slice, 

a particle, a portion, a lot; and also a shape or form, 

in the sense of F. taitte, from tattler, to cut 
Cut, a. slightly intoxicated, affected by wine or love; 

It cotto, from L. 009110. 
CuTH, a. known, fiuniliar, related; S. cutk, cyth; M. 

O. kunths, cognate with known; whence l%ot kUh 

and kin, intimates and relatives. 
Cutlass, #. a short broad sword; L. cuUdUu, dim. of 

cuUer, produced It cuUeilaccio, a large knife, a 


CuTLBB, #. one who makes knives, swords, and other 
steel instruments; F. couteUer; It coUelarii, from L. 

CuTLBT, #. a rib of veal or mutton, a chop ; It costala; 

F. coetdete, cfitdete, from L. cotta, a rib. 
CuTTLB FISH, s. the ooal or ink fish, which ejects a 

black fluid when pursued; T. kuttd; S. cudele. 

CrpBus, Ctpbbs, $. a thin stuff,akiiid of gauae; either 
from bdng made at Cyprus, or frmn L. crispus* See 

CxAB, s. title of the Emperor of Russia ; Sdav. czar, tzar, 
from P. tqjur, a crown; taijzar, a monarch. See 




DTHE fourth letter of the alphabet^ unknown to the 
y Goths for many ages, was latterly used instead of 
their T, Th, and Z. In words derived from the Latin, 
when D is followed by the vowel I, they conjointly 
assume the power of G or I ; as Journal for Diurnal, 
Gizzard for Digeria. In English its sound never 
varies, nor is it ever mute. 
Dab, s, 1. wet, moistiu*e, mud; G. Isl. D. aa ; Swed. ao; 
T. aw, ach, ag ; S. eage ; Heb. aha ; M. G. aqha ; L. 
aqua ; P. ab ; A. tab ; Chald. dub ; W. dwfr ; Arm. 
douv, signified water ; and are supposed to be cognate 
with AfvAT, Auirltt ; G. dagrva, dogstva, duka, dcefrva, 
dOpa ; S. dapan, dippan, to wet, to immerse in water. 
G. dah, day ; Swed. dy, dctf; Scot, dub, signify mois- 
ture, a pool, a morass, mire, mud. See Dag, Daub, 
Dock, Douoh, Dew, Thaw, Duck, Dap, Dip, Dive, 
Dam, Damp, Dank. 

2. A plunge in water or mire ; S. dap. 

3. A small lump, a concrete of dough or mortar. 

4. A blow with something smooth, moist, or sofl ; B. 

5. A splash of mud or lime. 

6. A small flat fish resembling a plaice, but destitute of 
red spots, which buries itself in the sand. 

7. In low language, an artist, one who has dipped into 
science, or dexterity. 

Dabble, v, a, frequentative of Dab ; to play in water, to 

spatter, daub, smear. 
Dabchick, s. a water hen ; S. dapfugel; D. dykkerfuBn, 

See Duck. 

Dace, s. a small river fish ; B. dass, daas ; the Goths 
used sol and sun for white or bright ; and S. dagian, 
from day, to shine, corresponded with L. luciscit, 
from wnich this fish is called luciscus. See Daze 
and Dar. 

Dad, Dadda, Daddy, j. father ; P. ata; Hind, aia ; ^Arlm \ 
G.atta; Heb. dod; Turk.dede; Sans, lata; Sp.tayta; 
D. dada ; B. taat ; Arm. dat ; W. tad ; I. daid. The 
word is said to have been found in use among the South 
Americans and the Africans of Angola : w>ba, papa, 


pater, father, atta, tata, may be the same word var}-- 
ing in pronunciation by the Celtic intermutations of 
T and P. 

Dade, v. a, to move to and fro, to dandle ; Isl. duda ; B. 
douden, from G. dya. 

Dado, s, a cubical base to a column ; It. dado, in which 

sense A. dad is used also. See Die. 
Daffodil, s, the yellow narcissus ; B. affodiUe, a name 

given through ignorance to this flower, confounding 

it with 'Ar^o^fAof . 

Dag, j. 1. a small sword, a dirk; P. tegha ; T. degen ; 
B. dasge ; Sp. and It. daga ; F. dague ; Arm. dag. 
See Tag and Dagger. 

2. A provincial word for wet; G. dogma ; Swed. dagg^ 
dugg ; S. dag. See Dab and Dew. 

Dag, t. a, from the noun ; to bedew, to wet, to spatter ; 

S. daag, a sprinkle. 
Dagger, s, a short sword, a poniard ; Heb. dakar ; D. 

daggert ; Arm. and W. dager. See Dag. 

Daggle, v, a. frequentative of Dag ; to wet, to spatter : 
confounded with draggle. 

Dainty, a. delicate as to food, nice; F. dain, good 
cheer, from L. dapinus, dapinatus. 

Dairy, Deyery, s. a dey house, a milk house ; from 
G. dy ; Sans, duh ; A. dhyudh ; Heb. dad; M. G. 
daaa; Hind, dood, milk : G. deggia ; D. daggt ; 
Swed. ddggia, dia; Pol. dole; Bmh, Butt, to afford 
milk. P. dale ; Swed. deya ; O. E. dey ; Scot, dee, 
a milk woman. See Dug, Teat, Duck, Daughter, 
DoxT> Doll. 

Daisy, s. a small spring flower ; S. dcsgeiege, day's eye; 

but perhaps originally dahs ege, doe's eye, as ox eye 

and pheasant's eye still denote flowers of that kind. 
Dalilah, s, a woman's name; A. dalil, a whore, a 

Dale, s. a valley between two hills ; G. dale ; Swed. S. 

B. dal; T. thai; W. dol ; I. dal ; Swed and B. dalen, 

to descend. See Dell and to Vail. 

Dalliance, s. acts of fondness, delay for pleasure. See 



J}Illop, s. a deal heap^ a division or small heap^ refuse 
of straw, com or grass, raked together into parcels 
called DaUeps. 

Dally, v. 1. to delay, put off, tarry ; 6. dualia ; Swed. 
dwala. See Dwell. 

2. To indulge in idleness, to trifle ; G. dcella, used in 
this sense> is perhaps connected with duala ; S. 
drvolian, to dote, talk sillily. See Dwaule. 

Dam, s, 1. a mother, generidly used of beasts ; Chald. 
ama; Heb. am; A. amm; Sans, umma; T. ama; 
Swed. amma, a mother ; to which P. doe ; Sans, dah, 
a nurse, may have been prefixed. See Dairy. 

2. An embanked pond, a pool ; T. dam ; S. domm ; B. 
damm ; Swed. dam^ anciently dampn. See Dab, and 
Pen or Pond. 

3. A crowned man at the game of draughts ; F. dame; 
It. dama ; T. and B. dam, supposed to be from </o- 
minus ; but if so, the F. and It. would not have the 
feminine termination. Dam or dauma is used by the 
Arabs, from Heb. dama, to overcome, to triumph, to 

Damage, s, injury, mischief, hurt ; F. damage, from L. 

Damascene, Damson, s. a small plum from Damascus. 

Dame, s, a lady, the mistress of a family, a woman in 

general ; F. dame, from L. domina. 
Damp, a. moist, foggy, wet; T. dampf; B. and D. 

damp. See Dab. 
Damsel, «. 1. a young lady; L. dominacella; F. damol' 

selle, demoiselle ; It. donzella. 

2. A country lass, a house maid ; L. B. domiceUa. 

Dance, s, a motion of one or more regulated by music ; 
G. Swed. B. dans ; D. dands ; T. tans; It. danza; 
F. danse; Arm. W. L dans ; G. sla dans, to strike up 
the dance ; Chald. and A. tanz is said to signify sport, 
mirth ; but Isl. dansar is an indecent satirical panto- 
mime or son^, supposed to be from G. and Swed. 
danla, to mock, to ridicule, to reproach. . See Taunt. 

Dandiprat, s, a silly little fellow, an urchin, a doodle ; 
Sp. and Port, tonto ; It. dondolone ; F. dandin. See 

Dandle, v. a. to fondle a child by moving it to and 
fro, to dance it on the knee ; T. tandelen ; F. dandu 
ner ; B. domdellen, frequentative of douden, to dade ; 
but It. dondoU) is supposed to be from L. undulo, 

Dandriff, s, scurf on the head ; S. tan ; It tigna ; F. 
teigne ; L. tinea, prefixed to driff. 

Dandy, s. a beau, an elegant accomplished man, a pink 
of fashion ; G. dugandi ; Swea. dogande, dande ; 
Scot, dafidie, fromG.duga;T.taugen, to avail, to 
excel. See Doughty, Deft, Tight, Dapper. 

Danewort, s. the dwarf elder, used to keep away in- 
sects ; either from dan ; S. tan, an insect ; or G. and 
Swed. dana, to stupify. 

Danger, s. peril, hazard, risk ; F. danger, from L. 
damnum agere. 

Dangle, v, a. to hang loose, to hang on, to follow ; 
Swed. dingla; D. hingle ; T. hinglen. See Hang 
and Bangle. 

Dank, a, damp, moist; Swed. dugg, dunk; T. tunck. 
See Dag. 

Dap, V, a, to dive or dip under water ; S. dap, a plunge. 
See Dab. 

Dappbr/ o. farave>. ttim, piroper ; G dugber^ dagber. 

tapur ; T. tapper ; S. deqfer ; B. dapper. See Deft, 
Doughty, Dandy. 

Dapple, o. vari^^ated with large coloured spots; F. 
pomeU, appled. 

Dar, Dare, s, a fish ; Swed. dagar, dar ; It dardo ; F. 
dard. See Dacb. 

Dare, v, to defy, to have courage, to brave, to look de- 
fiance, to stare; G. diara, thora; lufpuV; S. dearran; 
Swed. diarfa ; B. durven, darren ; T. darren, theuren ; 
L. audere. 

Dark, a, without light, obscure, blind; A. d^jur ; 

Heb. deio ; Arm. duaug ; W. du ; I, dubh, dorck ; G. 
dauck ; T. duh ; P. tareck ; S. deork ; B. danker. 

Darling, s, a dearling, a favourite, a beloved ; S. 

Darn, v, a. to mend holes or rents in clothes ; B. dwar 

naijen ; T. twemaken, corresponding with L. traneo, 

to cross sew ; but darne in F. Arm. and W. signifies 

a piece or patch. 

Darnel, s. a weed hurtful to com; S. derian,tjo injure. 
See Dere. 

Darraign, v. a. to array or range troops for battle. 
See Arraign. 

Dart, s, a missive weapon, a short lance; A. tar; 
Ad^w; Swed. dart; Arm. F. T. dard; It. dardo; W. 

Dash, v. a. I. to strike against, break by collision, to 
shock; G. and Swed. daska; D. dieske; T. dosen ; 
Scot dusch, from G. dya. 

2. To lose courage, to be abashed ; G. dasa ; B. deesen, 
bedeesen ; Aif, fear. See Daze. 

3. To throw out, execute rapidly, to flourish; It da 
schizzare. See Sketch. 

Dastard, s. a faint-heart, a poltron. See Daze, Dash, 
and Ard. 

Date, j. I. a point of time stated, duration ; L. datus ; 
It. dato ; F. date ; literally the period when a notifi- 
cation was made ; as. Given at London by royal au- 

2. The fruit of a palm tree ; F. date, from L. daciulus. 

Daub, v. a, to cover with wet clay or mortar, to plas- 
ter, to smear ; B. dabben ; W. dwb ; I. diob, mortar. 
See Dab and Dabble. 

Daughter, s, a female child, a son's wife; A dokh; P. 
doohtur ; Sans, duohiire ; Hind, dohkter ; M. G. 
dauchtar ; G. dauchter ; Swed. deter; D.datter; S. 
dohter ; B. dochter; T. tochter; BvyJirn^; all of 
which, together with Sclav, defka; Sans, dhiya; 
Swed. deghia, deija, a female, are cognate with our 
words dug, teat, diddy. See Duck, Doll, Dairy, 

Daunt, v, a, to intimidate, discourage ; supposed to be 
from Ad aw ; but G. and Swed. dana, sigmfies to ren- 
der faint or confused. See Daze. 

Dauphin, s. the title of the heir to the French throne ; 
L. B. delphinus, from L. de alpind, the country bor- 
~ ^ dering on the Alps, now called Daupkine, of which 
' he is hereditary count. 

Daw, s, a bird called the chough or jackdaw ; T. dohle, 
from duh ; G. dauk ; W. du, black. 

Dawk, v, a, to divide, to separate, break ; G. dalgian ; 

Scot dalk ; Laitt, See Deal and Dock. 
. Dawn, v, to become day, to grow light, to shine ; Q. 
dagan; B. dagen; S. dagian; T. tagen. See Day. 

. Dawn, s, the daying or first appearance of mom ; S. 
dagung ; F. diane ; It diana. 



DaV^ 8, the time that the sun is above the horiion ; 6. 
and Swed. dag; T. tag; S. dags B. dag: Sans. 
dtXy from diga; Atk, light; L. £es; Arm. dio; h 
de ; W. dian ; die Dagon of Scripture was possibly 
the Ood of day^ the sun. 

Dazb^ v. a. to be bright, to shine, to overpower with 
light, to glare ; M. O. dagnan ; S. dagian ; from Dat ; 
but O. and Swed. doia ; T. daesen ; Scot date, sig- 
nify to stupify, to overpower with fiuntness ; whence 
da, das, wan, a swoon ; and Plutarch says that Ai^Mf 
was death with the Macedonians. See Dash and 

Dazzlb, v. a. to confuse with excess of light ; frequenta- 
tive of Dazb. 

Deacon, s. a church officer ; AiMt^vn ; L. B. diaconui. 

Dbad, a, 1. deprived of life, inanimate, dull ; fh)m O. 

daud; T. tod; S. dead, death. See to Dib. 
2. Actual, real; 6. dad; B.daad; S. dasd, fkct, reality ; 

from the verb to Do. See Indbbd. 
Dbad lift, s. real aid ; from dead, real, and 6. hlifi, 

protection, help. 
Dbad rbcronino, s, the real or actual calculation in a 

ship. See Dbad. 
Dbaf, a, wanting the sense of hearing ; G. deif; B. 

doof; S. deaf; Swed. ddf; D. dan). 
Dbal, «. 1. a division, _part, portion, distribution; O. 

dail; Swed. del; T. deil; B. deel; S. dal; T. 

theil; I. deil; W. dell. See Taille. 
2. What is divided, wood cut or split lengthwise, par- 
ticularly of fir or pine ; B. deel. 
Dban, s. 1. an order of priesthood; F. doyen; L. de- 

2. In the names of places signifies a narrow shrubby 

valley ; S. dame, dena ; Swed. dunge is supposed to 

be L. dutnetum. See Dinolb. 
Dbar, a. costly, precious, valued, beloved; G. and 

Swed. dyr; 8. dear; B. dier; T. teur ; I. door. 
Dbabn, a. 1. lonely, secret ; S. deam; Scot dam, from 

G. eim; S. cern. 
2. Hurtful, injurious. See Dern. 
Dbabth, s. scarcity, dearhood; B. dierie; dyrtid, as 

used wiUi the Goths, was dear tide, time of deamess ; 

F. chereti, scarcity, is L. caritas. 
Dbath, t. extinction of life, destruction; G. daud; 

Swed. dOd; T. tod; B. dood; S. death; as if Die- 
hood. See to Dib. 
Dbbab, v. a. to exclude, deprive, hinder; F. barrer; 

It. barrare. See Bab. 
Debate, v. a. to contend, discuss, argue; F. debatre ; 

lu debattire, to beat down by argument, from L. 

batuo. See Bate. 
llyikkucH, s. 1. excess, lewdness, drunkenness ; F. de* 

i4uck, from L. debacckor, to sacrifice to Bacchus. 
2 Pollution, stain, defilement; O. £. debais. See 

DBfeONAiR, o. elegant, well4)red, gay ; F. from L. de 

bona aria. 
Dbcamteb, #. a glass vessel fcnr holding liquor ; L. B. 

cantut, a bottle, decantare; F. decanter, to pour from 

one bottle into another. See Canteen. 
Decay, v. to decline, wither, consume; F. deckoir; L. 

decadere. ,** , 

Deck, t. I. a cover, arrangement, dress ; D. and B. dek ; 

T. decke; 6. and Swed. tcsck; L. tectum. 
2. The platform that covers the hold of a ship; Swed. 

ddck; F. deck. 

Deck, v. a; from the noun ; to cover, di^s ; 8. decam ; 

B. deken, dekken. 

Decker-hen, s. a dabchick, a water-hen. See Duck and 

Decoy, s. a duck-case, and also the duck whidi is 
taught to lead the wild ones into the cage orindosnre 
prepared to entrap them ; from duck and G. kui ; B. 
kovt ; L. cavea, a cage. 

Deed, s. an act, a feat, a fact, what is done; G. dad; 
Swed. ddd; B. daad ; 8. dad; T. that. See Dead 
and Indbbd. 

Deem, v. a. to judge, suppose, determine ; G. doma ; 

Swed. ddma ; S. &man. See Doom. 
Deep, a. profound, gloomy; G. and Swed. dhtp; D. 

dyb; B. diep ; S. £op; T. dief, signifying originally, 

like L. aUue, both high and low. See Down, Up, 

and Steep. 

Deer, e. a wild animal, but now denotiiur one of the 
cervine class; G. dyr; Swed. diur; T. tkier; B. dier; 
S. deor; in^. 

Deface, v. a, to destroy, disfigure, erase; from L. 

Defile, v. a. 1. to taint, corrupt, violate chastity ; from 
G.Jyla ; S. qfilan. See Foul. 

8. To go file by file; F. deJUer, from L.Jtlum. 
Deflour, v. a. to ravish, spoil beauty; F. defi4>rer ; 
It deflorare, from L. de axidjiorea. 

Defray, v. a. to bear charges^ to pajr expense; F. de* 
frayer, from fraiz, expense ; L. Jrago, like frango, 
signified to expend, diminish, waste. 

Deft, a. efiicient, proper, decent ; Swed. dagt ; S. 
dasfl ; B. deft. See Doughty and Dapper. 

Defy, v. a. to dare, challenge, despise; F. deffier, from 
^•fii^ifi^: M. G.^n jT S.Jigan; T.feigan, to pro- 
voke, to hold in enmity ; whenceyotdia, toehood, de- 
fiance, signified, with the Lombards, a declaration of 
war. T. d^fier, to distrust, is from L. diffido* 

Deign, v. o. to think worthy, vouchsafe, grant, permit; 
F. daigner ; L. dignor. 

Deism, i. the belief in one God; F.ddeme, from L. dm. 
See Ism. 

Deist, s. a person who professes deism; L..deiita; F. 

Deity, s. the divinity, the godhead ; L. deitae; F. deit^, 

fVom L. deus; A7h; Sana, duee, deva, dew; Hind. 

deo; A. dahw ; It. deo; F. dieu; W. duw ; Arm. dei; 

I. di. The Sans, names seem to concur with P. d^, 

dew ; Heb. ta, a giant, a powerful being, a demon. 

Delay, s. a stop, hinderance; F. delai; L. delatio. 

Delf, 1. 1. a kind of earthen ware made at D^ in 

3. A trench. See to Delve* 

Deliter, v. o. to free, rescue, give up, set forth ; F. 
delivrer, from L. lU>ero. 

Dell, s. a hollow, a vale ; B. del, daslg. See Dale and 


Delve, v. a. to diff, penetrate, comprehend ; B.ddven ; 
T. delben ; S. delf an. See Deal. 

Deluge, s. a flood, a general inundaticm; F. deluge; L. 

Dbmain, Dembsne, 8. from Mbsne; manorial territory, 

held in immediate possession by the juroprietor; some* 

times confounded with domain. 

Demean, v. a. I. to conduct one's self, behave; F. 
Mmer; It ffiefuire^ to conduct Set AmenajUiB. 

D E V 


2. From Mban^ to degrade^ undervalue. 

Demesne^ s. manorial land. See Dbmain. 

Demise^ #. decease^ lease^ legacy; F. demis ; L. de» 

Demon^ s. an evil spirit, the devil ; L. dasmon ; A«^f, 
originally signifying a divinity. 

Demur, v. a. to retard, delay, hesitate ; L. demoror ; F. 

Demure, a. affecting gravity and correctness of man« 
ners ; F. des nueurs, mm L, mores. 

Den, s. a hollow, a vale, an indosure, a lurkinff place 
for wild beasts ; T. den ; S. denn ; L. B. dena; & iana. 

Der, Dar, Dor, Dur, in the names of places may some- 
times signify a chase, from deer ; 6. diur ; S. dtoTy a 
wild beast ; but generallv, when near a river, from P. 
durya; Sflois. &ar; "tJiv^; Swed. dura; T. dur; 
Arm. dour; W. dwr ; I. deur, water ; whence the L. 
termination durum, so common to towns in Oaul and 
Britain. The Liffy in Ireland was formerly the Dor; 
and the present name, as well as the Levem^ is cog- 
nate with G. ctlap ; Swed. elf, elb, a stream m water ; 
T. laufen ; S. Uppe, a torrent. 

Deray, Disarray, s, disorder, tumult ; F. deray, from 
desrainer. See Derange. 

Dere, V, a, to injure, to vex ; S. derian ; B. deeren ; G. 

Dern, a. 1. from Dere/ hurtful, injurious. 

2. From Dearn / desolate, solitary. 

Dervise, s. a holy beggar, a fakir ; P. dervish. 

Descant, s. a strain of encomium; It discanto, decanto, 
from L. canto. 

Descry, v. a. to discover, spy out ; F. descrier; L. c^- 
cerjio. See Discern. 

Desart, s. 1. a wilderness; L. desertum; F. desert; 
It. deserto; Sp, desierto. 

2. Merit, a claim to recompense. See to Deserve. 

Desert, v. a. to forsake, run off; L. desero; It. deser- 

tare; F. deserter. 
Desire, v. a. to long for, entreat, ask ; F. desirer ; L. 

Desk, s. a table, an inclined bench to write at ; Swed. 

disk ; T. tisch ; B. disch ; It. desco, a table. It would 
. seem that the eating-table of the Goths was formerly 

a large bowl or trough set on a stand. See Dish. 
Despite, «. ill-will, malice, defiance; It. dispetto; F. 

despit, depit ; Sp. dispecho ; L. dispectus, from L. dis, 

and pectus, the breast or heart. 
Dessert, s. removal of the dinner service, to place con- 
fectionary and fruit on the table ; F. dessert, from L. 

dis and servo. 

Detach, v. a. to separate, send off a part ;- F. detacher, 
from dis and attach. 

Detail, v. a. to particularize, to divide, to relate mi- 
nutely ; F. detatller ; Sp. detailar. See Taille, Tell, 

Deuce, s. the devil ; G. diis; P. dew ; L. dusius; Arm. 
teus, seem, like demon, to have been once used in a 
good sense. 

Develope, v. a. to unfold, lay open; It. viilupo ; F. <fe- 
veloper; L. devoho. 

Devest, v. a. to unrobe, to free from, deprive ; L. rfe- 
vestio ; F. devestir. 

Device,^, an invention, contrivance, project, scheme ; 

F. device. See to Devise. 
Devil, *. a fallen angel, wickedness, mischief; P. dew ; 

Syr. divo; Tvak.diofs; Tartar, dirf; O.diofi; S. 

diqful; T.teuffel; B.duivel; AiJC$)iH; L. diabolus; 
W. diajl; I. maul. P. and Sans, dive denoted demi- 
gods who inhabited the earth before man was created, 
and were expelled by the Gods for their crimes. The 
teule of the Mexicans was a divinity. See Dbucb. 

Devise, v. a. to contrive, to plan, make known, be- 
queath ; F. deviser, from G. visa, vita ; Swed. wisa ; 
T. wissen, to know or make known. See Wit. 

Devoid, a. empty, wanting. See Void. 

Devoir, s. duty, civility ; F. devoir; It. devore, from L. 

Dew, s. a thin cold vapour ; G. doggma ; Isl. diog ; 
Swed. dagg, dcefwa ; S. deaw ; B. dauw ; T. tan ; 


Dewberry, s. a bramble fruit, a delicate sort of black- 
berrv ; G. dauck ; T. duh; A. daju; Arm. W. I. du, 
black, and berry ; T. dubere, a mulberry. 

Dew-worm, s. a rain-worm, a lob ; T. than worm. See 

Dewlap, s. the skin and flesh hanging from an ox's 
throat; from Jaw, F.Joue, the cheek, and lap. 

Dey, s. 1. the title given to the sovereign of Algiers ; 
Turk, deh, the female side, a nurse, a maternal uncle, 
literally brother to the mother, which is the state ; 
the Grand Signior being the father. 

2. A milkmaid ; Scot dee. See Dairy and Daughter. 

Dial, s. a plate where a hand marks the hours of the 
day ; L. diale. 

Diaper, s. linen cloth woven in flowers or figures ; 
L. B. diasperus; F. diapre; P. dibdh; A. dibdj, em- 
broidery, damask. 

Dibble, s. a dig-bill, a gardener's tool. 

DiBSTONE, s. a chuckstone, a pebble used by little girls 
at play ; from G. dya, to strike or toss, and stone. 

Dice, s. pi. more than one die. 

Dickens, s. dim. of Deuce, the devil ; B. dicker. 

Didder, v. a. to quake with cold, to shiver ; T. diddern. 
See Twitter. 

Diddy, s. a provincial word for the female breast ; F. 
dutte, from M. G. daad ; Heb. dad ; Hind, dood ; T. 
dMe ; Swed. didd, suck, milk ; P. duda, a nurse. 
See Teat and Dairy. 

Die, v. 1. to expire, leave life; G. deia ; Swed. dh; S. 
deadian ; D. dose. 

2. To tinge, taint, colour ; S. deagan ; tiyftf ; L. iingo. 
Die, s, 1 . from the verb ; a tinge, colour ; S. deah, 
2. A small cube to game with, a stamp used in coining, 
chance; O. F. det ; It. dado; L. tessera; Scot datt, 
destiny, seems to be from G. deit, fall or chance; A. 
det is a cube. See Dado. 

Diet, *. 1. an assembly of princes; P. dihot ; G. thiot; 
T. diet; Arm. tud; W. tud; I. duth, the nation; the 
proper word being G. thiot mot ; T. diet mot, the na- 
tional meeting. The Teutons and Dutch have their 
names from G. thiot. 

2. Regular order of eating, food ; Amtrm ; L. dia^a. 

Dig, v. a. to trench, to break or turn up the soil ; Swed. 
dika ; B. dyken ; S. dican. See Dike. 

DiOHT, 17. a. to arrange, adorn, dress ; S. dihten, from 
G. and Swed. duga, to prepare, set in order. See 

Dike, s. a ditch, mound, water channel; G. Swed. 
dike; S. die, a ditch; Heb. dock; Tu^hi F. digue, a 

D I S 


Dill, s, an herb called anise ; Swed. T. and B. dt// ; 
S. M; P. Mee, a cordial, from dH, the heart 

Dim, a. dull of sight or apprehension; Qt.dimma; Swed. 
dimm ; S. dtnt ; Sclav, tma, 

DiMiTT, s. a kind of fine fustian ; B. diemd. 

DiMPLB, s, a small cavity in the cheek or chin. See 


Din, s. a loud and violent noise ; G. dyn ; Swed. d6n ; 
S. dyn. 

Dine, v. o. to take what was called the day meal ; S; 

dynan, dasnan, from day : P. diner, disner ; It. rfe«- 

nare, are from L. ^iie^^, and probably L. B. e^'no, from 

er/o. T. mddags essen ; 6. dagurd. 
Ding, v. a. to beat, knock with violence ; G. damga; S. 

denegan; Swed. ddnga. 

Ding dong, s. noise and knocking, the tolling of a bell, 
a fray ; Swed. dUng, a blow. See Din and Ding. 

DiNGLB, s. a hollow between hills, a dell ; dim. of Dbn, 
or Swed. dunge, supposed to be L. dumetum. 

Dingy, a. dark, sullied, dirty ; dim. of Dun, confound- 
ed with Swed. dyngig, colour of dung. See Drab. 

Dint, s, a blow or mark of a blow, violence ; G. dunt ; 
S. dynt. See to Ding. 

DiNTLB, s, dim. of Dint ; the impression made by the 
blow of an obtuse instrument ; a small depression of 
any kind ; Scot, dinge. 

Dip, v. a, to immerse, to put slightly below the surface; 
AvTrltt ; Swed. (/<Jpa ; B. doapen ; S. dippen ; T. teti/l 
fen ; It. toffo; I. duhan ; Hind. doha. See Dive. 

Dirge, s* a funeral service, a mournful ditty ; supposed 
by some to be L. dirige, which begins the psalm sung 
at funerals ; but Isl. and Swed. dyrga, dyrfca, to hold 
dear, signified also to extol, to honour, to celebrate. 

Dirk, s, a dagger ; G. dorg ; Swed. dork, dolk ; I. 

Dirt, s. filth, mud, excrement; G. dritj T. dreck ; 
Scot. driU See Dreg, Draff, Draught. 

Dis, a negative prefix adopted from the Latin. 

DisARD, DizzARD, s. a silly person, a fool ; S. dwoss ; 
B. drvaas. See Daze and Ard. 

Disaster, s, misfortune, calamity ; F. desastre; It. dis- 
astro, from L. dis, and aster, a star, which was sup- 
posed to have the protection of individuals bom under 
Its influence. Hence the exclamation My stars ! 

Discard, v. a. 1. from Dis and Card; to throw out of the 
pack such cards as are useless ; from F. ecarter ; Sp. 

% To remove, dismiss, discharge ; F. equartier, to dis- 
place, seems to have become ecartier, and was con- 
founded at length with ecarter, to throw out cards. 

Discern, v. a. to distinguish ; L. decerno ; F. discerner. 
See Descry. 

Discharge, v. a. from Dis and Charge ; to unload, dis- 
burden, exonerate, remove from a charge or employ- 
ment, dismiss ; F. deckarger ; It discarricare. 

Discomfit, v, a. to defeat, to vancj^uish ; F. disconfire ; 
It. disconfigere, from L. disconficw. 

Disdain, v. a. to scorn, hate, despise; F. dedaigner, 
from L. dis, dignor. 

Disembogue, v. a. to gain vent, to discharge into the 
sea ; It. disimboccare, to go out of the mouthy from 
bocca ; L. hucca, the mouth. 

Disguise, s, an unusual appearance, a dress to deceive ; 
F. deguise. See Dis and Guise. 

Disgust, s. distaste, offence, aversion; It disgaslo; F. 
degout, from L. d^ and gustus. 

Dish, s, a vessel to serve up meat in, a mess of food ; 
A. dushd; P. iusht; Chald. dask; Alntt ; L. discus; 
G. disk; T. tisch; S. disc; W. dysgl, a broad round 
vessel or board, a table. See Desk. 

Dish, v, a, 1. from the noun ; to put into a dish. 

2. To discomfit, undo ; L. disjicio, apparently a school- 
boy's word. 

Dishabille, s. a loose robe, an undress ; F. deshabiUi, 

undressed, from L. dix, and habilis. 
DisHEtEL, I), a. to put the hair in disorder, to entangle ,- 

from dis and F. cheveleur ; L. capillus, hair. 
Disk, s, a round flat surfiu^, a quoit, the face of the 

sun or moon ; Aiwkh* See Dish. 
Dismay, v. a. to terrify, deject ; Sp. desmayar ; F. es' 

tnayer, emayer, from L. metuere, 

DisPARAGB, V. a. to make unequal or inferior, to debase, 
to treat with contempt ; from L. dispar agere. 

DisPBi^, V, a. to distribute, deal out, expend, give 
away, exempt ; L. dispenso; F. dispenser. 

Display, v, a. to spread wide, unfold, exhibit ; L. dis" 
plico ; F. deploy er. 

Disport, v. to divert, to play, to wanton ; It disporio, 
deporto, sporto, from L. dis and porto, which signified 
to bear, to labour. See Sport. 

Distaff, s. a staff* for spinning ; S. distasff. 

Distemper, v. a, 1. to disorder, disturb ; from L. dis, 

and tempero. 
2. To mix colouring substance with water; It. dis- 

temperare ; F. detremper. 
Distress, s. a state of pressure, of difficulty, calamity ; 

F. destresse, detresse. See to Distrain and Stress. 
Ditch, s, a long trench, a moat ; Isl. diki ; T. deich, 

teich. See Dike. 

Ditty, Dit, s, a musical poem, a sonnet ; Swed. dicki ; 
T. and B. dicht ; S. diht, tekt, from G. tia, to show, to 
relate, corresponding with Ti/xkf. See Dioht. 

Divan, s, the Ottoman council; A. and P. deroan, a 
tribunal ; Heb. and Turk, dovan, a judge or superin- 

Dive, v, a, to sink or plunge under water, to go deep ; 
S. dyfan ; T. tufan. See Dip and Dab. 

Divest, v. a. to unclothe, disrobe, dispossess. See 

DizEN, V. a, to trim, ornament See Dbck and Dight. 

Dizzy, a. light-headed, thoughtless; S. disig; B.duisig; 
T. dusig. See Daze. 

Do, V, a, to act j)erform, practise, finish ; G. doga ; M. 

G. taujan; T. thuen; j3. doen; S. don; Asm^tt; L. 

Dobbin, s, a peasant's riding-horse ; contracted from 
the or die Hobbin ; F. hobyn. See Hobby. 

Dock, j. 1. a tliick herb ; S. docce; B. dokke, signifying 
thick and the dock plant. 

2. The stump lefr when the tail is cut off; L. cauda, 
coda, a tail, produced F. ecouer, decouer, to cut off the 
tail. See Dawk. 

3. A place to build ships in ; G. and B. dok ; D. dokke; 
Swed. docka, a ditch or dike for the construction of 

Docket, s, a summary of some larger writing, a direc- 
tion put up<»i goods, supposed to be AMurnp; but 
apparently the dim. of Dock, as L. cauda produced 




DoODBBy #• a wttdtbat kills caro; GL daudr; T* toAer> 

the di^er ;. L^ euscaU epitfaymum. 
DaoQM, V. a. to follow artf ully^ to croudi« to shift ; our 

word to Dog has been aMdfimiidod with T. ducken, 

dougen, ttrngen, to duck^ to conceaL 
DoDKiN> s, a small coin ; dim. of Doit. 
DoDiiAN, #. a sbelUfisb^ a sea-soail^ the hodman. See 


Dob, s. the female of a buck ; Swed. daa, d&f; 8. da; 

Jj^dama; V.daine. 
Doo> 9. a domestic animal^ a hound ; T. deu^ghe, dock, 

zttck;; Swed. doga; D. d^^; F.dogue; P. 

dtoc^.* S. CMC is a mongrel. See Tikb. 

Doo> V* a. to hunt like a dog, to follow slily ; our word 

to Hunt is from hound. 
DooB, s. the chief magistrate of Venice; It duco, dugo, 

from L. dux, which corresponds with G. tog, a leader, 

a chief; T. herizog, head of an army^ a duke> from G. 

<flga, to tow or Icm. 
DoooBB, a. morose, sullen; from Doo, as Cjmic is from 

DooGBB-BOAT, a fiat boat, a hooker; B. dogger hoot; 

D. hukher. 
DoooBBBL, a. vile, mean, grovelling, snarling, cynical; 

from Poo. 
Doo-iA>u8B^ s. a louse found on dogs. See Tick. 

Doit, #. a small coin, half a farthingy G. ott sigpufied 
eight, and also a penny, which became B. duit, the 
eighth of a penny ; but in Scotland the Doit was one^ 
tmrd of a fiurthing, or one penny Scots, and the boddle 
both, or double doit, was twopence. 

DoLB, V. 1. to grieve, to lament to moucn ; L. doleo, 

2. To distribute alms, to deliver out in portions ; Scot 
doU, See to Dbal. 

DoLB, s. a boundary, a limit, an extreme object, a mark; 
Scot dool, dule. See Deal and Toll. 

Doll, s. a little girl, a puppet, a dim. applied to Do- 
rothea; D. dokkele; T. doade; Scot doUi coj^rnate 
with i^tfcit and doxy; e«XM, ftomidm, which is our 
poetical name Delia, has the same origin. See Dauoh« 
TBB and Duck. 

Dollab, s, a foreign silver coin, nearly the value of four 
shiUings and sixpence; B. daler ; T. thaler; Swed. 
daler, from the town of Dale or Daleherg, wher6 it 
was coined. 

Dolphin, s, a sea^fish, a constellation ; AiA^ip ; L. dd^ 
pfdnus; P. do^vn. 

Dolt, s, a heavy stupid person, a dunce ; O. dolhast ; 
T. ddd, stupidity. See Dull^ 

DoM, used as a termination, signifies ju^nnent, estima- 
tion, condition, qnali^; as Wisdom, iungdom^ Thral- 
dom. See Doom. 

DoBiAiN, s, possession, estate, dominion ; L. dominium ; 
F. domaime; sometimes confounded with demesne. 

DoBn> «. 1. a house, a dwelling ; ASfm; L. domw. 

2* A cupola, a vaulted roof; Coptic thorn, the thohim 
of Vitruvius ; F. dome s It duomo. 

Don, s, a Spanish title for a gentleman ; contracted 

from L. domnus. 
DoNB, part. pats, of the verb to Do; decided, concluded, 

agreed upon. 

Donjon, s. the highest tarret in a fort, the chief place 
c^ strength; L. B. doitfio, domnio; F. donjon, domi* 

DoHSAj s. a lady, the feminine of Don ; L. thmma. 

DoonuB^ #. a trifler> a simpleton; 6. dul, dadul; T* 
doL See Dull. 

Doom, #. judsment, sentence, fate; O. Swed. S. dom; 

B. doem; T. thum; Bif$t§. 
DooB, s. gate of a house, an entrance ; P. dur ; Sans. 

dnfor; Chald. tara; Heb. terah; Bv^; G. dour; 

Swed. difr ; S. dore ; D. doer ; T. ihire. 
DoQU£T, s. a paper containing a warrant See Dockbv. 

Dob, in the names of places, generally signifies water- 
See Deb. 

DoBMBB window, s. sl dormitory window; firom L. 

DoBB, t^ a. to stupify with noise, todeaver; Soot dauer, 
from G. daufr, deaf, stupid. 

DoBY, DoBBB, s. a fish known classically as zeus faber ; 

F. dor^e, gilded or ff olden ; but vulgarly oaHledjaune, 
or yellow. It is fequently called jaune doree, and 
corruptly John Dory. In some parts of Italy it is 
said to be named by the monks janitore, ftom L. jo- 
nitor ; supposing the two spots on its sides to be the 
marks of ot Peter^s fingers. The haddock also claims 
that honour ; but is not found in the Mediterranean 

DoT,^. a point, a round spot See Jot. 

DoTB, V. n. to ffrow silly, to be infatuated with loVe ; 

G. dotta ; B. doten, dutlen ; F. dotter, radotter : h has 
the same root with doze, signifying originally to dream, 
to be delirious. 

DoTTBBBL, s. from Dote ; a silly bird. 

DouBLB, a. twofold, deceitful ; F. double; L. duplex. 

DouBLBT, S.1.& pair, two; from Doublb. 

2. A kind of waistcoat ; F. doublet ; It dobUtio ; from 

DouBLON, s. F. a double pistole. 

Doubt, v. to hesitate, suspect, distrust; F. douier, from 
L. dubito. 

DoucBTj s. a custard, a deer's testicle ; F. doucet, dtd- 

DovB, *. a turtle, a pigeon ; G. dufa, dub ; M. G. duba ; 
D. due; S. duu; Swed. dufwa ; T. iaube; B. duive ; 
Arm. dube ; all of which are apparently from Aiv** ; 
Hind, duba, to wash, to purity, cerate with our 
word Dip ; B. doopen ; T. tauben, tauffen ; Auxnt, to 
baptize, to give ablution. Asi» and fidtt produced, it 
is believed, K»XvftiUsf ; L. cdumba. With the Greeks 
and Latins this bird, dedicated to Venus Urania, was 
tiie emblem of pure love ; in the Christian religion it 
is the symbol of divine affection. The chaste Daphne 
wias purity personified. ■ 

Dough, s. unbaked paste for bread ; G. deig ; Swed. 
deg ; T. teig ; B. aeegh ; 8. dah ; Scot, deigh ; Arm. 
ioas; W. toes; I. taos. See Dab. 

DouoHTT, a. eminent, brave, noble ; Swed. dugtig ; S. 

dohtig ; T. tuchtig, from G. dugi, valour. See Deft 

and Stout. 
DousB, s.l. a, splash, a plunge into water. See Souse. 
2. A blow, a push, a shock ; B. duuw, dons ; Swed. 

duns ; Scot, dunch, doyce, from G. dya. 

Douse, v.a.l. from the noun ; toplunge, to push,to strike. 

2. To remove, put out, extinguish ; T. dussen, to do 
out, as we saj» Doff for do off; but F. dehausser sig- 
nifies to lower or put down. See to Hoist. 

DowAOBB, s. a widow with a dowry. See Dowbb« 


D R A 

D R I 

DowD^ s. a Deyhood> a nurse's coif« a loose csp. See I 

Daibt and Hood. 
DowDiE^ s. from Dowo ; a slovenly-dressed woman. 
DowEB^ DowEBY^ s, a jointure^ a widow's portion ; F* 

douaire, from L. doiare. 
Dowlas^ s, a kind of linen used originally for towels ; 

T. dwelelach. See Towbl. 
Down, s. 1. fine plumage on the belly o£ water-fowls; 

D. duun J Swed. dun; B. dam* F, duvet. 
2. A sand hill, a barren shore ; B. duin ; P. dune. See 

Down, a. on or towards the ground, low ; Arm. down ; 

W. dwfn : G. qfoTy our over, signified above, and 

qfan, oman ; Swed. oftvan, from above, was a descent 

as well as an ascent. This word, the particle d being 

Srefixed, became S. dun, an ascent, a hill ; adun, a 
escept. M. G. uf, ufar, the Greek 'Tjri, 'rin^, sig- 
nified below and above. In this sense also G. diup, 
deep, like L. aUus, was both profound and high. See 

Doxy, s. a girl, a dolly, a wench, a loose girl ; dim. of 

Doze, v, to be half asleep, to slumber ; T. dosen ; D. 
dasse ; Swed. c2tf«a, to slumber, seem to be from da, 
which signifies to wander in mind. See Dote. 

Drab, s. refuse, ejectment, dirt, the thick sediment of 
beer in cask, cloth of that colour ; G. dreib ; B. 
drabbe ; S. drabbe. See Draff. 

Drachm, s. the eighth part of an ounce, a Roman coin ; 

A^Xf^ ; L. drachma ; A drahm. 
Draff, s, refuse, ejectment, husks, wash for hogs. See 

Drab and Dreg. 
Drao, v. a. to draw, pull by force, trail ; G. and Swed. 

draga ; S. dragan ; T. dragen, tragen, trachen ; B. 


Draggle, v. a. frequentative of Drag ; to trail along ; 
T. dregelen ; but sometimes used in Uie sense of dag* 
gle, to wet. 

Dragnet, s. a net drawn along the bottom ; S. drosge* 
net ; F. dranet. 

Dragon, s, a winged serpent, said to have been an em- 
blem of the sun or of fire ; G. drake ; T. drache ; L. 
draco ; It. draso ; F. dragon ; W. drais. P. adr was 
the angel of fire ; I. ana W. draig, bghtning ; and 
the story of St George and the dragon seems to have 
been an allegory of 3ie triumph of Christianity over 

Dragoon, s, a horse soldier ; P. dragon ; It. dragone ; 

supposed to be derived from the dragon, which is 

said to have been the standard of the Scythian cavalry. 
Drain, v, a. to draw off, to empty, to make dry ; T. 

dranen; S. drehnigean. 
Drake, s. 1. the male of a duck, properly duck-rake ; 

Swed. andrake, from L. anas and G. reke; Swed. 

drake, a male, and also a warrior ; O. E. rink. 

2. A small piece of artillery, a squib ; from L. draco. 
Dram, s. 1. the eighth part of an ounce. See Drachm. 
2. A small quantity of spirits; I. dram; Scot, drap. 
See Drop. 

Drama, s, the action of a play, a poem ; A^Hfui, a scene; 
L. drama ; P. drame. 

Drape, s. cloth ; L. B. drappa, drappus ; It. drappo ; 

P. drap; Sp. and Port trapo, from L. trama. 
Drape, v. a, from the noun ; to make cloth. 
Draper, s, a person who sells cloth ; P. d rapier. 

Draught, «. 1. excrement, refiise; B. and Scot drk; 
S. droge; T. dreck; Soot, dreik. See Draff. - 

2. A drink, die act of drinking ; G. dragt ; S. droki, 
from Draw. See Tug and Pull. 

3. A bill of exchange, a sketch ; from to Draw, mm Tndt 
from L. traha. 

4. The act of pulling carriages, fishes taken at one 
haul, soldiers drawn from the main body. See to 

Draughts, s. a game ; supposed to be firom Drmm, to 
move ; but G. drot ; S. aright ; T. druht, a sovereign, 
a king, was a crowned man. See Drjbad and Dak. 

Draw, v. a. to pull along, raise up, inhale, attract, un- 
sheathe, embowel, produce, delineate, describe, aUure. 
See Drag cognate with L. traha, 

Drawl, v. a. from Draw ; to -speak in a slow driveUing 
manner ; B. draeUn, 

Dray, s. a kind of low- wheeled cart ; Swed. dr^, frxmi 
to draw or drag ; L. traga, from traho. 

Drazel, s. a mean dirty woman, a drab ; T. drechseL 
See Drotchel. 

Dread, s. 1. terror, fear; S. draed, drasd, from G. rmd- 
dur; Swed. r<Bda ; D. rcBd ; Scot, red, terror. 

2. A sovereign, a lord, a chief; G. d9'ott ; S. drigki ; T. 
druht ; Scot, drote. 

Dream, v. a. to rove in sleep, to wander in mind ; G. 
drauma ; Swed. drama ; L. dormio, to sleep : B. droam; 
T. traum, a dream. 

Drear, Dreary, a. sorrowfrd, dismal ; T. trauer ; B. 
ireur; S. dreorig, from ryggr. See Rub. 

Dredge, v. a. to draw out leisurely, to drag slowly ; S. 
dmgan ; P. dreger. See to Drag. 

Dreg, s. sediment of liquor, the lees at the bottom of a 
vessel; G. dregg ; Swed. drag; S. droge. See 

Drench; v. a, to steep, to force down liquor ; S. dran* 
can. 3ee to Drink. 

Dretch, a. idle, lazy ; Scot, dratch, hom drqja, to drag 
slowly, to delay. 

Dress, v. a. to prepare, put right, arrange, direct, adorn, 
clothe, trim ; T. dresser ; It. drizzare, dirizzare, from 
L. dirigo. 

Drirble, v. a. to fall slowly, to slaver. See Dripple. 
Drill, s. 1. from the verb; a borer; B. dril; T. drill, 
triU; S. thirl; It. drillo; Swed. drUL 

2. Grain sown in straight furrows, from a box drilled 
with small holes. 

3. Prom the verb ; exercise of arms, T. and B. driU; F. 
drille, a companion at arms. 

4. A baboon, an ape ; either from drille, a eomrade, or 
G. troll, a wizzard. 

5. A small brook. See Rill. 

Drill, v. a. to pierce by a turning borer, to thrill, shake, 
brandish, exercise military arms; T. and B. drillen; 
Swed. drilla, from T. drehen ; B. draijen ; S. thregian, 
to turn. 

Drink, v, a. to draw in, to swallow liquid, to suck up ; 
Q.drecka ; Swed. dricka ; T. drincken, trincken ; S. 
drinken, drican. See Draught. 

Drip, Dripple, v. a. to fall or let fall in drops, to dri- 
vel; T. dripelen; Isl. draUa; Swed. draUa; Scot 
drigle. See Trickle. 

Drive, r. a. to force, impel, urge, rush ; G. drifwa ; 
Swed. drifn»a ; S. drifan ; B. dryven ; D. drive ; T. 
treihen; T^Rm. 


D R U 


JhLTvnh, V. a. to dribble, to slayer, to dote. 

2. To drawl, to trifle ; G. drwfla ; D. drasve ; T. draven. 

DRizziiB, V, a, to shed, or fkll in small drops; T. driselen, 

rieselen, from L. ros; A^U$t, dew, tears. 
Droil, s. a sluggard, a drone. See Drawl and DRnrEL. 
Droll, o. gay, sportive, ludicrous; Arm. drerv, dreo; 

F. dru, dfXHe. 
Dromedary, s. a swift sort of camel with only one 

hump ; A^fiutf ; L. dromeda ; L. B. dromedarius ; It. 

dromedario ; F. dromedaire. 

Dronb, s, 1. the hum or bass in music; G. dr^n; Swed. 
drdn ; B. dreun, 

2. A sluggard, the drone bee; Swed. drbn, from G. 
drana, to drawl, to loiter ; but perhaps from the hum 
of the drone bee. See Humblb Beb. 

Droop, v, n. to languish, sink^ faint, pine ; M. G. drolh' 
gan ; Swed. driffwa ; T. trUhen ; S. drepen, to depress 
tne mind ; B. drcrf, sorrow. 

Drop, v. a. to pour or let fall in drops, to fall, descend, 

Suit; G. droppa; Swed. drypa; D. dryppe; S. droppan; 
I. druipen ; T. tropfen. 

Dross, s. the scum or faeces of metals ; G. drits ; S. droge, 
dros. See Dreo. 

Drotchel, s, an idle wench, a sluggard. See Dretch. 
Drove, s. what is driven, a troop^ a herd of animals ; 
S. drqf, 

Drought, s. dryness, thirst ; contracted from dryhood; 
B. droogkeid. 

Drown, v. a. to absorb liouid, to be saturated or suffo- 
cated with water ; Swea. drdnka ; T. tranken ; B. ver- 
dronken ; S. druncan ; M. G. draggkian, supposed to 
be cognate with Drink. 

Drowse, v. to make heavy with sleep, to slumber; 
from G. dur, light sleep. See Doze. 

Drub, v. a. to strike, beat; Isl. dryhba; Swed. drahba; 
A. drub, daruh. See Dub. 

Drudge, v. a. 1. to labour unremittingly in mean offices, 
to toil ; S. dreogan, gedreogan, from drag or dredge. 

2. To press or oppress; G. threikan; S. drecan; T.dnrc- 
ken ; B. drukken. 

Drug, s. 1. a medicinal simple, an ingredient used in 
physic; F. drogue; Sp. and It dro^a; B, droog; T. 
druick. Dry-grocer was formerly m use as well as 
ffreen-grocer ; and S. drug ; B. droog, signify a dry 
herb or aroma, T#vyii, as we use it in drysalter, a 
dealer in spice or drugs. See Dry and Troy weight 

2. A thing of no value, refuse, draff; S. droge ; B. droge. 
See Dreo and Dross. 

3. What is pressed ; T. drug, druck. See to Drudge. 
Drugoet, s. cloth pressed so as to be water-marked 

like camelot ; F. droguet; from B. druget, druckt; T. 
gedruckt. See Drug. 

Druid, s. an ancient British priest ; W. derwydd ; Arm. 
derud; L druadhj T. druid; L. B. druida; supposed 
to be derived from W. derm, dar; Arm. deru; l.dair; 
A^vf, an oak. W. daro, like G. thor^ was the thun- 
derer or Jupiter ; daron, taran, was thunder, and da-- 
rogan, propnecy or divination. The diar who accom- 
panied Odm presided over religion ; and S. dry, dresh, 
was an augur or magician. JDiar appears to be the 
Gothic plural of Ami, and aIh was divme. M. G. rod-- 
gan, diar rodgan, to speak divinity ; G. rodd, voice, 
song. The British pnests, however, are said to have 
been selected from tne order of Bards. 

Drum, s. a military instrument, the tympanum of the ear; 

A. drub and dub correspond with our words drub and 
dub, producing T. trumb ; B. trom; D. tromme: but 
F. tambour is cognate with tabor. 

Dry, a. having no moisture, thirsty; G. thar, tkur ; 

Swed. iorr; S. thyrre; T. trock, treuge, darre; B. dor, 

droog ; S. drug ; T^vyn. 
Dry, v. a. to ^ee from moisture, drain; T^vyuv; G. 

thamra ;T. trochen ; B. droogen ; S. drugian ; P. tarir. 
Drysalter, s. See DufTG. 
Dub, s. a blow, the mode cyf conferring knighthood ; G. 

dubba; T. dubben; S. dubban; F. dauber, to strike; 

A. dub, duf, a blow. 

Duck, «. 1. a water-fowl, a diver; Swed. duk, dykare, 
from dyka, to dive ; G. doggwa, water ; B. duike ; T. 
tuck, a dive^ a dip. See Auk. 

2. A doll^ a darlinff^ a term of kindness ; P. daokh ; A. 
dokh; G. doke;I). dukke; T.dokke; S. docca ; Swed. 
daka ; Sclav, defka, a little girl. See Daughter and 

3. A kind of hempen cloth; G. duk; T. doeck ; B. doek. 
See Tick. 

Duck, v-. a, 1. to dip under water, to dive ; Swed. duka, 

dyka; B duyken. 
2. From the noun ; to lower the head like a diver, to 

bob ; Swed. duka ; T. ducken. See DrvE. 

Duckling, «. 1. a young duck. 

2. A little girl, a dolly, a darling. See Duck, a doll. 

DuD^ s. a rag, a tatter; G. dude; B. todde; I. dud; 
Scot. dud. 

Dudgeon, s. dim. of Dag ; a point, a pique, an offence ; 

F. dagueton. See Pique. 
Due, V, a. to pay as a debt, to pay off; Aw ; L. debeo ; 

F. devoir; It. dovere. 

Due, a. what is owing or owed, right, proper, exact ; 

Due, s. a debt, a claim, right, title, custom, tribute ; 
L. debiium. 

Duel, a. a fight between two persons ; L. B. duellwm, 
for dui bellum ; It. duello ; F. duel. 

Duenna, s. a govemante to a lady ; the Sp. pronuncia- 
tion of It donna ; L. domina. 

Dug, s. a pap, the teat of a beast ; Swed. ddgge ; I. 
dighe, from Sans, duk ; G. dy, milk ; G. deggia, to 
give suck. See Teat and Dairy. 

Duke, s. the next dignity below a prince ; L. dux ; It. 
duco ; F. due, from L. duco. See Doge. 

Dulcet, a. sweet, luscious, melodious ; F. doucet ; L. 

Dulcimer, s. a musical instrument ; It. dolcimela, dol* 
cin, a hautboy. 

Dull, a. stupid, blunt, gloomy, sad; G. and Swed. 
dul; W. dwl, stupid. 

Dumb, a. deprived of speech, silent, sullen ; G. dumb ; 
T. tumb; S. dumbe ; Swed. and D. dum; Heb. 
doum, silent. 

Dump, a. a reverie, melancholy, silence, sorrow. See 

Dumpling, a. a small boiled pudding ; from dough, and 

G. bolla, a round loaf; whence F.boulanger, a oaker ; 
D. deig bage, baked dough, producea our vulgar 
word DougLby for a soft loaf. 

Dun, a. dark, between brown and black ; G. dauckn ; 

B. dunker; S. dun ; W. dwnn ; I. dun. See Dusk. 

Dun, in forming the names of places, signifies a hill or 


D W I 

ascent; P. dak; Sans, thm.iimd; 6. idun, a cliff; 

8. T. Arm. dun; Ldumn,9,wli ; Amn is said to have 

been used by the Eolians fixr /Sai4(. See Dawk. 
Pmr^ t;. a. to ask often for a debt; O. Mti^ / Swed 

iinga; T. dingan, mgmfy to ddm at law; but S. 

dunan is from aiit^ noise. 
DuMOXy #. a dolty a stupid person ; D. dumwyt ; Swed 

dumwiss, dull understandmg. So* Dumb and Wit. 

DuNO, «. excrement, compost; Q>dung; BwedL difnger; 
8. ifiiM^j dunge; T. dvn^/ P- dom. 

Dvps, V. a, to cheat, deceive, trick, circumvent, gull ; 
F. duper; It. doffioy from L. duplex, to act a double 

Dub, in names of places, signifies water; P. durga, a 
river. See Dbb. 

Dubb, V, B. to last, continue, endure; L. duro; F. dum 
rer ; T. dauren, from A. ikur ; tkk^m^i time. 

DuBESSB, s. hardness, cruelty ; It. durezza ; F. dureae; 
L. duritia* 

DuBiTT, s. hardness, harshness, cruelty ; F. dmretS ; L. 

DusK^ a. tending to darkness, obscure; 6. daucki; T. 
dns; P. duich; W. and I. du, black. 

Dust, s. earth ia amall partideiy anr substaiice f«l¥e« 
riaed* the grave; 6. T. &.^uH; D.^t. 

DuTOBBsa, #• the l«dy of aduke; F. dMckeise; Iv dmch* 

Duty, #• what is due, b 1^^ obligation, a tax, custom. 
See Dux. 

DwALx, #. a noxious plant, a species a£ solanum ; 6. 
duala; T. ioU,- B. dcil/ SweO. and D. dwala, deli- 
rium, folly> insanity, swooning, trance ; aU whidi ef- 
fects are produced by the deadly nightshade, which 
was f<nrmerly used in witchcraft. 

DwABF, «. a person below the usual siae, a pgmy ; O. 
duerg, dwgrf; Swed. dnarg ; B. dwerg ; S. dwearh ; 
Scot, dmergk ; I. drokh. 

DwAULB, V. a. to rave, to be delirious, to talk idly. 
See DwAi«B. 

DwBLi^, v. B. to inhabit, live in a place, remain, tarry ; 
6. dueUa ; Swed. dwasla, dwa^a; T. tweUen, dualen; 
said to be cognate, and also used in the sense of to 

DwiKDLB, v. B. to grow Icss, fall away, diminish ; B. 
dwindlen, frequentative of dwine. 

DwiNB, v. II. to diminish, waste away, to pine; Q. 
dwyna ; T. dwynen ; Scot dwine. See Wanb. 



EHA8 two sounds ; short, as men, net, sell, ten, wed ; 
and lonff, as mean, neat, seal, teen, weed. When 
Iilaced at the end of a word it possesses the power of 
engthening the foregoing vowel ; as bftn bane, s&p 
gape, stfir stare, tiin tune. In ancient poetry £ muu 
seems to have been either mute or vocal as the verse 
required ; but now it is never pronounced. 

Ea, Er, particularly as a termination in the names of 
places situated near rivers or marshes, signi^ water, 
m>m O. aa ; S. ea ; but sometimes confounded with 
6. etf, an island ; as Ports-*ea, Cherts-ea. See £t. 

Each, pron, ehher of two, one of many, every one ; 6. 
e, a, ain ; Scot, ae, one, is also our article a before 
nouns of the singular number ; whence G. eiUk, one 
like or as one; O. E. adk; S. alk; Scot, ilk, corre- 
sponding with MMk 

Ead, Ed, in formkig the names of persons, signiAr 
wealth, fortune, power, happiness ; mmi O. aud, 6, 
ead, which produced Audiger, Eadiger, most opulent, 
prosperous ; Eadwin, a poweirful fKend ; which names 
we pronounce Edgar and Edwin. 

Eaobb, a. sharp, sour, keen, earnest, zealous ; S. eagor; 
F. aigre ; It. agro; W. egr^ L. acer, 

Eaolb, s. a large bird of prey ; F. aigle; L. aquiUu 

Eagrb, s. one tide swelling above another ; G. (BguVf 
mr; S. egur, corresponding with ^i; L. mquor. 
See BoAB. 

Eamb, s, an unde,* S. earn; B. oom; T. oheim; L. 
avum, avunctdus, 

Eab, s. I. die organ of hearing; O. eyr ; D. ere; Swed. 
are; T. oAr, ahr; S. ear; B. oor; L. aurU. See 

2. A spike of grain; G. ahr; D. ar; T. aehre; 8. 
eker; Swed. dr ; B. aar; Arm. egaur ; L. arista. 

Eab, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to shoot out in grain. 

3. To plough; Isl. orra; S. erian; T. eren. See to 

Eabl, #. a nobleman who ranks between a Marquis and 
aViscoiint; Q.Jarl^jarll; Swed. jart; S.eorl; W. 


£ A S 

jarll, a right honourable, a prince, a noble, a hera 
It was the opposite of Carle and Churl; S. eorl an4 
ceorl, noble and plebeian: G, asdra, csra ; S. are; D. 
mre ; T. ehre, signified precedence, honour, exaltation : 
T. ff, noble, cognate with «^;^, up^ ; G. ar, «r / S. ere, 
oor ere, prior, produced erst, andjirti, which in several 
G. dialects signifies a prince, in the sense of a fore- 
most person, a primate. The G. artide J being pre- 
fixed to ar, with the addition of all, entire, the wmd 
hecankejarlL See Aldbbman 

Eablt, a. soon, preoodous; G. a^la; S. arUce, from 
G. and S. ar, soon. See Ebb. 

Eabn, v. a. to gain by labour, to acquire; Swed. ama; 
S. earnan ; T. amen, from G. and Swed. ara, to expe- 
dite, to negotiate. See Ebband. 

Earnbst, s. payment in advance of wages ; called an- 
dently earltf penny ; G. amuts, prior use, from ar, S. 
asr, soon, and nuU ; T. nAto, utility ; W. ernes ; It ar^ 
rha ; F. arrhe ; L. arrha. 

Eabnbbt, a. eager, ardent, intent; G. amast, gemoH ; 
T. and B. emst ; S. earnest. See to Ybabn. 

Eabsch, s. a ploughed field. See to Eab 

Eabth, *. land, soil, one of the elements ; A. aradh, ard; 
Heb. arah, aarets; Chald. erah ; Tartar jer; Q.Jard; 
S. eard, earth; T. erde; B. aarde; I. urah; m; 
L. terra. * 

Eabwio, s. an insect ; S. ear mega, from its destroyinir 
ears of grain and fruit; for it never willingly eatm 
the organ of hearing. Sometimes, however, in fright 
such a thing may happen ; and F. pierce oreiUe means 
the human ear, unless it be a mistaken trans]ati<m of 
our word. 

£a8b, s. I. quiet, rest, freedom from pain or labour • F. 
aise; It agio; from L. otium. 

2. Facilitv, lightness, freedom of action ; G. aud, oze; M 
G. auth, azets; S. aUh; T. ase; P. asaish; W. hauz. 
hauth ; Ann. aes ; I. ahais, fiwale, light, not difficult 
or oppressive. 

East, $. the quarter where the sun rises; G. oust, eyei • 
Swed. oest; T. east; S. east; B. oost; Q. austa, to' 

E G L 


put forth^to oust; M. Q. ustoth, that rises; Hn, the 
morning, the dawn. 

Eastbb^ s, the feast of the passover ; G. astar ; Syr. aS" 
larte ; Heb. ashtaroih, was Venus, after whom Mor- 
decai's daughter was named. T. osier; S. eastre; P. 
ashtee; Sans. Uht, the festival of Love. The Heath- 
ens, when first converted to Christianity, could not 
be restrained ftora their former observances ; to ob- 
viate which Catholic policy assigned this season to the 
feast of the Passover ; but the original name was re- 
tained by the Goths. 

Eat, %), a, to take food, to feed upon, to gnaw ; G. (Eta ; 
Swed. dta ; S. eaian ; B. eeien ; T. essen; P. ask ; 
to^n ; L. edo ; I. iiham ; W. ysu, 

Eath, a. not difficult, facile. See Ease. 

Eav£s, s. pL the edges of a roof projecting over the wall ; 

G. afas, of as, opse; S. epese, the descents. See Evb 

and Ebb. 
Ebb, s, flowing off, decline, lowering of the tide ; Swed. 

ebb; T. and B. ebbe; S. ebba; F. ebe, descent, from 

G. af; Isl. ab, corresponding with L. ab, our off. 

Eben, Ebon, Ebony, *. a hard black wood ; P. abnoos ; 
Sans, ubnoos ; Heb. heben ; ifCffo$ ; L. ebenus ; T. eben; 

F. ebene. 

Ecclesia, s, a temple^ a church ; Heb. hecal ; u»Xn9'ut, 
from xxirtf, Kttxtf ; Heb. kal, hoi, the voice, prayer, 
song. See To Call. 

EcuRiE, s. P. a stall for horses ; L. equaria. 

Ed, termination of the pret of verbs, apparently from 

G. ed, idia; Isl. od, ed; S. cod, pret, of the verb ga, 
aga, to go, to proceed, to eflect, 

Edder, s. the top row of withes in forming a stake 
hedge; S. eder; T. edder; Swed. eiiur, a border, 
. from G. ati, adur,Jadur, a limit. 

Edder, v, a. to bind the top of a stake fence with withes; 

from the noun. 
Eddish, s, stubble fields opened for pasture ; G. adisk, 

eiisk ; S. edisc ; T. esch, from asia, essen, to eat. 

Eddv, j. a circular motion of water or wind ; G. ida ; 
Swed. ida, perhaps from G. idga, to agitate. See Ed. 

Eden, s. the dwelling of Adam and Eve ; Heb. eden ; A« 

aden, a safe and permanent abode. 
Eder down, s, the down of a sea duck called the Eder; 

D. eder duun ; Swed. eider dun^ 
Edge, s. the sharp part of a blade, a border, a side, a 

brink; G. egg, ceg; T. ecke ; Swed. egg; iutU', L. 

Ebl, s. a serpentine slimy fish ; »yx^*^i Swed. asl; O. 

B. T. aal ; S. al 
Ebl-powt, *. a freshwater fish, a burbot ; B. aal putt, 

from Isl. podda, a frog, to which its head has some re- 
semblance. See Paddock. 
Efface, v. a. to destroy, blot out ; P. effacer ; L. ex- 

Effrontery, s, assurance, boldness, impudence; F. 

effronterie, from h.Jrons. 
Eft, s, a kind of lizard. See Evet. 
Eft, ad, coming afler, in succession, soon. See Aft. 
Eoo, «. the production or seed of fowls ; G. and Swed. 

egg; S. €Bg; T. ei; B. eif. 
Eoo, 17. a, to instigate, incite, provoke to action ; G. 

eggia; D. egge; owed, asggia, asgga. 
Eglantine, *. sweetbriar, a wild rose; G. eglatein, 

eglanta ; D. kegUntrce ; B. eglantier; F. effantine. 

from Q.^eglan, a prickle, and tein a shrub, a branch. 
See Mistlbto. 

Egret, s. a kind of plume or jewel of that form, an or- 
nament for a lady's head ; F. aigrette ; It. agrotto, from 
gruetta, the crested heron, L. grus. 

EiOHT^ a, containing twice four; G. attha, atk, oUo; 8. 
eahla, ahta ; B. o^ ; T. ackt ; D. oite ; Urm ; L. octo; 
I. ockt ; W. wihi ; F. huit. See Nim bbr. 

Eighty, a. eight times ten ; G. atha tijo ; 8. eakia tig; 
T. achtzig. 

Eigne, s. possession in right, unalienable inheritance, 
an heir on whom the land is entailed ; G. eign ; B. 
eigne ; T. eigeti ; S. ageii. See to Own. 

EiSBL, s. verjuice, vinegar, acid ; S. eosil; L. acidula. 

Either, pron. one of two ; G. aithwar, eitt iwar, one of 
two ; ei thera, one of them ; G. and Swed. thera, being 
the genitive case of they. 

Eke, v. a, to add, increase, join, lengthen ; G. OMka 
Swed. oka ; S. eacan ; L. augeo* 

Eke,. ad. moreover, also, likewise ; G. auk; Swed. och 
T. auch ; S. eac ; L. ac. 

El, in the composition of Hebrew names, signifies Qod 
as Elisha, Ebas, Gabriel, Israel, Bethel, Chapel. 

Elbow; s. joint of the arm, an angle ; S. elbogen, from 
ella, an ell, and bogen, a bending ; Cubit has the same 

Eld, a. ancient, preceding ; G. aM ; S. eald. See Olo. 

Elder, a. more advanced in years, prior in rank, 

Elders, s. pi. seniors, chief persons^ prior in rank. See 

Elder-trbb, s. a tree formerly used for pipes, firom be- 
ing hollow; G. holirm; T. holder ; S. eUetreo, Mar; 
D. hyld tree ; Swed. hyll. See Hollow. 

Elecampane, s. the herb starwort ; L. enula campanm. 

Elephant, s. the largest of beasts ; A^Jil, alfil; Sans. 
u^eel; G.Jil, ulfwcu, celphani; biiputi ^« eUphas; F. 

Elevbn, a. ten and one added together ; G. ellif, eleip, 
one over, ten being understood ; S. enlyf; B. elf; T. 
einlif, eilf; D. elleve; Isl. ellefn. See One, Twblvb, 
and Leap Year. 

Elf, s. t]^e male of a fairy, a goblin> a wandering spirit; 
G. alf; T. alf; Swed. alfrvar; S. alf, was one of those 
demons or genii distinguished as wmte and black bv 
the Goths. The domestic Brownie of the Scots is 
supposed, from the name, to have been dark com- 
plexioned, and belonging to the latter dasa ; but the 
name was perhaps from G. bur, a dwelling, as hu ragn 
corresponcled with L. lar. See Fairt. 

Elixir, s. a chymical quintessence; A. alukseer; ukseft, 

Elk, s. a large beast of the stag kind ; G. alg; Swed. 
elg ; S. cefc; Isl. Uigur; L. B. alee. 

Ell, s. the measure of a y^d and a quarter ; G. auls 
alin ; Swed. aln ; S. eln ; T. elU; B. el; mxbn ; L. tdna ; 
W. elin ; F. aune. 

Elm, s. a tall timber tree; Heb. elah; L. ulmus; T. if^ 
men ; B. olme; S. elm ; It. olmo; F. orme. 

Elope, v. a. to run away> escape privately ; G. leipa ; 
XUW0 ; Swed. lqi)a; B. loopen; S. hleopan, to run. 

Else, pf'07j. other, otherwise, another, one besides; 6« 
ella, cleear; D. ellers, Swed. eller, eUfest, adlas; S. 
elcor, eUicor, eUes, have all the same meaning widi I. 

E N C 


aHas : G. eda, etha ; M. G. auihai, from wbidi we 
liave other, produced aleder ; Scot older; T. aid; G. 
aU eda, contracted into ella, which corresponds with 
L. alius. See Otheb. 

Embab^ v. a. to shut in^ block up^ hinder. See Bar. 

Embargo^ v, a. to prohibit, to prevent^ to detain a ship 
or cargo ; Sp. embargar. See Embar. 

Embark, v. a, to go on board, to put into a ship ; from 
Bark, a ship. 

Embarrass, v, a, to perplex, impede, clog; F. embark 
rasser. See Embar. 

Embassador, s. an ambassador; but apparently con- 
founded with Sp. emhitUo ; It. inviato. See Envoy. 

Ebcbasst, Embassage, s, the office of an ambassador. 

Embat, v. a. 1. to bathe; a word used by Spenser, from 
P. haigner. 

SI To inclose in a hay, to land lock. 

Embbr, s. a hot cinder ; G. elmyria, emmyria ; T. am- 
mer ; D. emmer; S. amyr, from el, eld, fire, and myria, 
ashes, cinders. 

Embbzzlb, v. a. to conceal fraudulently, to take fur- 
tively ; Swed. hestiada, ombeslUela ; T. bestekkn. See 
to Steal. 

Emblaze, v. a. to describe ensigns armorial ; F. blazoner. 
See Blazon. 

Emboss, v. a, 1. from Boss; to sculpture with rising 
work, or protuberances. 

2. To inclose as in a box or case ; F. emboisler. See 

3. To inclose in a thicket ; It. emboscare. See Boscage. 
Embrace, v, a. to squeeze in the arms with kindness ; 

P. embrasser ; It. abbracciare, from L. brachia, the 
Embrasure, s. aperture in a wall to point cannon 
through ; F. embrasure. See Bray, in fortification. 

Embroider, v. a. to adorn with needle work ; F. broder, 

from G. hrydda ; Swed. hrceda, to puncture, to stitch : 

G. hrodd ; W. brwyd, a stitch. 
Emerald, s, a green precious stone; A. and P. uzmurud ; 

rfue(«y)«€ ; It. smeraldo ; P. emeraude. 
Emert, s. a kind of iron ore ; G. isamyria, iron ashes ; 

T. elmeril; L. B. smyris. 
Emmet, s. a pismire, an ant; S. emet, amcette; B. eempte; 

T. ameise. 
Empannel, v. a. to swear in a jury. See Panel, a list, 

a schedule. 
Emparlance, s, a petition for time to deliberate, the 

conference of a jury on the cause in question. See 


Employ, v. a, to keep at work, to implicate, intrust; P. 
employer, from L. tmplico. 

Empty, r. void, vacant, unoccupied ; S. amptig, emetig. 
Emrose, s. the wind fiower, the ember roso« See 

Pasque flower. 
En, 1. as a plural termination ; G. en ; S. en ; Sans. un. 

2. As a prefix ; L. in ; P. en ; but G. and Swed. en was 

a prenx signifying firmness. 
Enamel, s, 1. colours produced from vitrified minerals 

reduced into powder, and used in smelt painting. 

See Amel. 
2. Painting, something variegated or stained with 

Encbasb, v. a. to set a precious stone ; P. enchasser ; 

Sp. engasler ; It incassare* 

Enoheason, s, cause, occasion ; L. incasio, occasio ; F. 

Encore, ad, yet again, once more ; P. encore ; Port. 
agora ; It. anche ora, from ora, L. hora, now, a time. 

Encounter, v. a. to go against, to meet face to face, to 
attack, to oppose ; It. incontrare, from L. in contraire. 

Encroach, v. a. to invade partially, to infringe by de- 
grees the right of another person. See Accroach. 

Encumber, v, a, to burden, clog, impede. See Cumber. 

End, s. the extremity of a thing, the ultimate object or 
design; G. ende; M. G. andei; Hind, anta; Swed. 
cende ; T. ende ; B. ende ; S. ende. We say, an end, 
for endways, because the G. a, signifying procedure, 
as in afoot, aboard, required the n before a word be- 
ginning with a vowel : Swed. anda, asndalongs ; S. 
andlongy in continuation. And, end, from a or e, to 
go, both signified procedure ; but the G. e was a ne- 
gative, the root of ne, which, added to those words, 
made them mean no further. 

Endeavour, v. a. to take due means, to attempt, strive, 
labour ; P. endevoir ; It. dovere ; L. debere. 

Endict, Indict, v. a. to charge with a crime, to bring 
to justice ; from ^txn ; L. dica. 

Endive, s. the herb succory ; P. hindeba, the Hindoo 
herb; L. iniybum; P. endive. 

Endorse, v. a. to insert on the back of a written paper; 
L. B. indorsare ; P. endosser, from L. dorsum. 

Endow, v. a. to enrich with a portion, to provide for ; 
F. endoter. See Dower. 

Engaoe, V. a. from gage ; to undertake, employ, enter 
upon, enlist, encounter, combat; P. engager. Bar- 
gains were anciently concluded by offering a small 
coin or trifling article, which, if accepted by the other 
party, was decisive. The person who challenged 
another to combat, threw down a, glove, as a gage or 
pledge; and, if it was accepted, the engagement 
might be fulfilled either then or at another time ; and 
hence the name was given to any military encounter. 
See Wage. 

Engine, s. a contrivance, a machine, instrument; 
«y;^iV«i«; L. ingenium. 

English, a. belonging to England, the language of 
that country ; G. English ; T. Englisch, from S. En- 
gles, the Anglo-Saxons, who came originally from the 
Gothic Anger or Angel, the name of a narrow part of 

Engrail, v. a. to cover with small spots, to variegate ; 
in heraldry it signifies to indent with curved lines ; 
from F. grele, hail. 

Enhance, v. a. to raise the price ; P. enhausser ; It. 
inalzare ; L. B. inaUionare, from L. alius. 

Enjoin, v. a. to prescribe, command ; L. injungo ; P. 

Enjoy, v. a. to have, to possess with pleasure; P. enjouir, 
from L. gaudeo. 

Enlumine, v. a. to enlighten; P. enluminer, from L. 
lumen. See Illumine. 

Enough, ad. in sufficient degree ; G. gnog, nog ; Swed. 
nog ; M. G. ganoh ; S. genoh ; T. genug. 

Ensign, s. a signal, the standard of a regiment, the of- 
ficer who carries it ; P. enseigne ; L. insignis. 

Ensue, v. to follow, pursue, arise ; F. enauivre ; L. in- 

Entail, s. the rule of descent settled for an estate. It 
signified a legal convention or covenant ; because the 


E T 

written document being cut or torn in a zigsag maiw 
ner^ one portion kept as a record served to ascertain 
die authenticity of the other. See Tally^ Taills^ 
and Indentubs. 

Entakolb^ V, a, to intwist, complicate^ perplex ; 6. tn- 
dwikU, indwingul; T. intwickeUn, from 6. wingul; 
D. wickUj T. wkkely a fold> a coil. 

Enter, o. to go <»* come in, to engage in, to introduce, 

insert ; F. enirer ; L. iniro. 
Enter, as a prefix, is F. enire^ from L. inter. 

Enterprise, s* an undertaking, a hazardous attempt ; 
F. entrepris; It inirapresa, mm L. interprenda, 

Entertain, v, a. to occupy, treat, keep in discourse, 
amuse ; F. efUreienir ; L. inUrienio, 

Entice, o. o. to allure, to draw on by fair promises ; 
6. teya, legia; Swed, tagia; T. tucktn; S. teogauy 
tikian, to draw on, allure. 

Entire, a, complete, whole, undivided ; L. integer ; It 
integro ; F. entier. 

Entrails, s. pL the intestines, bowels ; F. entraillei ; It 
intraglie; li* intemalia. 

Entreat, v. a, to induce^ solicit, try earnestly ; L. tit- 
tracto; F. trailer. 

Entremets, s. pL several plates set between the main 
dishes on a table ; F. from eniremetirt; L. iniro me^ 
tor, to place between. 

Entry, s, a place of entrance, passage into, insertion. 

See to Enter. 
Envelope, v. a. to wrap up, cover^ surround; L. involvo; 

It. invilupo; F. envaopper. 

Environ, v, a, to surround, to invest ; L. B. ginmare ; 

F. environer, from L. gifro. 
Envoy, s. a public minister sent to foreign states ; F. 

envoyi, a missionary, from It. irmare ; F. envoyer, to 

put on the way, from L. via. 

Envy, s. pain at another's prosperity, rivalship ; F. en- 
vte; li. tftvtata. 

Epaulet, s, a shoulder-knot worn by military officers ; 
from F. epaule ; It spaUa ; L. scapula, the shoulder. 

Equerry, s. a superintendent of horses, a groom to a 
prince ; F. ecuyer ; L. equariut, from equus. 

Equip, v. a. to prepare, arrange, fit out ; F. equiper ; 
O. F. eschipper; L. B. eschipo, from 6. and Swed. 
skipa ; S. sceapian. See Shape. 

Er, I. the termination of the comparative degree ; 6. 
er, our; S. er, or; the same witn over, more; cor- 
responding with L. or in minor, prior. 

2. A termination of nouns signifying agency ; from 6. 
are, ere ; S. ere, agency, which produced our word 
errand ; as, keeper from keep, lover from love ; but 
as a masculine termination it appears to have been 
formed from Scyth. m%^ ; Tartar, are ; G. air, vair, 
a man. 

Era, J. the epoch or date of time; L. B. ara ; F. are, 
from G. ar, a year ; Swed. anr, time, duration. The 
word was introduced in the sixth century, when 
Dionysius the little fixed the notation of time, begin- 
ning from the first of January after the birth of 

Erase, v, a. to rub out, to expunge; L.erado; F. raser, 

Ere, ad. before, sooner ; T. er ; S. or, asrer, from G. 
ar. See Or and Erst. 

£axs, a. slothful^ idle> apiritlett; O. org; S. earc. 

Ermine, s. a small furry animal ; F. ermine ^ L. 
iiur mus. 

Errand, s. a message, business, commissioii ; G. ereneB ; 
Swed. arend; S. <Brend ; D. igrenda, from O. oner, to 
employ, to send. See Er. 

Erst, 1. ad. at first, formerly, till now ; 2. a. superkthre 
degree of Ere, and signifying soonest, ftrst ; S. ereH ; 
T. erst. See First. 

Escalade, s. the act of scaling the walls of a town ; It 
scalaia ; F. escalade, from L. scala, a ladder. 

EscALop, s. a kind of oyster. See Scallop. 

Escape, v. a. to get out of danger, to get free, to flee 
from ; F. echapper ; It scappare ; 8p. scapar; from 
L. ex and cap%o. 

EscAROATOiRE, s. a placc where snails are fattened ; R 

escargat, from yv^» »Wxi^9 a shell-snail. 
Eschalot, s. a small onion ; F. eschaht ; It eepakdUtj 

from L. cepula ; but perhaps f<Kr esckahnet. See 


Escheat, s. a forfeiture to the lord of the manor, casual 
revenue ; F. echet ; L. B. escaeta, from F. eckeir s JU 

Eschew, v. a. to avoid, flee from; F. esquiver ; It JcAt- 
vare; from Skew. See Shy and Shun. 

Escort, s. a convoy, a guard to a place; F. escorte ; It 
scorta, cohorta ; L. cohors. 

EscoT, s. charge, expence, tax; F. pnmunciation of 

EscouT, s. a listener, a spy, a secret enemy ; F. esooute, 

ecoule, from escouter; It ascdUare; L. auscuUo. 
EscRiTOiR, #. a kind of desk. See Scrutoir. 

EscuAGE, s. feudal service for possessing a shield ; F. 
escuage, ecuage, from escu ; L. scutum. 

Espalier, s. a row of trees planted in rails to touch 
each other, a tree extended in that manner ; Swed. 
spalier; T. spalier; It spalliera; F. espalier: G. 
spala ; Swed. spiale; Scot spale, simifiesa lath ; but 
the word seems to be derived fh>m It spalla ; F. es- 
paule; L. scapula, from which It spamera signified 
the back of a garden-bench. 

Esplanade, s. a clear space beyond the glacis of a 
counterscarpe ; F. esplanade; L. planitia. 

Espy, v. a. t6 see at a distance, discover ; F. espier. See 

Esquire, s. a title below a knight, a shield-bearer ; L, 
scutigerus; It scudiero; F. escuyer, ecuyer. 

Ess, a feminine termination, as in empress, mistress, 
laundress ; apparently from G. and Swed su ; M. G. 
so ; S. seo, our pronoun she. 

Essay, v. a. to inquire into, try the value of, attempt; 
F. essayer; Arm. essai; Scot sey, from L. sagio, so* 
pio; but corresponding with G. sceka, to inquire, to 
examine. See Assay. 

Essoil^E, s. an excuse for non-appearance on a sum- 
mons ; F. exoine, from exonier, to exonerate ; L. ca 
and onero. 

Estapet, s. a special messenger, a staff courier; F. 
stajier ; It staff eita; Sp. estqfeta ; from Staff, a badge 
of ofiice. 

Estrade, s. an even level place, a pubb'c road; It 
strada; F.estrade; L. stratum. See Street. 

EsTRAFADB, *. in horscmanship, is the yerking of a 
horse with his hind feet, when his fore feet are in the 
air ; It strappata ; F. estrapade, from L. exiripmHo. 

Et, as a diminutiye termination^ In F. and It seeing to 

£ X C 

E Y R 

be 6. ft^ ; B. iet ; T. ihi, our whit, signifying some- 
things somewhat little. 
Etch^ v. a. to mark out prints with aquafortis ; T. e/- 

zen ; B. d*«i, from eat, to corrode. 
Etiqubttb^ s. regulation of court ceremonies in France; 

originally written on a card and delivered to each 

perscm. See Ticket. 
Etwy^ 8. a small case of instruments; F. etui; B. tuigie, 

diminutive of twyg ; Swed. tyg; T. zeug, an instru- 
EvE^ s. name of the first woman ; A. aw, hwa ; iv • ; 

Heb. Ewjt, Heva, which appears to be the same with 

Heva, Hava, the pronoun she^ the female ; but amma, 

ava, is mother. 
EvBV, a. equal, level, jparallel, just; G. efn, iqfn; M. G. 

ibn ; T. ehen ; 8. efen ; B. even, 
EvBB, ad, at any time, always, pernetually ; G. owf ; 

S. mfre, from 6. as, perpetual, ana ve, vera, to be. 

See Ate. 
Evert, a. each ; from G. e, one, and vera to be. See 

EvET, *. a water-lizard; from G. vate, humidity, water. 
Evil, s, calamity, wickedness ; G. uwd, ubel; T. vihd; 

B euvel; S. ^el, frtnn u negative, and wel, our well, 

Eunuch, s, one emasculated, a gelt person ; P. ooAooii 

khain, deprived of testicles; wmx,H', L. eunuchus. 
EwE, s. a female sheep ;G. a; B. ooi ; S. eawe; L. ova. 
Ewer, s, a vessel to hold water, a bason; F. aigMre; 

L. aquarium. 
EzcHANOB, V. a. to barter, to truck. See to Change. 

Exchequer, s, the place of receipt for aU the long's 
money ; A. Hkka ; it zecca, a mmt; P. shik; C'^x^i 

a treasury : but G. skat ; Swed. skat ; T. schatz, cog- 
nate with our word Scot, tribute, signified treasure, 
and may have produced It scacciere; F. echiquier. 
A. seyac, however, is arithmetic; and the ancient 
Abacus, a bank, a counter, F. comptoir, seems to have 
been formed with squares like a chess-board, on which 
the operation of calculation was performed with cal- 
culi or pebbles. The check-table, treasure and ac- 
counts, would readily become synonimous; and to 
check was to recalculate. See Control and Chess. 
Exigence, s. a demand, need, want, urgency ; F. eort- 
gence, from L. exigo, 

£y, in forming the names of places, signifies an isle ; 
but is sometimes used for water or a marsh. See Ea. 

Etas, s. a younff hawk ; F. niais ; Norman F. nye, from 
L. nidus ; witn us a niais was understood to be an iais, 
which we called also a jashawk. 

Eye, s. the organ of vision, view, sight, a hole, a noose, 
a bud ; Isl. eiga ; G. auga ; Swed. 6ga ; B. nog ; T. 
au^ ; S. eog , A. uc ; mv^k, iuuf ; L. oculus ; It oc-- 
chw ; Sp. cjo; F. o6L 

Eyebrow, s, the arch of hair above the eye ; P. uhroo ; 

Sans, bhroo; T. aughraune; D. Henbryn; S. eagen 

bregh. See Ete and Brow. 
Eyelash, s. the rim of hair on the eyelid ; Swed. cjgne- 

lis, from eye and G. las ; Swed. l&s, a fastening, a 

lock. See Latch. 

Eylst, s. dim. of Eye ; a small aperture, a perforation 

like the eye of a needle. 
Eybe» s. a court of itinerant justices ; F. eyre ; L. iter. 

Eyby, s. a place where Urds of prey build their 
nests; G. egwer; S. asgru / B. eijery ; F. aire, depo- 
sitory of ^gs. See Egg. 




THE first letter of the Runic alphabet^ has in Eng- 
9 lish an invariable sounds formed hy the compres* 
sion of the under lip against the upper teeth and a 
forcible breath. F, V, and P are nrequently con- 
founded in all languages. Among the Greeks, the 
Eolians used ^, the F of the Pelas^i for e ; and the 
Cbthic Th has become F with particular tribes, who 
perhaps had no corresponding sound in their dialect. 
This may be remarked at the words File, Fine, Fill, 
Fir, Fog, and M. G. Fliuhan, Thliuhan, to fly. Hence 
also Thule, sometimes supposed to be Iceland ; but 
more generally the most western of the Shetland 
islands, is now called Fula. F changes into H in 
Spanish, as Hilo for Latin Filum ; Latin Horda and 
Forda had the same meaning, French Hors is the 
Latin Foras, and Teutonic Hurst is Forest F was 
frequently prefixed to the initial L, which in both 
Gothic and Celtic had a guttural sound resembling 
the LI of the Welsh ; and me Gothic gh, as a termi- 
nation, in Cough, Laugh, Rough, Tough, we pro- 
nounce Coff, Laff, Ruff, Tuff. 

Face, s. the visage, countenance, front, confidence ; L. 
fades; Y.face; It. Jaccia, 

Faddlb, v. n. to trifle, play the fool ; G,fa dela ; S,Jea 
dwlan, from fa, little, and dela, to deaL See Fettle. 

Fade, v. to diminish in strength or colour, to languish, 

pass away, wither; Isl. and Swed. fata; O. fada, 

fascka; Scot, f aid, faik, to diminish, consume. A.faut 

signifies to pass away, vanish. F. fade, insipid, is 

from li.fatuus. 

Fadob, v. a, to suit, agree, fit, succeed ; Q'fag ; M. G. 
fagks, apposite, accommodating. See Fat and Fit. 

Fag, v. a, to grow weary, to toil, labour ; h.fatigo seems 
to be confounded with G. fascka, to diminisn, grow 
weak or fatigued. 

Fao-end, s. the joining end, the end which is generally 
last or innermost of the folded web, but first in the 
operation of weaving ; S.feg, gefeg ; T.ftige ; B. voeg, 
from Swed. fogan ; 8,jegan, to join. See Fit and 

F A L 

Faoot, *. a bundle of firewood ; It fagoiia ; F. fagot ; 
Arm.fagoi; W.fagod; h^fascis. 

Fail, v. to be deficient, to miss, neglect, to be unsuc- 
cessful in business ; O^ela ; T>,fme ; ii>im ; h.fallo ; 
Y.faiUir; T.fehUn; D.faaten. The G. word signified 
originally to err. 

Fain, a. glad, merry, fond, desirous ; G. fagn ; Swed. 
fotgn,fean. See to Fawn. 

Faint, v, n. to swoon, to grow feeble, decay ; F.faner, 
evanouir; It. vanire, svanire, from L. vanesco. 

Faint, a. from the verb ; feeble, weak, timorous ; L. B. 

Fair, a. beautiful, white, clear, pure, just ; G. fceigr ; 
Swed. fager ; S.foBger ; D.fawer, See to Fey. 

Faib, s. a free market, a holiday ; It. fiera; F. foire; 
W.ffair, from It.feria, a festival, called Feyer by the 
Teutons ; Swed.^ra. In the same way the anniver- 
sary of the consecration of the parish church has be- 
come an annual market in Catholic countries. 

Faiby, s. a fay, a female elf, a small phantom ; It. fa^ 
taria ; F. faerie, signify properly the faculty of a fay, 
from L. fata, whidi gave name to Fatua the wife of 
Faunus, a sylvan deity. Peri or Puree are also 
genii of the Persians. 

Faitob, Faitoub, s, an idler, a vagrant ; F. faiiard ; 
failarder, to idle, from tarder; L. tardo. Faitor lane 
is now Fetter lane. 

Fake, e» a turn, bout, fold, coil of a rope ; G. and Swed. 
feck; S.face; T.fach; Scf^faik, from G.^a, to take. 

Falchion, s. a short, crooked sword ; Ij.falcatu*,faljc. 

Falcon, *. a hawk ; Ij.falco ; F.faulcon ; It. falcone. 

Faldino, s. a kind of coarse cloth, a wrapper, a cover- 
ing ; G. and Swed. falda, from fela, to cover, to in- 

Fall, v. n. to tumble down, drop, chance, perish ; G. 
and Swed. falla ; T. fallen ; B. vallen; S.fellen. 

Fallow, v. n. to prepare ground by reploughing ; T. 

falgen, from fe^e ; S. jealga, a kina of plough or 

harrow. A. falaha is ploughing, tillage; ana the 

Falahs or Foulahs of Africa are boors. See Fbllob. 


Fallow^ s, ground ploughed but not sown. 

Fallow^ a. pale yellow; Isl.faulurt T.fal,falb; S- 

falme; B. vaal; Swed. fal; L.fulvus; lufaWo; P- 

Falsk^ a. untrue, unjust, dishonest ; G'faU, supposed 

to be £rom fela, to cover, to conceal ; Swed, falsi ; T. 

faUch ; K valsch ; S.faUe; L.falsHs; Y.faux; It. 

faUo; Arm. and W.faU, from L. folio, 
Faltbr, V, n. to hesitate in speech, to be embarrassed, 

to err ; Sp,f altar : frequenUtive of Fail. See Fault. 
Famblb, ». n. to be defective in n>eech ; Q,fanwsla ; D. 

famle ; B./owc/«i, from Q^fa, deficiency, paucity, and 

truU, speech. 
Fan, s, an instrument used by the ladies to cool them- 
selves, a machine to winnow grain. 8. fann ; Swed. 

vann ; L. vannus. 
Fancy, #. imagination, vagary, whim. See Fantasy. 
Fans, 1. a temple, a religious place; li.fanum; F. 

2. A weathercock, a flag ; S,fana. See Vane. 
Fanfabon, s, a boaster, a blusterer ; Sp,fanfaron ; F. 

fanfanm : fanfare, a trumpet, from h.farfar, sound. 
Fano, V a. to seize, to grip^^ to clutch ; 6. fanga ; T. 
and S,fangen, ftmn Q,ja, to get hold. 

Fanole, s, captivation with some conceit ; from Fano, 
to seize, take, or fain desire. 

Fangot, s, a load or pack of wares ; from Fano. 

Fannbl, s. a scarf worn on a priest's arm ; G. and Swed. 

fana ; Y.fantm ; W. ^nd. See Pennant. 
Fanny, used as a diminutive of Frances, a woman's 

name; It. fantesia, fanciola; F, fanchon, from L. 

fans, infans, 
pANTASY, s, fancy, inclination, humour, imagination; 

^Mflmt-M; It, phantasia ; It, fantasia; F.fantasie, 

Fab, a. agreat way ofl^, distant; O.Jiar; ItH.far; Swed. 
fear; T.fer; B. ver; H,feor; wiff^. 

Pabcb, v. o. to stuff, puff up ; Ij,farcio; F.farcir; It. 

Pabce, s, a mock comedy, gprimace ; F. farce, corrupted 
fr^m Ij,facetia ; It, facezta. 

Farcy, s. a kind of leprosy in horses ; It. farcina ; F. 
farcin ; L. varix, 

Fard, t;. o. to colour the skin ; F. farder, from Swed. 
foBTg; T,farbe; S,fah»rod, red colour. 

Fardel, s, a bundle or burthen ; P. fardeau; It, far* 
dello; Sp. fardel; B,Jhrdeel, supposed by some to be 
L. 'B,fariellum, ftomfarium ; but G,fara ; 8,ferian, 
to go, to carry, producedyare?/ T. faehrt, vert, what 
ia carried. 

Pare, v, a, ^Jfo, proceed, succeed, do, live; 6. and 
8wed.fara; Tifaren; B. vaaren; S,faran, 

Fare, s, 1. from Uie verb; sustenance, living, cheer. 

2. From the verb ; passage, passage-money ; S,fare, 

Farewel, s. a parting compliment, a taking leave ; D. 
farwd; B. vaarwel. 

Farm, s, land cultivated ; O. and Swed. fara, to pro- 
ceed, conduct, cultivate, produced faraman, a lan^ 
steward ; fdrma signified to feed, to pasture ; and S. 
feorm, a farm, a fr^ng. But It, ferma, from la,fir^ 
mus, is a compact or lease; and F.^mit^ denotes a 
stipulation for the management of land or any other 

Farm, «• o. 1. to cultivate land, to render it productive ; 


F A U 

2. To occupy land or let it out for rent, to assign the 
collection of revenue on stipulation ; L. B. fermio. 
See the Noun. 

Farrier, s. one who shoes horses, a blacksmith ; L. 
ferrarius ; F.ferrier; It, f err aro. 

Farrow, v. a, to bring forth as a sow, to pig ; S.feark 
a litter of pigs. See Barrow. 

Fart, v, n, to break wind backwards ; in^iit ; Swed. 
fiarta ; T.ferten; 8.fertan, 

Farther, a. more remote, at a greater distance ; G. 
fiardur ; B. verder, the comparative degree of Far, 
which is B,feor,feorre,feorrest, in the three degreed 
Farther, with us, has been ignorantly confounded with 
Further, which is derived n'om Pore, in advance. To 
further is to put forward, promote ; but if Farther 
were used properly as a verb, which it is not, the 
meaning woula be to put off, to make more distant. 
The absurdity of confounding the two words is 
obvious. See Further. 

Farthbb, ad, more remotely. 

Farthing, s, a fourthing, ihe fourth part of a penny ; 

Farthingale, V^rdinoala, s. a kind of hoop to ex- 
tend the petticoat, worn first by women with child ; 
B verdegarde, vaardegarde; Sp. verdugado; P. ver- 
tugade : G. fara ; S.ferian ; d. vaaren signified to 
carry, to go with chila ; T. vert, faehrt, what is car- 
ried ; and in It. and Sp. it was called guardinfante. 

Fascine, s, a fagot, a ^ibion used in fortification ; It. 
fascina ; F, fascine; y^'ffosgyn, from Jj,fascis, 

Fashion, s, 1, make, form, mode, custom, quality, rank; 

F,fafon; It, fazo,fattione, from Jj, facia, 
2. A disorder in horses, the farcy; F, farcin. See 


Fast, a. firm, steady, fixed, persisting, quick, speedy ; 
G. and Swed. fast ; S. fast ; T. fest ; B. vast, firm, 
close, tenacious :, vast, near, diligent, power- 
ful, and, like Swed. fast, corresponding with our 
vastly or very. To these meanings in S. was added 
Speedy, in the sense that the Goths and English used 
Hard for Swift, wiUiout relaxation or intermission. 

Fast, s, abstinence from all food, literally &fast or dose 
observance of the religious injunction of abstinence 
from eating. 

Fast, v, n, from the noun ; to abstain from food ; G. 
fasta; S.foesian; T. fasten. 

Fat, s. 1. the oily fiedh of animals ; G. font ; Swed. 
felt;; B. vet; T. fett, from to Feed; corres- 
ponding with P. pad ; wiItk* 

2. A large vessel, a brewer's tub ; Swed. and S. fat, 
from G. fa ; Swed. fatia ; S. fettan ; B, vatten ; T 
fassen, to hold, contain. 

Fate, s. destiny, death; L,fatum; It, fata; F, fat, 
death ; A,faut, vanishing. 

Fatheb, s. one who begets a child, the first ancestor, 
an old man ; P. puedar, the besetter ; G. and Swed. 
fader; B. voder ; T. voter ; S. feeder; Saais, patara ; 
wtfln^; Jj, pater; It, padre; F. pere. 

Fathom, «. as fkr as the extended arms can reach, a 
measure of six feet; Q, fatm, fadm ; S.foethm; B. 
vadem. See Pat. 

Faucet, s. a small orifice, a kind of tap for a barrel ; F. 
faussei, from la, faux. 

Paufel, s, the fruit of a species of palm tr^; Sana. 
phvXfed, from phul, fruit, and feel, an elephant. 

F E L 

Fault, «. a failing, offence^ defect; It. f alia; B.faal; 
¥,fauie, from we verb to Pail. 

Favour, s, kindness, grace, countenance, featores, re- 
semblance ; It. favwe ; F. faveur ; L. favor, from 

Faubsb braye, s. a term in fortification. See Bray. 
Fawn, «. a young deer ; ¥.faon,fauw)n, from its colour. 

See Fallow. 
Fawn, v. n. to soothe, caress, flatter ; G.Jhgina ; M. G. 

faigean; Swed^Jagna; S.fiBgenian, See Fain. 

Fax, *. hair of the head ; Q,fax ; 8,faue ; T.fahs^ hair, 
fibres of flax ; whence Halifax, Fairfax. 

Fat, V, a. to join, to fit two pieces of wood together, to 
unitej suit; Swed.y5gfl; S.fegan.g^egan ; T.Jvgen; 
B. voegen^JfockeH. See Faoob and Fit. 

Fay, *. a female elf; F.feS, See Fairy. 

Faybncb, #. a kind of crockery ware made at Faenza, 

in Tuscany. 
Fealty, s. fidelity, homage, loyalty; ¥. fenUk ; la. 

Fear, «. 1. a fellow traveller, a companion ; Q.far; S. 

foera. See to Fare. 

2. Terror, apprehension, dismajr ; Swed.yarajr Q.fatr; 
B. vaer; r. purwa ; F. effroi, corresponding with 
L. pavar; It. pauro; F. peur. See Fright. 

Feast, s. a sumptuous treat, a pompous religious anni- 
versary ; L. festum, perhaps from «fiiW ; It. festa ; 
Atm.fui; Y.fHe; S.jaBst; B. vteH; O. and S. 
vist signified food and a feast ; w^tt, to eat. 

Feat, s. an act, deed, an exploit ; la. factum ; It. faiio; 

Feather, s. the plume of birds, any thing Ik^ht or vain; 
G,f coder; Svfed.feder; T.feder; B. feer ; S./e- 
ther; perhaps Q.fliader. See Fledoe. 

Feature, s. fashion, form, make of the fiu:e ; li.fac" 
iura ; O. F.faclure ; It. faUura. 

Feasb, v. a. to untwist the end of a'rope, to reduce into 
fibres, to beat or switch with a rope's end ; T. fesen. 
oee JTAX. 

February, t. the second month of the year ; L. Febru^ 
ariui, from pm/Um, to purify; whence Ftbrua, the 
feast of purification afler the Lupercalia. 

Fedary, s, a confederate, an accomplice, froTalt^fadus. 

Fee, s. money, reward, perquisite, perpetual right; G. 
fe; S wed. jiee; D.fee; o.feoh ; T.Jiehy from G. a, 
to have ; fa, to acquire, signified property of any 
kind; hvX gangandefe, moveable property, consisted 
of flocks, and afterwards of money, corresponding 
with L. pecus and pecunia, fVom mm and txi^. 

Feeble, a. weak, infirm, sick; It. Jievole; F, foible, 

from 'L.JlexUnUs. 
Feed, v. to nourish, eat, supply with food, make fiit ; 

G.Jfoden ; S.fedan; 'D.feae; B. veoden. 

Feel, v. to perceive bv the touch, to have sensation^ to 
s^pathize ; G. falfva ; T. fuhlen ; B. voelem ; S. 

Feign, v. a. to dissemble, to invent; h. Jingo ; It Jig* 

nerci F.fdndre. 
Feint, s. from the verb ; a false show, a mock assault. 

Fblanders, s. small worms in hawks ; lj.JUamaiiaria ; 

Fell, a. cruel, atrocious, savage; T.fels B.fcl; S. 
felU ; O. F.fd. 


Fell, v. a. to knodt or hew down; O. feUa; Swad. 

fodla; T.fMm; 8.ftfUan. 
Fell, s. a skin, a hide ; Swed./etf ; S. and T./eH; B. 

vel; L. pellis, vellus; G.fela, to cover. 

Felloe, Felly, s. the circumference of a whed ; B. 

vdffe; D. and T. felge; 8.^fwlge; It voiga, from G. 

vamgia ; It volgere ; L. vdvere. 
Fellow, s. an associate, an equal ; S. felaw ; G. fdag, 

from fe, goods, and lag, society, partnership ; Swea. 

faiage, a companion. 

Felo de SB, 9. one who commits suicide; lt.fdo; L. 
B.felo. See Felon. 

Felon, s. a capital offender ; G. and Syved.fel, a fault, 
a crime ; F.fdom ; It. fMme: L. B.felo, a defiuilter, 
coj^ate with the verb to fail, signified a feudal cri- 
minal, an unpardonable offender. 

Felony, s. from Felon ; a capital crime, a heinom of- 
fence; It. feUoma; F.fdome. 

Felt, s. stuff used in making hats, doth made of wool 
without weaving; D. and Swed. Jilt; B.fdt; B. 
vUt; It. feliro, are i^pparently from fdl, and corre- 
spond with Pelt ; but our meaning of the word teems 
connected with lj.fullo. 

Felucca, s. a vessel with sails and oars ; A.falak,JM ; 

lU felucca; F.felouque. 
Feme covert, #. a woman protected by a husband ; F. 

femme couverie, from h.Jemina cooperta. 

Fen, s, a liiarsh, a hag, flat moist land ; G.fen ; T. and 
%.fenn; B. veem; Ijnai.fenn;; F.fange; It. 
fango; lj.foenum. 

Fence, s. a guard, security, mound, hedge. 

Fend, v. to shut out, keep off. 

Fennel, s. a gardoi herb ; F.fenouU; lj.Jwniculum. 

Fenuorb)», i. a plant ; L. B.fcenum Gnecum ; It. Jieno 

Feoo, s. fee tenure, possession held of a superior ; L. B. 
feodum, from G.fe aud, fee pn^erty. ^ Feodal. 

Feodal, a. held of some lord on condition of payment 
or service ; F. feodal, from fee and G. audal, odal; 
Swed. and D. odal; Scot Mdal, full possession ; G.fe 
odal, possession by fee ; l.Jlack eudal; L. B. feodaks. 
See Allodial. 

Fboff, s. feodal possession, acquisition by fee; G. 
feafa; L. B. feoffa; F. fUf, from G. fa, to acquire, 
added Xxife. 

Fern, 9. a plant, brake used for heating ovens; ^^am ; 
B. varen; 8. f earn; F.ftmgere: Swed. fire; T.f&re, 
kindling for nre. See Brake. 

Ferret, s. 1. a small quadruped ; F.fvret ; W.fured; 

L. ffiverra. 
2. A kind of silk tape used fisr trimming or onuunent ; 

F.Jleur^te; B.Jhret g It. JhreUo, from L.Joreo. 

Ferrule, s. a drde, a ring at the end of a staff"; L. B. 

virola; F. verole; Scot virl, frcwn yi^. 
Ferry, *. a passage over a river, a feny-boat ; G.far; 

8wed.fdfja, a boat; T.ferg; D.Jierge; 8. fere ; 

B. veer, a passage by water. See Fare. 

Fescue, s. a small straw, a kind of grass, a pointer for 
a horn book; F.fettu; It. festuca; h^feduca. 

Fbsels, «. a kind of pulse; L.pha$eolm$; It. faginh; 

Fess, s. in heraldry, a band, a gudle; L. fascia. 
Fester, v. a. to canker, corrupt, rankle; fttmi T. cmr; 
G. eiter; 8. elter, venom, an ulcer. 



Fbstoon^ s, a wreath, a border of flowers ; It fe$Ume ; 
F. fesion, from being worn at festivals, or perhaps 
from ^mm and rmfU. 

Fbt, s, a piece, bit, portion, splinter ; It. fctlOy from L. 
Jtndo, See Fid. 

Fetch, v. a. to bring a thing; G./a j Swed./5, to take, 
to fang, produced Swed.^^te; D.fatie; B. vatlen; 
T.facien ; S,Jaian,Jetian,Jeccan. 

Fetch, s. from the verb ; a catch, stratagem, trick, arti- 
fice; Q»Ja, like L. caph, signifies to circumvent, de- 

Fstlogk, s. a footlock, the hair growing behind the pas« 
tern of a horse. 

Fetter, s. a chain to fasten the feet of malefactors ; O. 
Jiasira; %^(&di.Jiaitra ; S. fettere ; &om Toot, 

Fettle, v. n, to trifie; dim, of feat, or from fet See 

Feud, #. enmitv, hatred, quarrel ; 6. Jbsd, ftxhih ; S. 
fahad; T.fehde; B. veyde ; L. B. faida, literally 
Foehood, from^, to hate, provoke. See Defy. 
Feudal, a. held by fee or service. See Feodal. 
Fbuillaoe, s. F. a bunch or row of leaves. Foliage. 
Feuille morte, a. F. the colour of a dead leaf. See 

Folio mort. 
Few, a. small in number ; G. fam, fa ; Swed. fas, 
fdga ; J}, face ; ^feu ; L. paucus ; F. pfti. All the 
etymons signified amallness of number; but sometimes 
little in size, like L. pausUlus, from paucus, 
Fbwbl, 8* firewood, coal ; l^foculus, from focus. See 

Fet, v. a. to cleanse, to purify, to remove the mud from 
a ditdi ; G. fctgia ; owed, feija ; B. vehen ; T. fee^ 
hen,fegen. See Fair. 
Fib, s. a lie, a falsehood ; contracted from Fable. 
FicKLB, a. changeable, unsteady ; S. Jiccl : G. kuikuL 

See to FiDOE. 

Fico, s, a sign of contempt made by placing the point 

of the thumb between the two forefingers. The 

Greeks and Latins had obscene allusions to the Fig, 

which is also supposed to have given rise to sycophant, 

a kiss-breech ; and the sign caXied Jica, fiche, Jiga, 

Jlco, by the low people in Spain, Portugal and Italy, 

are not equivocal. See Fio. 

Fid, #. a pointed iron used by seamen to untwist their 

cords; lufetta, from h.Jinao,Jidi. 
Fiddle, #. a musical instrument, a violin ; h.Jtdicula ; 
G.Jidla; 8. J!deU; Syred.fedla; B. vedel. See 
Fiddle, v. 1. to play on the fiddle. 
2. To trifie; H.feadelan. See Faddlb and Fettle. 
FiDOE, V. n. to move by fits and starts ; O.ftyka, JUna, 
fJka; B.Jikke; &wed.fjdka; Arm. fcka; Scot. Jike. 
Fief, s. a tenure in fee. See Feoff. 
Field, s. champaign ground, a meadow ; Q.fala, bala, 
voUur, veUa, vaUa, are supposed to be derived from. 
G.fla, level, flat, and produced Q.JiM; Swed./eft ; 
T.feld; S.feld; B. vkt, corresponding with L; cam- 
pus; and hence to take the field and open the campaign 
are synonimous. 
Abldfabb, s. a bird of passage of the thrush kind; O. 
fuj^far; B. veeHefar ; S.f€alafar:Jud,feald, slg- 
nify many, md fare to go. 

FiBiiD, s. an enemy, a foe, a devil ; Q.Jieud; B.Jumd; 
D.Jieude; T.Jtmid,^tVoefhitomG. wad Swed. Jia; 
S.jHan, to hate. 

FiHRCE, a. furious, savage, outrageous; li.ferox; F. 
feroce, farouche ; It. feroce. 

Fife, s. a military pipe blown to a drum ; T. pfeiffe 

See Pipe. 
Fifteen, «. five and ten; S.Jlftyn. 
Fifty, a. five tens, &ye taken ten times ; S.Jvfi^, 
Fio, s. 1. a tree, the fruit of that tree ; h.Jicus ; It. Jico ; 

^'flgue; T.feig. 

2. An insult, a sign of contempt. See Fico. 

Fio, V, n. 1. to insult, to show contempt; 'F.Jlcher; 
Fort. Jigar. See Fico. 

2. To suit, dispose, dress ; S. J^gan, qfcegd, adorned. 
See Fit. 

3. To excite, stimulate, set agog ; T.feygen. See Fain. 

FiOART, s. from the verb ; a desire, whim, fancy / con- 
founded with Vagary. 

Fight, v. a. to contend in battle; G. vigan, vigta,Jigta; 

Swed. fecta ; D. fegte ; T. fechlen ; B. vechten ; S. 

feohtan, from G. etga, to contend, corresponding with 

Figment, s. an invention, a fiction ; Jj.Jigmentum. 

Filacer, s. an officer in the common pleas ; from File, a 

Filbert, s. a fine kind of haael nut ; L. avdlana ; It. 

avda harbata, the bearded hazel nut 
Filch, v. a. to cheat, steal, pilfer, rob ; G. fela, Jilgia ; 

Swed, Jilskas F.JUouter, 

File, s. 1. a thread to string papers on, a line, a row of 
soldiers; li.fUum; F.Jik. 

2. An instrument of steel with a rough surface to rub 
down eminences on metal or wooa; G. thil; Swed. 
Jl; T.feil; D.Jid; S.feol; B. vyle. 

File, v, a. 1. from the noun ; to march in file. 

2. From the noun ; to cut with a file, to polish. 

FiLBifOT, s. the colour of a dead leaf; F. feuilie marU, 
See Folio mort. 

Filigree, s. curious gold or silver work ; F.JiUgranne, 
wrought with threads and grains. 

Fill, v. a. to make full, to glut ; G. and Swed, JiUa ; 
S.fyUan ; T.fMen ; B. vuOen. 

Fill, s. 1. fulness, completion ; from the verb. 

2. The place between the shafts of a carriage. See 

Fillet, s. 1. a head band, the astragal or moulding of 
the head of a pillar; F.jf^e^. See File. 

2. A buttock of veal trussed with a fiXUi or bandage, 
- but now generally with skewers. 

Fillip, s. a tap with the finger; T. fi; Swed. fl, a 
tap ; B.fkp, a fiap. 

Filly, « . 1. a young mare, the feminine of foal ; Swed. 
fAa: T.fuUen. 

2. A young girl; F.JUU; Ij.JlUa. 

Film, s. a thin skin; S.felm. See Fell. 

Filter, s. a strainer made of felt or brown paper ; F. 

jUtre; It. feltro. 
Filth, s. dirt, undeaimess ; S.jUth; T,faulhek, from 

Q.fyla ; S.fylan, to defile. See Foul. 

Fin, s. 1. the wing of a fish ; Q.faun; Swed. fina ; S. 
fn ; B.\lth; L. jptimo. 

2. The dosing note in music; F.fin; 'L.Jims. 

Finance, s. revenue, income, treasure; It. finanxa; 
O. F.fiujancs, from 6. fdmg, oar flmM, psyment, re- 
venue, tnation ; T. Jbianx, deoeptien m pecaniary 



matters, is from fne^ subtle, corresponding with 
finesse. See Fund. 

Finch, *. a small bird ; Swed.^^nibe y H.^nke; B.Jinc; 
B. vink. It was a general name for small birds, and 
our Henery^ the bird-catcher, was also called Henery 
Vinkeler in O. £. 

Find, v, a. to discover, meet with, feel ; G. and Swed. 
Jinna ; M. G. findan ; T. Jinden ; S. fundan ; B. 

FiNB, a. not coarse, delicate, thin, keen, subtle, pure, 
nice, pellucid, gay, handsome ; G. thyn, Jin ; Swed. 
fin: a,fyn; D. and T. fexn; Axm.Jin; Lfien; F. 
fin;lt,fino. See Thin. 

FiNB, s, 1. a payment, a forfeit, a fee, a mulct; L. B. 
finum, from O.fe inna. 

2. The end ; Y.Jin : It. fino; L. finis. 

FiNOER, «. a flexible member of the hand; O.fingrj 
Swed. finger ; T. and S. finger ; B. vinger. See 

FiNOOHio, s. a kind of fennel ; It. from Jj.fixniculum. 

FippLB, #. a button, a clasp, a stopper ; h. fibula. 

Fib, s. the name of a tree; D. firr; Swed. Jkr; T. 
Jorh ; S.furk ; either, like Furze, from Fire, owing 
to its inflammable nature; or perhaps G. ihar ; S. 
UxTy a drop, which also signified gum or tar. G. ik 
mutates into f^ as noticed at that letter ; and if so, 
fur would correspond with L. ihury from #i#, to flow. 
L. abies was apparently arhor picis. 

FiRB, s. what bums, flame, heat, light; Chinese ho,fo; 
G. and M. G.Jon; P. pka, va; Qiptic avhaj ^Ss; L. 
focus; F.feu; and as ChalcL ur; P. ur ; 
A. irr ; Coptic or ; I^b. aur^ had the same significa- 
tion, perhaps fo and ur were united ; but, supposing 
the Coptic article pt or ph to have been prefixea to ur, 
pur or phur, m&y have produced Phrygianytrr ; wv^, 
/8v{; Swed. andS.^r; B.fair; T. feuer ; l.hreo. 
Ilt^, according to Plato, was a Scythian word ; and L. 
uro seems to have had the same root. See Hbabth. 

Fire-drake, s, a meteor, a squib, a fire-dragon. See 

FiRK, v. 1. to beat, whip, punish; L. B.ferico, fr^uen- 

tative of Ij.ferio, 

2. To cohabit with, to live together, to support ; S.fer-- 
dan. See Fear. 

Firkin, s. from Four ; the quarter of a barrel, a vessel 
containing nine gallons. 

FiiUf, s, a compact, an establishment, a fixed signature 

for a mercantile house ; F. firm ; It. ferma, from L. 

Firman, s. a Turkish precept, licence, passport, frcvm 

P. purwanu. 
First, a. foremost, chief, earliest; Q. first; Swed. 

fih^st ; S.forst, superlative of Forb. 

Fish, j. 1. an animal living in water ; O.fisk; Swed. 
Jisk; T.Jisch; S.Jisc;B. visch; L. piscis ; Arm. 
pysg; W'Py^g* h,.pesce; F. peche. 

2. A deposit or stake at play, a counter; F. Jkhe; It. 
Jica, from It.Jixus. 

3. A fastening ; Y.fiche, from h.fixus. 
Fist, s. the hand in a clenched state ; G. fast ; T. 

faust; B.Jist, the hand ya#<. 
FiBTiNUT, «. the pistachio nut. 

Fit, s. a sudden motion, the paroxysm of a disease, a 
swoon, a convulsion; 8* faei^ fax : Swed^fet; T. 

fack; B.vat; lUfiaia, Gram Q. fa; Swed. fata; 8. 

fcHian,fasccian. See Fakb. 
Fit, a. meet, proper, suited ; Isi. JU ; T. fuigt ; B 
voegt ; S.fegt, faHh, gefad, g^egd$ from gefegan,fe* 
gan, to adapt. See to Fat and Fa dob. 

Fitchat, Fitchew, s. a stinking little animal ; L. f(g^ 
tida; F. chat puant. See Pole cat. 

Fitz, in forming the names of persons, is the Norman 
pronunciation of F.^/S/#/ h.fiUus. 

Fives, s. an ulcer which appears on horses. See Vivbs 

and Arrest. 
Fizgig, ^. 1. a fish-gig, a harpoon to strike fish with. 

See Gig. 

2. A whiz-^g, a whirling top or toy. 

Fizzle, v. n. to let out air frequently, to cause a dis- 
agreeable smell ; L. visio. See Fuzz. 

Flabby, a. sofr, limber, loose; It. Jiappo, fiappo ; fi. 
Jlaauw, from It.Jiaccus. 

Flag, v. 1. to grow feeble, to relax, hang loose ; li.JUic» 
ceo; W.Jhggio. 

2. To lay with flat stones ; from the noun. 

Flag, s.l. a. kind of broad stone ; G.Jla; Swed.Jlake ; 
T.Jiacke; B.Jlack, flat, smooth. 

2. A plant with broad smooth leaves, sedge. 

3. A ship's colours, a broad pennant ; Isl. Jlagg ; D. 
Jlag; Swed. Jlagga; T.flagge; B. vlag; ^. fiaw. 

See Fly. 
Flagblbt, s. a small flute; F. Jlageole, Jiageolet; L* 

Flagon, s. a two quart measure ; F. fiagon ; xmynvn ; 

L. lagena. 
Flail, s. an instrument for threshing ; h. Jlagellum ; F. 

Jleau; S.Jlegel. 
Flake, s. 1. a flock of snow or wool; G. Jloka; S. 

Jlace ; T.Jlac; h.Jioccus. 
2. Something laminated, a scale of iron, a thin piece of ice, 

a stratum; T.Jleck ; Swed. Jldck, from O.Jla; Swed. 

Jlak. See Flag and Flbck. 
Flam, v. a. to lie, to deceive, to jest ; G. JUmma. See 

Flame, s. light emitted from fire, a blaze, ardour; L. 

fiamma; F.Jlamme; Arm. and W.Jlam; Swed. jiam^ 

ma; T. Jlamme: G. liomm; S. leom, with the same 

meaning, are from logo. See Low. 
Flank, *.the side; G.lang; T. lanck,Jlank; B.JUmk; 

Swed. Jlank; D.fikenc ;1F. and Arm. flanc ; It. fianco. 

See Flitc^ and Loin. 
Flannel, s. a soft woollen cloth or stuff; L. lanuia ; W. 

^lanen; F. ftaneUe; Swed. Jlanell; B, Jlanel; D. 
Flap, s. 1. any thing that hangs broad and loose ; G. 

Iqf; D. lap; Sw^. lapp; S. keppe. 

2. A slap; B.Jlap. 

Flabe, v. n. to glare unsteadily> to cast a transient li^t ; 

B.Jlakkeren, corresponding with Jj.flagro. 
Flash, v. to blaze suddenly ; ^Aiyw ; \.fulgeo ; but B. 

vlengie, a flash, is from G. loga; S. ajlow. See how, 

Flask, s. a flat bottle, a powder horn ; G. and Swed. 

Jlaska; B.fiaske; S. Jlooro; T. Jiasche; W.fia^; 

Sp.Jlasco; It. fiasco; Po]. Jlasha; Hung, palazk 

Flat, a. horizontal, level, plidn, smooth, low, inaipid, 
dully Q. fia, fiat; Swed. fiat; D.fiade; ir;i«rH;T. 
plat ; B. plat ; F. plat. 

F L I 


Flattbb, V, a. to soothe^ fkwn, CT^^ falsely ; Swed. 
Jlat, smooth, is also indulgent ; T.^cAeit / B. vUyen, 
to stroke with the hand, and Scot stroke is to flatter. 
I. bladairan seems to be the same word contracted in- 
to blarney. Sp. and Port Usonear, to flatter, polish, 
fit>m liso; L. tanns, smooth. 

Flaunt, v. n. to wave up and down, fly about loosely 
and gaudily ; 6. JUod, signified the gaudy and loose 
dress of women ; but O. Jlugant, corresponded with 
L. votitaru, proudly fluttering. 

Flavour, s. odour, fragrance, relish ; F. jlair ; W. 
flaer ; Arm. fleir, odour ; It ^, breath, smell, from 

Flaw, s. a crack, fragment, defect, spot; 6. Jlah; S. 

Jloh, a breach or fragment ; Swed. ^ck, a spot, a 

defect ; S.Jleah, a pearl in the eye. See Flakb. 
Flawn, «. a sort of custard, thin batter ; F. Jlan ; S. 

fiena, fVom Flow. 
Flax, «. the plant from which linen is made ; O.jlceks ; 

S.feaa!;T.Jlacks; B.flas. 

Flay, v. a, to strip off the skin ; Isl. Jlaa ; Swed. fid ; 
T,flehen; S.flean; B. vlaen; ^AWW. 

Flea, s, an insect ; O.fio; S.fiea; T.fioh; B. vloo. 
Flbak, s. a small lock of any thinff. See Flake. 
Fleam, s, an instrument for blee£iiff cattle; Q.fieinj€ene; Aim,fiem; T. fieym; F.fiame; B. vlym; 

a fancet See Phlbmb. 

Fleck, s. 1. a spot, a dapple; G. fieik; Swed. fiak; 

T.fieck; B, vlek. 
2. A crate ; O.fiaka ; Swed. fiake. 
Flbdoe, v. a. to furnish with feathers; G.fiiegyfiiegder, 

fiiader, plumage, wings. See Fbather. 

Flee, o i». to run from danger, to avoid, escape ; G. 
fieia ; S.fiean ; T.fiiehen. See to Flf. 

Fleece, s. the wool that grows on one sheep ; L. vellus; 

S.fiffs; T. vlees. 
Fleece, v, a. from the noun ; to clip or shear sheep, to 

strip a person of his substance. 

Fleer, v. n. to mock at, grin with scorn ; G. fiykra ; 

Ish fiyre, to joke. 
Fleet, s. 1. a creek where the tide flows, is used in 

forming the names of several places in London ; G. 

fiod; S.fieoi. See Flow. 

2. A company of ships, a navy ; S. fiota ; Swed. fioita ; 

Y.flotte; from fiiotaj Swed. fioia, to float, to swim, 

as Navy from L. no. 
Fleet, a. 1. Swift, nimble, active, quick; G.fiiot; Swed. 

fiy. See to Fly. 
2. Superficial, lieht; Swed. ketia,fia^'a, light, slight 
Fleet, v. 1. to fly or pass swiftly, vanish ; G. fiiota. 

2. To jMsa superficially, to take off the surface, skim. 

See Flbt. 
Flesh, s. the muscular jpart of the body, animal food ; 

S. ficecs, fiasc ; T.fietsch; Swed JUjtich; B. vleesch, 

from G. lijk; M. G. leiks; T. leick; S. lie, a carcass. 
Flbbh, v. a. to feed with flesh, to initiate young dogs 

or hawks to prey. 
Flbt, v. a. to skim, to take off scum ; G. Jleiia ; S. 

afi^lan ; whence S.^ ; D.fiade ; Swed.,/&, cream, 

scum, froth. 
Flbtchbr, s. a maker of arrows ; T. fiechier, fi-om G. 
fia,Jl^\' ^'fla; B. andT./K/z; It. fieccia, freccia ; 

F.jleeke, an arrow. See to Fly. 
Fligxbb, v. 1. to flutter, play the wings; Gt. fiygra, 
fiokra; Swed. fiepkra ; 6.JUccerian; B.fiiggkeren; 

D.fUmre, frequentative or to Fly. 
2. to lau^ to scorn, to mock. See Flbbe. 

Flight, #. a running away, a flock of birda, a volley ; 
Swed. fiygt ; S. fiyht. See to Fly. 

Flim, 8. a jest; Isl. ^tm, laughter; Swed.^tm, a grin, 
scorn. See Flam. 

Flimsy, Flimpst, a. limber, weak, spiritless. See 

Flinch, v. n. to shrink under pain, recede; M. G. 

aJUnnan, from G. and Swed. Unna ; S. hUnnan. See 

to Lin and Blench. 

Fling, v. to throw, cast, dart, toss ; Swed.,/lenga, fVom 
Q.fltja; Bwed. fi^a, whence Q.flein; 8.fian; T. 
fiiegn, a dart. 

Fling, s. 1. from the verb ; a cast, a throw, a bound ; 
8w€^. fiemg. 

2. A jeer, a gibe, derision ; O.fieining ; Swed. flina. See 

Flint, s. a hard stone ; Swed.^ni ; S. T..B. flint, from 
S. ligent, fire stone. See Low. 

Flippant, a. nimble, running ; from G. hleipan. See 

Flirt, v. 1. to run about idly, to move quickly,, to 
flutter; O. fieira, fiygra. See Fliokcr. 

2. To jeer, to mock. See Fleeb. 

3. To coauet, to play at courtship; F. fleureUer, to 
make nowery or love speeches, to cajole, from It. 

Flit, v. n. to pass away, remove, deviate; O.fhfNa; 
Swed. fiytta; "D.fiytte ; M. G. afieiihan, from leUkan; 
S. lithan, to deviate. 

Flitch, s. the flat part, a side of bacon; Y.fiiche; Isl. 
fiycke; J}.flicke; Swed. flake; B. vUcke; o.flicce. 

Flitter mouse, s. the bat; Swed. flasdermus s T.fled^ 
ermauss ; D. flagermus ; S. fliccermus. See Flbdge 
and Fluttbb. 

Flitting, s. deviation, transgression. See to Flit. 

Fliz, s. fine hair down ; S.flis. See Flub. 

Float, v. 1. to swim on the surface; Q.flota; Swed. 

flyta; S-fleoian; L.fluctuo; F. flatter. 
2. To deluge, to cover with water. See Flood. 
Flock, s. 1. a multitude, a company of sheep ; G. flock; 

S.flocc; D.flok; T. flock, a multitude: G. lock; 

Swed. loka ; mx,^%, a troop. 
2. A lock of wool ; G.floka; B. vlok; T. flock ; 1a. floe* 

cus ; F flocon. See Lock. 
Flog, v. a. To lash, to beat ; from G. log. See Blow. 
Flood, s. an inundation, a flowing of the tide ; G.flod; 

Swed. fldds S.flod; T. fluth ; B. vloed; lt.fluctu9. 

See to Flow. 
Flook, 8. 1. the broad claw of an anchor ; D. fluig ; 

Swed. fleig. 
2. A broad fish ; S. flook. See Flounder. 
Floor, «. the bottom of a room ; G.flor, from fla,flao, 

flat, low; lai. floar; S.flor,fler; B. vloer ;T.flttr ; 

Flotson, s. goods swimming on the sea; G. floUhn ; 

D. flodsam. See Jetson. 
Flotten, a, skimmed. See Flbt. 
Flounce, v. 1. to move with violence in the water or 

mire, to be agitated ; Swed. ^lua. See Plunge. 
2. To decorate with flounces; from G. falin, a hanging 

border, a veil. See Valancb and Fubbblow. 
Flounder, *. a small flat fish; Swed.flundrd ; D.flyn^ 

dersM.flidra,fladra, £t<mfla, flat; T. flack; Scot 

fleuk. See Flook and Plaice. 



Floondeb, v. n. to move with violence, to plunge ; jQre- 

quentative of to Flounob. 
Flout, v. a. to mock, to insult, to sneer, ; supposed 

to be from S. JlUan ; Scot AUe, to scold ; but Isl. 

klal, S. hie&lU, ridicule, from Lauoh. 

Flow. v. to run as water, to move as the tide, to become 
liquid; Qt.fioa; S.JlowaHj li.Jluo; F.Jluer, 

Flowxb, #. blossom of a plant, bloom ; Q.Jlur ; Y.jUur, 

firom Jj.Jlos, 
FhOfWMM DB LUCE, s, a kind of lily or iris; F,Jleur de lit, 

from xtm ; L* Ulium. 
Flue, s, 1. the pipe, vent or draught of a chimney ; 

firom L.JUUUS. 
2. Soft fur, down, the hair of a rabbit; h^floccus, 

Fluobl man, #. a soldier on the wing of a battalion who 

marks time for the motions; Q.fiuge; T. and 8.Jlu» 

gel, a wing. See to Fly. 
Flummebv, s. 1. spoon meat made of milk and floor ; 

'L.frumeHiaria ; W. Uymery. See Fbumenty. 
2. Flattery, wheedling ; B. Jleemery, from Jleemen, to 

fawn, to coax. 
Flubby, 9. agitation, commotion, flutter of spirits ; 6* 

Jhkkra. See Flutteb. 
Flush, «. to flow with violence, to abound, to produce 

colour by the afflux of blood to the face, to elate; T. 

JUessen ; B. jUynien ; L. B. fiuxo, from fiuo. See 

Flubb, 1. a sequence at cards ; V.fiux, from Ja^JUxhu. 
Flute, «. 1. a musical pipe; lU^flatUo; V.jUUe; B. 

JUtiite, from Ij.JUk 
2. A channel or furrow in a pillar, called also a reed. 
Flute, v. in architecture, to cut c h a nn els in columns 

like flutes or reeds. 
Flutteb, v. to take short flights, to flap the winffs, to 

be agitated; S.Jhteram Swed. Jladdra; B.JlodOercn; 

frequentative of to Fly. 
Fly, v. to move with wings, to flee, break away, burst 

suddenly; Q.Jleiga; Swed, Jluga, Hy ; T.Jtiegens B. 

vUegen; S.JUogan; L. volo; F. voter. 
Fly, s. an insect, the balance wheel of an engine ; O. 

JUiga ; T. Jliege ; S. Jleoge,Jlie ; B. vliege, from to Fly. 
Fly-blow, v. a. to taint, fill with maggots or eggs of 

flies. See Blow, discolour. 
Foal, s, the offsprinff of a mare; Qt.ful; Swed. fole; 

T. fol; S,Jbla; B. veule: wS?iH; h. puUus ; Arm. 

ebeul; W. ehol. 
Foam, s. spume, froth; G. Atom; B.Jiefnj T.faum; L. 

Fob, s, a small breeches pocket ; T.fuppe sack, frtmi It 

Jioppo, breeches, flap hose. 
Fob, v. a. to cheat, to put off; perhaps for boh, or cor- 
rupted fromfourh. 
Foodeb, s. 1. a cask capable of containing 250 gallons, 

amounting in weight to 2000 pounds, and therefore 

called a ton or tun ; T. fuder, frtim G. JiMder ; S. 

Jltker, father; M. Q. Jlduor, four, meaning vats or 

2. Dry food for cattle; Q.fodur; S.foder; D.foder; I. 

fidar; W. bwyder. See Food. 
Foe, #. an enemy, an opponent; G. fega ; luL./ae/ S. 

fak. See Feud and Fiend. 
Foo, s. 1. a thick nust; G. ikok; Swed. iiok; D. iaag; 

^*fig^M» **"*» ob«nire. 
2. Aftergrass; L. B.fogagium, from Q.JUga, following 



FoH, iniefj, expressing dislike or disdain ; B*fo^ See 

Foible, #. F. a weak or blind side, a failing. See Feeble . 

Foil, #. a blunt sword used in fencing, a leaf in spMing; 
from L. foUum ; F. feuUle, a lesf. The kmiOiittEe 
end of a fencinff sword, or at the handle of a apooa, 
was called the jeuiUe, or JeuiUe arret, in F, and cor- 
rupted iatojleurel, a foil. 

Foil, v, from the noun ; to parry, arrest, check, defoat ; 
It smarrire, to baffle, to ibU, is from imarra, a fen- 
cing sword. 

FoisoN, #. plenty, abundance; F.fouom, from L. fmm, 

Foist, v. a. to insert b^ forgery, to cram in furtively; 
F.Jausseter ; jMjaUtto. 

FoiSTY, a. smelling mouldy or offensively. See Fusty. 

Fold, «. 1. an indosure, a pen for sheep ; G. faUd, fa 
lagd, flock station ; S. faked; T.fald; W. fold; L. B. 

2. A ply, a double, a plait ; Q.fald; Swed. f did; S. feidd; 
T.fdte; J}. fold ; It. falda. 

Folio, s. a full sixed leaf of paper, a book of that site ; 
lU folio; It. folium. 

Folio Mobt, e. a dead leaf, or something of that colour ; 

It. folio morto. 
Folk, #. people, nation, mankind; G. Swed. T. foik; 

S.folc; B. volk; from Q.folgia; Swed. folf a, to foil 

low to associate ; or from lu. foUa ; Swed. Jioi ; F. 

foule, the multitude ; Q.fUdga, to multiply. 
Follow, v. to ffo or come after, to adhere, accompany, 

imitate; G.Uflga,folgia; Swed. folja ; S.folgian; 

T.folgen ; B. volgem ; D.folge ; L. B.folgio. 

Folly, e. want of understanding, depraviQr of mind, 
imprudence ; F.folie, from Fool. 

FoN, s. a fool, an idaot; O. £. fonne; Swed. faane; I. 
faoin ; Scot, fon, from G. fana ; fa, little, and na, 
nema, to apprehend. 
Fond, a. 1. from Fon; foolish, silly, indiscreet 

2. Pleased, afiectionate, tender ; Q.fagomd ; Swed. fag., 
nad. See Fain. 

Food, e. victuals, meat, provisions ; G. foed ; Swed 
foda; T.foede; S.f6d; B. voed ; l.fuidk; W. bywyd. 

Fool, e. an idiot, buffoon, oaf; G. fol,ffl; Swed. JIM - 
Arm. fol; W.JM; F.Jbm,Jblle; It. fbUe ; L. B.foU 
lue ; Q.fSla, to wanton, to lust. 

Foolscap, s. folio sized paper. See Folio and Shape. 

FooB, a. good, eminent, rich, powerful, magnificent; 
G./opr ; Swed. fir ; li^.forr ; W. ffer, supposed to be 
cognate with our Ere and Fore, signifying precedence. 
See Eabl. 

Foot, s. what any thing stands upon, the lowest part, 
the length of a man's foot, twelve inches, foot sdcOm' 
infantry ; G. Swed. S. fot; T.fues; B. voet; D.fod; 
F. puodi SBiia.gud,pada; srft; L.pes; Sp.pede; It 
piede ; F. piS; Fort. prf. 

Footpad, e. one who robs, in paths or lanes^^ on foot ; 
B. voeipad. 

Fop, #. a coxcomb, one fond of dress, a vain person ; B. 
fop ; T.fop, a jest, a mocker, a buffoon ; It Jbppe, a 
vaunter, a vain fellow, seems to signify one who wears 
flap hose or wide breeches. See Fob. 

Fob, a negative prefix, as in fwbid, forget, forsake, for- 
swear; Q.for; Swed.Jir; S.fn-; T. var; Kwer; 
^omedn^B c^mOewith ourjro; Q.fra,fra, hmn; 
but m 1 . and B. it seems to be a ccmtractifiii of G 
vidur; T. wider, which is our negative preCz wiik. 

r OS 

Fob, prtp. the turn, V»t*vm, •» toMwi Q.forj W- 

^fymfBweA. Jor ; T./w; B.«wr/ 9. for. oogiMte 

widi Jbre, and rignifyinff the mimary purpoM or 

ctiue, comqiaodiiig in um with w^; U- pro; F. 

FoBAOB, PoDMBAttB, #. pTOvidoD, dry food for cattle ; 

0.fodur,Jhr; T.fnr, produced L. B. fodderagtum ; 

Forbid, ». to order not to do, to prohibit, interdict ; 

Q.foHmda; S.forbeodan, 
FoRCB, #. strength, violence, vigour, armed power ; F. 

force; luforza; L. B.fariesta, from L.f<niU. 
FoBCBD Mbat, *. farced meat See to Fabcb. 
FoBD, *. a passage, a shallow part of a river ; G. Jiard; 

Sw^J£17s.f(^;T.f^hH;W.fford. SeeFAHB. 
FoRB, a. anterior, coming first; Ot*for; T. var ; B. 

voor ; ^.fbre. See Or. 
FoBBBODB, r- II- to announce previoudy, to foretell, 

prophesy ; 8.farbodian : 8wea.fSrb6d4t. 
FoBBDO, FoBDO, ». o. to ruiB, destroy, undo ; from neg. 

For and Do. 
FoBBFBKB, v. a. to provide for, to take previous means 

of defence. See Fend. 
F0RB8T, i. a wild woody tract of land ; T.farst ; Arm. 

forest; W.fforesi; T. forest, forii ; Kforesta, from 

L.foras. bee Hurst. 
FoRFBiT, #. a fine, a pemd^tv for breach or transgres- 
sion ; V.forfait, from L. forisf actum ; L. B.foritfac^ 

tura, a forfSture ; It fu^are,fotfare, to transgress. 

FoRFEND, V. a. to fend off, provide against, forbid ; 

frtym neg. For and Fbkd. 
Forge, *. a smith's hearth ; F. forge ; It forgia ; L. B. 

forica^faiwrica, from h.fahrtca, 
FoRGB, V. a. to form by hammering, to frame, fabri- 
cate, counterfeit, falsify ; F. forger; from the noun. 
FoROBT, V. fl. to disremember, neglect; S.forgytan; 
Swed. for^ata, from neg. For and G. ga, geta, to 

heed, to mmd. 
FoRGiVB, V. a. to pardon, remit; Swed. forgifwa ; S. 

forgifan; T. vergeben. 
Fork, s. an instrument with prongs, a division; A. 

furq ; L. furca; Arm. forch; W.fforch; I. fore; F. 

fourcke ; It. forca ; 8. fore. 
Forlorn, a. lost, destitute; from Q.forlora; 8. for- 
loren ; T. verlohren ; B. verlooren ; 8wed. firlora. See 


Form, *, 1. shape, method, ceremony ; L. forma ; It. 
forma; T. forme; Swed. and D.form. 

2. A long seat, a bench ; L. B. forma ; F. firme, sup- 
posed to be from Swed.^rm ; S. feorm, a repast, and 
thence a table, a bench ; but Ajrm. fourm seems to 
signify a seat of justice, from Ij. forum. 

FoRMBR, a. prior in time or place ; the comparative of 
fore, as if, fore more. 

Fornication, *. whoredom ; L. /omtc^/io ; A. faijr ; 
^i^wn; Jj.fomicaria, a prostitute, meaning a seller of 
favours, corresponding with Heb. zonah; nt^ftUt, to 
sell or hire. Harlot, whore, homing (cuckoldom,) 
appear to be cognates of Hire, varied however by the 
intermutations of P. F. and H. See letter F. 

FoRSAKB, V. a. to seek no more, to quit, relinquish, dis- 
regard ; 8.forsacan ; B. verzaaken ; Swed. Jbrsaka. 

Forsooth, ad. for certain, in truth ; S. firtoth. See 


y B ▲ 

Fqb«ooth, #. a titl^, Mgnifyiqg VMm oir Itfutyihip ; 
Q.frauskat; T.frausheU. See Frow. 

FmowBA^, V. a* to swear falsely, to abjure ; i^oni neg* 
For and Swbar. 

Fort, #, a fortified Jilace, a caatle ; It /or/ ; F./or< ; '^. 
fart, from li.farits. 

Forth, oil. fore out, forward, onward; Q.f»rut,fort; S* 

firth ; T.furt ; B. t)Oort. 
Fortify, v. a. to strengthen, secure, confirm; F.forti^ 

Jier; l%.fortificare, from l4.firtifico. 

Fortnight, s. the space of two weeks, fourteen nights : 
G. fiurtan natta, Csraar observed that die QaUic 
Celts counted bv niffhts, as the Armoricans and 
Welsh do now ; out the Irish count by days like the 

FoRTUNB, #. chance of life, good or ill luck, riches, a 
marriage portion; L. for s, for tuna ; F, fortune; G. 
fwr,fortu, signified fate, fortune, life, death. 

Forty, a. twice twenty, four tens; Q.^rtio; S.feour^ 
tig; T.Jiertzig. 

Forward, a. onward, early, bold, ardent. See Forb 
and Ward. 

Fobs, s, a ditch, moat, intrenchment ; h. fossa ; F. fosse. 
FosTBR, V. a. to feed, nourish, pamper ; G. and Swed. 
fostra ; 8.fostrian. See Fbed. 

Foul, a. impure, filthy, unfur, unjust, unright, wicked; 
G. and S.ful; Swed. fuul; T. faul; B. vuU, fetid, 
impure; but the S. and T. words correspond with 
f «ilx«f, vile, wicked. 

Found, v. a. 1. to lay a foundation, build, establish ; L. 
fundo ; F. fonder, from h. fundus. 

2. To melt or cast metal ; h. fundo, Juso; F.fondre. 
FouNDBR, V. a, to grow or make lame, to fall down, 
sink as a ship ; h.fundere ; F.fondre. 

Four, a. twice two; Q.Jior; Swed. f^fra; 8.feower; 
T. viere ; B. vier. 

FouRR, s. a cheat ; A.furyh, a sharper ; It furbo ; F. 
fuurbe. See to Fob. 

FouRiBR, s, a provider of forage, a quarter-master ; F* 
fourrier; Swed. furare, from Q.fodur are, a commis- 
sioner oif forage or provision. See £r. 

FouTRA, s. a word of ccmtempt, a scoff, a fico ; F.foutre, 
in this sense, is from ^vm, ^ttnum ; L. B. futuo, foUo, 
fasto, which, like G.^oeefa; S.fothan, signify tobeget, 
procreate, engender. The G. synonymes, such as B. 
voegen,f oaken; T. fugen, fttgelen, are cognate with 
Fay. From the habitual use of the obscene word, 
the French have confounded with it the derivatives 
from Jj.fugitare, such 9L%fi%te, fuiteur, a runaway, a 
coward, which we formerly wrote foiter, a vagabond. 
F.fuitre le camp, is now written ^ir#? le camp, to de- 
sert ; but is generally pronounced ybfi/re. 

FouTY, a. mean, defective, despicable; ltfauiivo,faU' 
tive. See Fault. 

Fowl, *. a feathered animal, a bird; O.fugl; Swed. 

Jvgel; T.fogal; B.vogal; S.ftuga; from the S. word, 

the name appears to be derived from to Fly. 
Fox, s. a wild animal remarkable for its wiles, a sly 

fellow ; Swed. and S.,^ ; T. fucks ; B. vos, from G. 

fox ; W.ffug, deceit, guile. 

FoxoLOVB, s. a plant ; S. foxes glofa, apparently from 
G. vox ; T. qfivachs^ vegetable, and ghve. 

Fraca, s. a Quarrel, rupture, breach, the noise of some- 
thing breaking ; F.jracas; It. fraca, from h.fra€ta. 
See Fbay. 


F R E 


F^AiL^ #. a rush basket; li. 'B. frugdlumyfrucdlum, 
fruticellum, f¥om h/Jruges. 

Frail, a. fragile^ weak^ liable to seduction; "F.frtle; 
Itjrale, from li.JragilU. 

Praise, v. to fry a pancake with bacon ; F.fraiHr, from 

Frame, s. a fabric, disposition, scheme, shape; Arm. 

from, supposed to be a corruption of h, joftna; F. 
jonn, a model. See the verb. 
Frame, v, a. to fabricate, plan, form ; G. Jram, our 

from, produced /reym'a / Swed. Jramja; T.jrommen; 

S.Jretnman, to aeduce, produce, effect, and somewhat 

corresponding with It.formo ; F. former. See Form. 

Franchise, *. freedom ; F. franchise, from Frank. 

Franion, *. a paramour ; Q.frigion ; S,freon, a lover. 

Frank, a, free, liberal^ generous^ sincere, open; F. 
franc. See Free. 

Frank, *. 1. from the adj. ; a letter free of postage, an 
exemption from expence. 

2. From Farrow ; a place to keep pigs ; B. varken, a sty. 

3. A French pound, equal to tenpence, a Frankish coin ; 

F, franc. 

Frankincense, s. an odoriferous gum, holy perfume ; 
A. and P. raichu, perfume ; Heb. reach ; G. rauck ; T. 
ranch, our reek, signified smoke and odour ; G. ve, 
holy, being prefixed, verauckn ; D. virak ; T. roey- 
ranch ; B. wterooken ; S. weoh rec, sacred perfume, 
had incense added to it superfluously. The burning 
of such drugs was general in ancient religious rites, 
for the purposes of mystical illusion. 

Frantic, a. mad, crazy, transported by passion; L. 
phreneticus; F.frenettque. 

Fraud, s. deceit, artifice, illicit dealing; It. f rode; F. 
fraude; h.fraus. 

Fraught, part, of the verb to Freight ; freighted, 

Fray, s. a fight, a quarrel ; F. fracas ; L. fragor. See 

Fray, v. a. 1. to frighten, to terrify; F.frayer, effrayer. 

See Fright. 
2. To rub; F.frayer; It. fragare, from h.frico. 

Freak, *. 1 . a speck, a spot ; O.frcek ; leH.frek ; Swed. 
fraskn; D.frasgone; rf.ffrech. 

2. A desire, letch, whim, fancy ; M. G. frik, from fri^ 
gon ; S.freon, to love. 

Freak, v. a. to spot, to variegate ; from the noun. 
Fream, v. n. to grunt as a boar ; S. hream, a grunt, and 

fcerh, a boar. See Farrow. 
Freckle, s. sl spot on the skin from the sun's heat ; 

dim. of Freak. 
Fred, in the names of persons, is from free ; G.frid ; 
Swed./rerfy S.frede; T. fried, fVeedom, peace, se- 
curity, protection ; Fred rik, rich in security ; Wine 
fred, friend of peace. See Free and Greet. 

Free, a. at liberty, independent, exempt, open, gene- 
rous; G.fri; Swed. /rt/jT T.frey; B. vry ; S.freo; 

G. roi ; Swed. ro ; 1 . ruhe, signify exemption from 
toil or pain, repose, tranquillity, peace, pastime. 

Free mason, s. a member of a society of architects, si- 
milar to one anciently formed in Ionia for building 
temples ; among whom the rules, called Esoteri, were 
communicated to their pupils under solemn injunc- 
tions of secrecy. Our free masons also claimed par- 
ticular privileges, and practised similar mysteries of 
initiation, connecting therewith a system of morality. 

among themselves, conformable to the mathematical 
• principles of their art. ' 
Freeze, v. to be concealed with cold; G. and Swed. 

frysa ; D.fryse ; T. friesen ; B. vriesen ; 8. frysan, 

corresponding with piys« ; h.frigeo. 
Freight, s. from Fare ; carriage, the lading of a ship, 

cargo; Swed. frakt; B.fragte; T.fracht; B.vracki; 

Jy.fragte; F.freht,fardeau. 

Fresco, s. a painting in water colours on new plaster or 
stucco. See Fresh. 

Fresh, a, 1. cool, healthy, blooming, florid; It. fresco; 
F.frais,fraiche, supposed to be from Jj.frigesco and 

2. New, recent, sweet, not salted ; It fresco; F.frais, 
fraiche; T.frisch; B.fSrsk; Swed. and S. fersk ; 


3. Strong, healthy, vigorous, active ; G. hress ; S. 
^^*e,fresc ; T. risch, frisch ; Swed. and D. frisk ; 
B.fresch. See Brisk. 

Fbesh, s. a fall of fresh or land water into the sea, a 
land flood. 

Fbet, *. 1. a strait of the sea; f^ij; L. f return. See 

2. From the verb ; fermentation, agitation of liquor or 
of the mind. 

3. A small lath, the stop of a musical instrument ; F. 
frette ; It. ferza ; L. B.feruldla ; It. ferula. 

4. Work rising in protuberances, variegated, orna- 
mented; F.fraite; It. frigiato. See Frieze. 

Fret, v. 1. to ferment, agitate, vex ; Ij.fervio,fervito. 

2. To rub or wear away by rubbing : L. frico, fricto ; 
^' fray er,f rotter. 

3. To corrode, etch, ornament ; G. fretan ; S.fretan ; 
Swed. frdta ; T.fressen, to eat, to corrode, to etch : 
but S. fretew, from G. frid, signifies ornament. See 

4. To form into raised work, to variegate, ornament ; 
from the noun. 

Friable, a. pulverable> easily crumbled ; F. friable ; 

Friday, s. the sixth day of the week; G. fryija dag; 

Swed. freije dag, fredag ; s.frigadag; T. freytag, 

corresponding with L. dies veneris : G. freijon ; S. 

freon, to love. 

Friend, j. 1. a relation, kinsman, one of tlie same fa- 
mily; Q.frcend; Swed. frdnde ; D. frendc, from G. 
fr<B,frcen, seed, breed ; Scot, f rend. 

2. A beloved person, a selected companion, one in 
amity ; G.frtund,frigond ; S.freotid, from S. freon ; 
G. una, guna, gona, to endear ; T.freund ; B. vriend. 

Frieze, j. 1 . a rough kind of woollen cloth, supposed 
to be from Friseland ; F. drap defrise ; Swed. fris ; 
T. fries; B. frees ; Sp. and It. frisa. 

2. The entablature of columns between the arcliitrave 
and cornice, called in Greek zoophorus ; from being 
ornamented afler the manner of Phrygia, it obtained 
the name of It.yregio y F.frise; T. fries. 

Frigate, s. a ship of war ; G.fargod, fargiand, a row 
galley ; Swed. ferja ; T.faerge ; Turk.fargetta ; F. 
Jregate. See Ferry. 

Fright, s. sudden terror, fearhood ; S. fehrt, friht ; 

Swed. fruht; T.furcht; D.fryght. See Fear. 
Frighten, v. a. to terrify, to daunt; S.frihtan. 
Frill, v. n. to shake, shiver with cold ; F.friller; It. 
fredolo, from li.frigillus. 

F R U 

F U E 

Fbinob, s. a border, an ornamental edging ; F.Jrange; 

It. Jrangia ; B. f range ; T. frantze, Jranse ; Swed. 

frans ; U« rtM^ vans. See Rand. 
Frippebt, *. old clothes, patch work ; F. fripperie ; 

It, Jrapperie, from Jraporre, contraction of L. tfi/ra 
■ ponere, to piece. 
Frisk, v, n. to skip joyfully, dance, frolic; Bwed.Jriika, 

from fru ; Isl. fro ; T. froh ; D. fry, joy. See 

Frit, #. ashes and sand baked together to be melted 

into glass; Y.frtl; Jj.f rictus. 

Frith, s, 1. a kind of net, a hedge made of witlis ; G. 
frith, vreii, a wreath ; but O. E. frith was a wood, 
and also brushwood ; 6. Ar(;>, bushes, a wood ; Swed. 
hrissja, a wicker net. 

2. A strait of the sea ; 'L,f return ; It, freto,\ 

Fbitillabt, s, a plant, the crown imperial ; L. fri- 

Fritter, ^. 1. a small pancake ; F. friture, from L. 
frigo, to fry, 

2. A small bit, a scrap; L. "B.frictura, from h.f rictus. 

Fritter, v, a, from the. noun ; to reduce into small par- 
ticles, to crumble away. 

Frizzle, v, a, to make the hair rough or curled like 

frieze cloth ; ¥,f riser. 
Fro, ad, regressively, untowardly, from ward ; G. D. S. 

fra ; Scot. fro!. See From. 

Frock, s. a short kind of coat ; F.frac, from Rock. See 

Froo, s, 1. an amphibious animal; S,frogga; Swed. 
frdd ; T,frosch, from Q,freja, See Fry. 

2. FuRSH, Frush, the tender homy substance that grows 
in the interior of a horse's hoof; li,furca; ¥,fourche; 

Frolic, s, a merry prank or whim, a flight of fancy ; 
T. frdich, from G. and Swed. fro ; T. froh, joy, 
mirth ; Q,froleika, See to Play. 

From, prep, out of, because of, since; G. Swed. T. 

fram ; S. from, admit of very many applications, 

but generally corresponding with L. ah. It is diffi. 

cult to decide whether it be connected with S. frum 

and^/bmt, which are both modifications of Fore and 

For. See Fro. 
Frorb, a, congealed, frozen ; T,frore, from, part, of 

the verb friesen, to freeze ; in the same way tnat our 

Lorn is from G. losa, to lose. 

Frost, s, congelation, the last effect of cold ; Swed. D. 
S. T, frost. See to Freeze. 

Froth, s, foam, spume; G. vaur; i^^lf ; 8wed,fradga; 
Isl, fradua ; D.fradh, 

Frounce, s, a disorder in hawks ; Axm, froeni, snivel, 
from froen ; W. ffroen ; f}f, the nose. 

Frow, *. a German woman, a lady ; G. and T. frau j 

S.frea : Q,frauga, a lord, fru, jreija, a lady, from 

Free. See Baron. 
Frower, s, a cleaving tool ; T. hauer, verhauer. See to 

Frown, v, n. to knit the brow, to look sour, to show 

dislike ; O. F. frongner is said to be the word ; F; 
froHcer ; 'B,fronsen, are from T. rum, a wrinkle. 

Fruit, s, offspring, the produce of the earth, trees and 
plants; It, fructus ; T.fruht; F. fruit; lU Jrutto, 
from Id.fero, corresponding with to Bear. See dairv, 
Barlby, Bbbby. 

Fbombmty, s, food made of boiled wheat; Jj, fru* 

mentum. v ^ - 

Fry, s, I. the young of fish, spawn, and originally the 

seedlings of any thing ; G. frai ; Swed. froe ; D, 
frcs ; f.froge ; F./roye ; . It^friga. 
2. A dish of any thing fried. See to Fry. 
Fry, v. to dress in a pan on the fire ; Ij,JHgo; It. frig* 

gere ; F,frvre, 
FuB, 9. a. to put ofi^, to cheat See Fob. . v 

Fuddle, v, to get drunk ; frequentative of Swed. fuU; 

Scot, full, fou, drunk. 
Fudge, s, fiction, invention, imposition, deception ; L. 

Fuel, s, firewood, coal ; from F.feu ; Jj. focus. 
Fuoh, interj, expressing dislike. See Foh. 
FuLiuART, s, foul marten, a pole cat; T,faul marder. 

See Marten. 

Full, v, a, to clean cloth from urease, to tliicken it by 
milling; It.fuUo; «-<A«#; Sw^,fuUa; S,futtian; F. 
fouler. See to Walk. 

Full, a. entire, replete, without vacuity; O, full; T. 
ful; S, fuUe; B. vol; Sclav, pol; f^Uf/irxU(;Ij, 

Fulsome, a, impure, gross, obscene ; G. fulsam ; T. 
faulsam. See Foul. 

Fumble, v. to do awkwardly, to feel about impotently ; 
G.falma,fafnla,fipla ; Sv/ed,fanda,funda ; u,famle; 
B,fommelefi ; ScoUfttffle, 

Fume, *. smoke, vapour, odour; L. fumus; F.fumee ; 
It. fumo. 

FuMETTE, s. from Fume ; slight smell, odour ; F.fumet, 

Fun, s, merriment, joke, frolic; T. tvonne, vonne; S, 

fvynn ; Swed. vunna from G. unna, to please ; but S. 

fean, joy, pleasure, is from^tw. 

Fund, s, what is established, founded, a stock or bank 
of money, capital; It, fondo; F.fond, from It, f undo; 
but G.fa%hn,fcBan: T,fun; S,feoh, denote riches or 
possessions of any kind, income, interest, correspond- 
ing with Ij,foenus, See Fine and Finance. 

Funk, s, a stink, an unpleasant smell ; G. fuin,finik ; 
S.fynig; B. veins; F,faguenas, 

Funnel, s, a tundish, a vent ; L. B. fundiculus, from 
fundo; Arm. founil. 

Fur, s, the soft hair of beasts, a dry sediment adhering 
to the side of a vessel ; It feltro, fodro; T,f utter ; 
F, feutre, fourrure; D, foer, from G. fela. See 

Furbelow, s. an appendage of stuff, plaited or pucker- 
ed, on a woman's dress ; G. forfall, farfalla, a veil 
or fold of a garment ; Sp.faifala; F.falbala; Port. 
falbalas : G. and It,farfaUa, like L. papilio, is a but- 
terfly, curtain, pavilion. 

Furbish, v, a, to burnish, polish, make bright ; F,four* 
hir ; It, forbire; T,furSen, from Q.forbiara,forhiar'» 
ta. See Bright. 

Furl, v, a, to draw up, contract ; F,freler for fardeler, 
to bundle up. See Fardel. 

Furlong, s. the eighth of a mile ; S.furlang ; L. B.for* 
longum. S. fur, a furrow, is said to have oeen a mea- 
sure of landf, like L. porca. 

Furlough, s, leave of absence from duty ; Q,furleif, 
orlcf; Swed. orlqf^ forlqf; T. urlaub ; u.forlow ; as 
if For leave. See Lbavb. 

Fubnacb, s, an inclosed fire place ; L. fumus ; S. fym 
hus is a fire house. 

F U 8 

F Y 

FuHKiiH, f9. a. to Mpply^ i>rOTkto, #qiii{>; lufmmitm 
F.Jimmir; L. B. viMirKtrtf; Soot wamyM ; T, mar* 
MtHfUrom 6. oarw, iwrMiMiiir/ ItL tvammng, warcib 
utendb. See Qk/ausa And FvENiTvlUi. 

PuBNiTUBB, 1. gobJiii BidVeiMee^ uteiMfti ; I^. fm%U 
lure ; O. oarMdf«r. See FumKie*. 

Futeaur, e, ttie trench made by a plough^ the rut ef a 
carriage; D.^re; T.furche; B. voete; S.jMr. 

FuRTHBR^ a. more in advance, longer, additional ; the 

comparative of Fore and Forth^ auperlative Furthest ; 

fluently confounded with Far^Tarther, Farthaat 

See Fabthsb. 
FuRTHBR, V. a. to advance, promote, assist ; Swed.^/i^- 

dra; T./ordereu; B.voraeren, 

FuRZB, s. a prickly ^rub, gorse; S. fifres, apparently 
^^Nna Jjfr, fire, a name given to various shrubs and 
plants used for heating ovens. See Bbabb, Liko, 

FosBt, #. 1. the cone round which is wound th^ diain 
of a watdi or dock ; L. fusus ; V.fusedu, fiu^ ; It. 

9. A small musquet See Fusil. 

3. FuSB, the match indosed in a tube which makes a 
shell or bomb explode; T, fusee, ftoim h, focus, 

4. The tradi or ihark of the foot.^s ; P. pirte. 

FvaiL, $. 1. alittle spindle, atsrm in heraldry ; Js.JmsiU 
Ime; iP.fkmie. 

3. A small musquet, a Aisee ; F. JmsU, li,fiMe, a gun 
flint, firom L^Jbcue: a firelodK, so diaiinguifled firain a 

Fuss, r. stir, bustle, agitation, tumult; G. and %.fumf 
Bw%d.JUuk ; QooLfask* 

FuBTiAK, r. coarse cotton doth, bombast; Au foiUm; 
P. vuMta, buiia; Sp. hkstan; It. fuHagno; F. Ju- 
tmine. Some pretend tnat the stuff made by the Oer* 
mans from the fle^ble bark of trees, such as tfie lime 
and philyra, which was called Barket and Bast, 
was translated into L. B. fostmnum, iVoA L. JntHt. 
The fibres of nettles and miulowa were used for simi- 
lar purposes ; and €ven now muslin is called nettle 
dotn in G^ermany. See BoMBaer. 

FusTT, 0. musity, smelling like a foul cask ; L. fustis, 
Kke our StaC aigmfied a SUve, and thence F. Just, 
fustaiUe, Jut, fotaiUe, was a vessel made of wood ; 
foH ; Soot/ofI, fbul, fusty. 

Fuzz, v. n. to puff, fly out in small partides: f vri^ ; L. 
vine; V,veteir; Swed, Jisa; T,Jitten; U. veesteM. 

PuzzBALL, #. a kind of fbngus, a puff. 

Fr, interf, expressing hato or dislike; P. uf, »ui; A. 
foh; fiw; O.Jue; Swed.^/ L. phy ; T.fejtf; B.^fy; 
Arm./cwy/ W.JfH; F.JT. 




iv Eiudiiht has two wnadt ; tfaafc of the QnA r, 

^ 9 aa inOag^Goar, Grocer, is cslled hsord or haHh, 

and liable Sobe conlbunded with K. The other, soil, 

has the sound of J, and mostly occun before £ or I 

in our words derived firom the Latin and French; 

guch as Oein« Oin, Gentle; and in Hke manner die 

Greek r sometimes dianged into I. The pronuncia^ 

tion of Di and Ti in polysyllables, approaches so 

neariytoO soft, and J, t£at the latter were occasionally 

placed in their stead. Thus the Latin Diurnal be- 

came Journal; Digeriay Gj^eria, the Gizaard; and 

the Oodiic Tiul, Thial^ T. ^el, a limit, a boundary, 

are cognafte with our Thill, Toll, Dole and Goal. O 

befOT« N is generally rilent, as well as when followed 

by H in the middleof a word. Gnat, Benign, Domh, 

Night, Caught, Brought, are pronounced, Nat, fie- 

nine, Dane, Kite, Cavt, Bravt It did not belong to 

the Runic alphdi>et ; but, adopted for convenienoe, it 

was modulated into the power of the Greek X or 

Spanish G soft; became afisrwards confounded with 

J, and melted into double I or LF, which prodnoed 

our Y, called erroneously the T of the Greeks. O 

when followed by H obtaineda guttural sound, which 

is preserved in Scotland ; but Cough, Lau^, Kough^ 

we pronounce Cof, Laf, Ruff. The Gothic article J, 

IJ, Qe or G^a, became in many cases integral with 

the word to which it was prefixed, and occasioned 

formerly a redundancy of our initial Y, as in Y down, 

Ydad, Ydepd. The Celts, including the Lathis, 

having nodunff that corresponded wim the Ckithic 

W, substituted G for it ; by which William, Wile, 

Wise, Ward, are Guillim, €hiile. Guise, Guard ; and 

Warranty is Guaranty. 

CrAB, #. the mouth; D. andScotga6;; Russ. 
gybasLmobs W. givep. 

Gab, o. n. from the noun; to prate, to chatter, to tell 
lies ; S. gab ; Scot gab» loquacity. 

Sabardine, #• a coarse watchcoat; Sv^ gabaudino; It. 
gavardino. The go^aii of the P. It op. and Port was 
A. caftan, a kind of dioak made of thatch^ and worn 
by shepherds. 

a A G 

Gabblb, v. II. frequentative of Gab ; to prate kmd or 
fast ; B. gahheren. See Jabbbb. 

GabbIi, Gabbjulb, #. an excise, contribution, tribute ; 
S. gafel, giofol; T. gabel; F. gabeUe; It gabOa, 
from Give^ See Gulb. 

Gabion, s. a kind of basket used in IbrtificBticn ; It. 
gaftftta, gabbume ; F. gabion, from L. cavea, 

Gablb, #• the pointed roof of a house; G. gqfifdj Swed* 
gaftvel; D. gavl; B. gavel; T, gabel, ^bd^ wUeh, 
uke L. B. gabala, signmed a fork. 

Gad, 9, a point, a wiedge, a bar ; G. and Swed. gaid; 8. 
gad ; D. gedde. 

Gap, 9. b. I. to run sl>oiit as aninals do when bittsn by 
tibe gad fly. 

2. To form oonnexions, to gossip, to rove idly ; Swed. 
gadda; D. gade; T. gaden, fiom G. gad, far gawid. 
See Gathbb. 

Gapfi«t, s. a stinging fly, a breeae; from Gad, a sting. 

Gadso, iniefy. an exclamation used in our old plays; It 

cadzo, cazxo, from L. camda, whidi, like «ff«4«, nad an 

obscene siirnification. 

Gaff, #. a fiork> a large hook, a harpoon ; F. gaffe. See 

GAFFBB9 #. a reputable term for a country neia^hbour ; 
S. gcenfceder, gtfcBder ; B. getMar, correspondmg wkn 
Scot gudman ; but sometimes confounded with God- 
father. S. mwe, the law, produced cem, and f^ns^ 
gemw, legal, wot thy, reputable^ married. See uam- 
MEB and Yboman. 

Gafflb, #. an artificial spur for a cock ; G. ge^ ; S. 

go^, geafla ; T. gabel : B. gaffel; W. gn^imch. 

Gao, 9, something jmt into the mouth to hinder spoteh ; 
B. kau negge, a jaw- wedge. 

Gagb, #. 1. a pledge, a stake ; F. gage, from G. mofd, 
wad; Swed. mad; B. wedde; S. wed; L. vas, vadit. 
See Waob. 

2. A mason's rule« a rod to measure casks. See Oao«9. 

Gaoqlb, e. b. to make ^ noise Kke agoose; B. gagglm. 
See Cackle. 


Gain, ad, used as a prefix, signifies opposite, towards ; 

G. gen, gegn ; S. gean ; T. gegen, corresponding with 

L. contra, iterum, re. See Again. 
Gain, s, 1. advantage, convenience, profit, interest; G. 

geign, gagn ; Swed. gagn ; S. geagn ; P. gagne ; ap- 
parently from G. exga ; S. agan, to obtain, possess. 
2. Success from exertion, earning, profitable labour ; 

G. gawxn ; T. geminn ; S. gemxn; It gavagna; F. 

gagne. See Win. 
Gainl> fl. useful, convenient, handy ; Swed. gagnlig. 
Gairi8h> a. gaudy, showy, glittering ; from the noun. 
Gairy, Gaibry, *. finery, show, glitter ; O. F. gaierie. 

See Gay and Gaudry. 
Gait, j. 1. a way, a road, a street. See Gatb. 
2. Manner of walking, march ; G. gahati, going, go- 
hood ; from to Go. 
Gaitbr, s. a spatterdash ; F. gu^tre, guestre ; It. uosetta. 

See HosB. 
Gal, s. song; G. T. Swed. gal; S. D. gale; W. gal: 

P. god; Heb. kd, the voice, song; Sans, ga ; G. 

gala, to sing. See Nightingal. 
Gala, s. grand festivity, ornament, splendour ; A. ga~ 

lah, iala ; P. gela ; Swed. galla ; Arm. Sp. F. It. 

Galb, s. 1. water myrtle, sweet willow; G. and B. ga* 

gel; Y.gale. 
2. A strong steady wind ; G. gol ; B. koeie ; T. kuhle, 

a fresh cool wind. 
Galiot, s. a small galley, a kind of brigantine ; F. ga- 

liote ; It. galeotto. 
Gall, j. 1. bile, malignity, rancour; ls\. gall; Swed. 

galla ; D. gold ; S. gealla ; B. ga/ y ;^«Aii : S. gea/ is 


2. Excoriatipn, a sore occasioned by friction; S gealla; 
Arm. gall; P. ga/e. 

.3. A nucleus or excrescence on trees, arising from a de- 
posit of the eggs of insects; G. gall; S. gealla ; D. 
gal ; L. galla. 

Gallant, a. 1. from Gala; gay, fine, splendid; F. ga- 
lant ; It. galante ; Sp. galano. 

2. Brave, valiant, noble ; the foregoing word is sup- 
posed to have been confounded with L. valens, from 
valeo ; Arm. and W. gaUu. 

Galleon, J. fromGALLBY; a large Spanish ship;^ 

Gallbby, s. a long narrow floor, a balcony; G. gasildr, 
galeidr, from letd, gal^id, a way, a leaoing, a gang- 
way; B. galderie ; Swed. gaUerie; F. gallerie, O. 
F. galler was used instead of aller, to go ; and galU" 
vie,' in this sense, would be a passage. See to Walk. 

Galley, s. a vessel impelled by sails and oars ; Swed. 
galeja; G, galeidr; F. galere ; It. ealeria; appa- 
rently signifying a passage-boat, ana cognate with 
gallery^ but supposed to be from yeiv?<&f. 

Galliard, l.a. gay, lively. 2. s. A sprightly dance, a 
lively fellow ; F. gaillarde. See Gay and Ard. 

Galligaskins, s. large open hose ; perhaps of L. B. ca- 
ligce coxiones ; but saia to be Gallicce eoxiones. See 

Gallimatia, s. nonsense ; a word said to be used by 
the French in ridicule of the Arraoricans, with whom 
gall mat signifies good French. 

Gallimaufry, s. a medley, a hotch potch ; F. galima* 
free, said to lie Arm. gaUmatfrya, a good French ra- 
gout, a fricassee of scraps. 

G A N 

Gallipot, s. a glazed pot used by druggists ; G. glepot, 

glerpot ; B. gleye pot. See Glair. 
Gallochb, s. a kind of wooden shoe, a sock ; F. ga- 

loche ; It. galloccia. 

Gallon, s. a measure of four quarts ; F. gallon ; L. c«- 
ligna ; Kv}ai, 

Galloon, s, a kind of lace ; F. and B. galon ; L. ga* 
lena; yiA«y. 

Gallop, v. n. to ride fast, to move by leaps ; D. galope ; 

Swed. galopa ; S. gehleapan ; T. gelaupen ; B. geiou^ 

pen; F. galoper ; It gallopare, from G. laupa, to 

leap, to run. 
Gallow, V, a. to terrify; S. agaslman, from G. o^a, fear. 

See Agaze. 

Galloway, s. a horse under fourteen hands in height ; 
Bohem. galowa ; Pol. and T. galwach, walach ; Swed. 
gaU, gaffing, a nag, a gelding. 

Gallowglasses, s, Irish soldiers; I. galoglach, from 
gal, war, and oglach, a servant or soldier. 

Gallows, s, a gibbet, a tree of execution, a suspender ; 
G. and Swed. galea ; Isl. galg ; S. anid Belg. ^alg, 
confounded with L. gahalus. See Gablb. 

Gallows, a, careless, dissolute; G. galaus ; Swed. 
g&hs, from ga, care, attention, and laus, free, loose. 

Gambado, s. a spatterdash for riding ; from It. gamha. 
See «iAMB. 

Gakbagb, #. a yellow pigment ; from Cambodia, where 
it is found. 

Gambol, v. skip, to frisk, to frolic ; F. gambiller ; 

It. gambezziare, from gamba, a leg. See Jamb. 
Gamb, i. play, pleasure, mirth, the sport of the field ; 

G. gaman ; T. gamen ; S. gaman, from G. gamma, to 

play, to make merry. 

Gammer, s, a respectful term, among peasants, for an 
elderly woman ; Swed. gudmoder, gumor ; B. gemoer, 
gemoder ; Scot gimmer, the feminine of Gaffer. 

Gammon, «. 1. a buttock of hog salted and dried; It 
jambone ; F,jambon, See Ham and Jamb. 

2. The complete game at backgammon. See Game. 

Gamut, s, the scale of music ; It gama ; F. gamme^ The 
scale is said to have consisted of only six notes, be- 
ginning with ut, until Guido Aretino prefixed ano- 
ther caUed gamma, after the Gh*eek rotation gamma ut. 

Ganch, V, a, to torture by dropping the person from a 
high place upon hooks; P. gancJier ; It ganciare, 
from gancio ; Lt, uncus, 

Gandbr, s, the male of a goose; O.sans; T. gamer ; 

Swed. gandra ; T, jar, jars ; Hind, hans ; xfif. 
Gang, v. n, to go ; G. and Swed. ganga ; S. gangan ; 

T. and B. gangen, from G. ga. 

Gang, s, from the verb ; a number of persons who go or 
work together, a crew. 

Ganglion, s. a flower called poligala ; the name seems 
to have been given to different flowers worn in Gaiig- 

Gangway, s. a way or passage from one part of a ship 
to another ; Swed. gdngwdg ; S. gangweg, 

Gangwbbk, s, the time when processions were made to 
lustrate the bounds of parishes. See Rogation, t 

Gannet, s, a kind of wild goose; S. ganoi. See 

Gantelope, vulgarly Gantlet, s, a military punish- 
ment; G. wandleop ; Scot wand loup, from wand, a 
rod, and hup, to leap or run ; but pronounced gdnie^ 
lope by the Celts. 


I&.A JJ 

Gantlbt^ s. an armorial glove. See Gauntljbt. 
Ganza^ s, a species of wild goose; S^ gansd ,' 8sxi8. 

hansa, . See Gandeb. 
Gaol, s. a place of confinement, a prison ; F. feole ; B. 

faol ; W. geol ; Sp. jaula ; It. gaiola, catola, from 
I. caveola, a cage. See Jail. 

Gap, s, a hole, opening, breach, the hiatus in pronun- 
ciation ; G. gap ; S. gapa, apparently formed from 
the game root with our ope, open. 

Gape, «. «. to open 'the mouth or eyes, to stare, to 

yawn ; G. and Swed. gapa ; S. geapan, to yawn, 

gasp, stare. 
Gar, v. to prepare, arrange, to make, to cause; O.gera ; 

Isl. giora ; Swed. g«^Va, ^asra ; D. gicere ; S. gear* 

fvian ; Scot, gar ; T. gerben. 
Gar, s. a point, a spear, a lance, a fish called acus in L. 

The Girrock, Gave or Gaff fish. 
Garance, s. an herb used for dying red ; Sp. garanza y 

P. garance ; «#ppW. 
Garb, j. dress, arrangement, outward appearance ; G. 

f'orva ; S. gearva, equipment ; T. garb j It. garbo ; 
. garb. See to Gar. 
Garbage, *. 1. offal, guts, excrement; G, giorb. See 

2. Unripe fruit, sour trash ; It. garbezza, from garbo, 

L. acerbus. See Crab. 
Garble, v, a. to sift, separate^ pick ; A. ekarbala ; It. 

garbellare ; Sp. garbetlar : but F. cribkr is from L. 

Garboil, s, tumult, uproar, disorder; F. garbouille; 

It. garboglio. See Tubmoil. 
Garden, s. inclosed ground, cultivated with plants ; G. 

gard; S. garda ; Swed. gdrd ; W. eardd; T. gar^ 

ten; It, giardino; F.jardtn; P. gdrd in the Pahlavi 

dialect. See Yard and Orchard. 
Gare, s. coarse wool growing on the legs of sheep ; W. 

garr ; Arm. gar; L. B. crea, from L. cms. See 

Gargle, v, a, to wash the throat ; F. gargouiller, from 

L. gurgulio. 
Garland, s, a wreath of flowers; F. guirlande ; It. 

ghirlanda; Sp. girlanda, supposed to be from L. 

giro ; but sardland and garland, as used by the Scan- 
dinavians, IS said to have been from gird, to bind, and 

lada or linda, a fillet. 
Garlick, s, a species of leek ; S. garlic from geir, a 

clove, a spike, and lauk, a leek. See Gar. 

Gar LICKS, s, a cloth made at Gorlilz in Germany. 

Garment, s, any coverinff for the body ; from Garb, 
but apparently confounded with Raiment. 

Garner, s, a granary, repository for corn ; L. grana- 
Hum ; P. grenier ; It. grenario. 

Garnet, s. a red gem ; It. grenaio, from resembling 
the seed of a pomegranate. 

Garnish, v, a. to arrange, decorate, set off dishes for 

table; F. gamir ; It. guarnire ; Jj. B, vuarnire. See 

to Furnish. 
Gar ban, s, a Highland poney ; Sans, ghora ; P. geer ; 

G. jor ; T. gorr ; I. garran ; W. gorwez. 
Garret, s, the upper story of a house ; but formerly 

a watch-tower ; F. guerite, from G. and Swed. tvara ; 

8. roerian, to guard. 

Garrison, s. a fortified place, soldiers in a fortress; 
Swed. gwarnison ; It garmgione ; F. gamison, from 

G. foceria, W€tma ; Swed. warna ; T. wamen, genfar» 
• 'nen, to defend. • 

Garter, s, a band to tie up the stockings ; It. garet" 
tiera ; F. jarrettiere, literally a hough band^ It. ga- 
retto ; F. jarrei, from L. crm ; I^. B. crefi. See 

. Gare and Jabdes. * . 

Garth, s, an indosure round a farm-hpuse, a yard ; G. 
gard ; Swed. gasrd ; S. geard. See Yard. 

Gas, s, subtle spirit; inflammable vapour ; G. and Swed. 
&Bsa, to ferment, from asa, to bum, to heat. See 

Gash, s. a cut, a wide deep wound ; B. gehack, gehash. 
See Hash. 

Gaskins, s, pi, wide hose or breeches ; L. B. coxiones, 
from L. coxa. 

Gasp, v, to open the mouth, to catch breath ; G. geispa; 
Swed. gdspa for gapsa. See Gape. 

Gassoon, 9, an Irish footboy ; Swed. gasse ; W. gwas, 
from G,jos,jad, gdd, 

Gast, V, a, to frighten, to terrify. See Aoast. 

Gat, pret. of to Get. 

Gate, s, 1. the door* of a city, a frame of wood on 
hinges ; G. gat, gaitt ; S. gcet, jatCy from gala ; S. 
gastan, to hold ; whence our ancient word Gatehouse 
tor a prison. Phcenician gadir, an inclosure, was the 
origin of Cadiz, and Cape de Gat in Spain. 

2, A way, a street, a road ; G. gala ; Swed. gasta ; D. 
gade, from G. ga, to go. See Gait. 

Gather, v, to bring or draw together, assemble, col- 
lect; G. gadra, contracted from ga roidra ; M. G. 
gawithra ; B. gaderen ; T, gadern ; S. gaderian ; 
Scot, gadur ; being the frequentative of G. gavida ; 
Swed. gadda ; M. G. gatvithan ; T. gotten, from with 
a conjunction. See to Gad. 

Gaude, s, a jewel, any gay trinket ; L. gaudium, 
Gaudry, s, from Gaude ; finery, glaring colours, osten- 
tation in dress. 

Gave, pret, of to Give. 

Gavel kind, s, an equal distribution of land among 
children; G. and Swed. kafle; B. kavel; S. geafle ; 
Scot, cavel, was literally a stick ; but signified a lot, 
and G. kund ; Swed. kind; S. kind; B. kind; T. 
kind, a child. The father of a family had the differ- 
ent portions of his estate inscribed on bits of wood 
which he inclosed in a box. At his decease his heirs 
drew their lots, and inherited accordingly. This 
practice was known to the Greeks under the name of 

Gauge, s, a measure, a standard ; F. gauge, anciently 
jaulge, gaulage, from gaule, a rod. See Gaul and 

Gaul, s, a staff, a rod, a pole; Isl. gagl; S. geafie, 
geauk; G. and Swed. wal; F. gaule; W. grvial; 
Arm. guial ; L. vallus. 

Gaunt, a. thin, meagre, spare ; S. getvaned, wanting, 
diminished. See Wane. 

Gauntlet, s, an iron glove used as defence, and thrown 
down in challenge; F. gaunielet ; It. guanio; G. 
vanta ; Swed. wante; B. want, supposed to be cor- 
rupted from L. manica, 

Gavot, s, a kind of dance, a gay tune or air ; It. gtf lo 
volto, a gay turn, gavot to ; F. gavotte. 

Gauze, s, a very thin silk or linen ; F. ^aze ; B. geuis, 
perhaps from the town of Gaza, but said to be named 
from the isle of Ceos, where silk was brought from 

G S H 


Che iBiit te wdM ; Mid, itfW Wing lodaeed ti lluMids 
and nntwistedj it was manuiactared late mtA ftdEi; 

Swed. Imckwk. See Cuoxoo. 
2. A silly fellow, a buffoon; G. Wdl/ T. nmeh; B. 
gwgek; Swed. gacifr; Scot #im9«, from folMi/ Soot 
geek, to CmI, to dope. See Jack. 

Qkwu, 4. acasky a lading ressri; F. foiiae, from I* 

mrngku; %uni» 
Oawntbbb, «. a wooden frame on which beer casks are 

set; Scotgaiilra. 
Gay, a. airy, cheerful, showy, fine; It. gmo; F. gai; 

W. g9yw ; Arm. gae; from L. gau. &e Gaubet* 
Gaseb, v. n. to look earnestly ; G. na, atia, gama ; S. 

geieam, to eee. 

Gazbhound, #. a dor liiat hunts from the sig^ ; L. B. 
agauBus, supposed to be from gaxe, to see ; but O. 
and Swed. gasa, signifies to course. 

Gazel, Gabblui, t. an Arabian deer, an antelope; A. 

ghizalj P. and Heb. gazel, from gax, a goat, and 4U, n 

deer* See Goat and Antblopb. 
Gazbytb, #. a newi^aper publiriied by authority ; from 

die Gmca at Vciuee, which contamed the government 

printing office ; A. gaza ; yd^m ; a treasury. 

Gazon, t. smooth grass, turf; from G. iveua ; T. waten; 
HiikLgaute; F, gaxon. See Gbass. 

Gbab, *. apparatus, effects^ goods, riches; S. geara. 
See Gbbb, Gabb, and to Gab. 

Gbok, 8. one easily imposed upon, a simpleton^ foolery, 
whhn, trick ; G. geuc; Swed. gmk ; T. and Scot. gech. 
See Gawk and Jack. 

Gbb, a word used 1^ waggoners to hones ; Sp. je ; 
Scot jee ; G. ga ; ft, to go. 

Gebr, 9. apparatus, accoutrement, tackle; G. ghra ; 
T. gerath ; Scot, graitk. See to Gab. 

Gbir, s. a large bird of prey ; G. geir; T. geier, a vul- 
ture, an eagle ; ii^i^ ; P. geer, a faawk ; mosh geer, a 
mouse or sparrow hawk. 

Gbx«b, v. a. to castrate, to emasculate; Swed. gilla ; T. 
gelden; from G. gaU; r«AAH, sterile, infecund. 

Geldbr boss, s. the marshelder rose ; said to have been 
brought from Guelderland ; but S. holder, gehoUer, 
is probably the right name. See £ldbb. 

Gbldino, 9. from Gbld ; a castrated horse ; F. guilledin, 

Gellt, s. a coagulated fluid; P. geleS; It gelo, from 
L. gekUus. 

Gem, «. 1. a jewels a precious stone ; L. and It. gemma ; 
G. gimstein ; S. gvm ; T. gimme. 

2. The first bud of a tree ; L. gemma, apparently for 

Gbmmy, a, from Gem ; bright, sparkling, glittering. 

Gemote, *. a meeting, the court of the hundred ; G. 

mot ; Swed. mote ; T. and S. gemot. See to Meet. 
General, s. one who has the command of an army, who 

directs generally ; F. general ; It. generate, from L. 


Geneva, s. spirit of juniper ; F. genevre ; It ginepro ; 

Genteel, a. |>olite, dvil, graceful ; L. gentilis; F. gew- 
til; It, gentile. 

Gentian, s. a plant with a blue flower ; A. junleyana ; 

It genUana; F. geuiiane; L. cyaneus ; Kwuf, blue. 
Gbntianbu^a, s. from Gbntian ; a blue colour. 

Gbntiu, «. oiia of die nadm, ^na^&wt, mlmAmik; JL 

gtMiilii; F. gmUU. 
Gbntlb, a. mild, tractable, padie ; F. gmtO; I* gm, 

til$9, mgemms. 

OaNFTLBHAW, s. B term of camplaisaQoe; B. It gmtil- 
kuomo; F. geniilhomme, a man of birth or maUtr, 
correspoodiog widi G. and T. eddmam, from U* mie, 
mti naturej progeny, race. See to Gbt. 

Gbobge, #. 1. a man's name, the oeme of aevevil kk^; 
some suppose from the Greek word which signifies % 
tiller of the ground; but G. asr signified tn^^^eiBi- 
nence, honour, and rik, rich, powerful; wheoee 
JEnk; D. JErig; T. JErik; S. Eorrick, Jearkk, 
Jorge, George. 

2. A figure of St George worn by the knights of the 

3. An ammunition loa^ King George's allowaiice to s 

Gbbfalcon, s. a large hawk ; F. gerfatti y It gerfiU^ 
cone. See Gbib. 

Gbbmanbbb, #. a plant; F. germandrei, from L. cAo. 

Gbt, v. 1. to attain, acquire, possess, obtain; G.geUt, 

S. getan. 
2. To procreate, beget, engender; G. gieia/ Swed. 

g&ta, apparently from ad, cede ; Swed. obH, ett, nature, 

progeny, descent, offspring. 

3L To remember, to learn, consider, conjecture; G. 
gieta ; Swed. gata, supposed to be from G. ged, the 
mind. See Forget. 

Gewgaw, s. a ^owy trifle, a toy ; L. gau. See Gaube. 

Ghastly, a. pale, frightful, dismal. See Ghost. 

Ghbbkin, #. a pickled cucumber; Swed. gurka; T. 

gurcke, a cucumbar, a corruption and misappUcation 

of L. cucurbiia ; F. courge. 

Ghost, #. spirit, breath, the soul of a man deceased; 
Swed. gast ; S. gast ; T. geist ; B. geest ; G. akma ; 
SatftM, mr^ftm, spirit, breath, are from «uw, id^m; and 6. 
asa ngnifies to ferment 

Giant, s, a man above the ordinary rate of men in sise * 
F. geant; It gigante; from yiymi; L. gigas, earth 

Gib, GibbBj Glib, s. a poor, spiritless, wom..out animal, 
one emasculated. See Glib. 

Gibber, ,v. n. to talk inarticulately. See Jabbbb. 

Gibberish, s. cant words used by roguee;, nonsense. 

Gibbet, s. a gallows ; F. gibet, supposed to be gabdui; 

gabeletuf, cognate with our Gable ; but Heb. gUbolk; 

Arm. gafif have a similar meaning. 

GiBBiER, *. wild fowl, game ; F. gibhier, from L. as. 

Gib cat, s. a gelt cat. See Gib. 

Gibe, v. 1. to sneer, taunt, reproadi; O. £. goab; 
Scatjaip, from G. gabba, ^eipa ; Swed. gabba, geepa; 
F. gaber ; It gabbare, to ndicule, mock. See Ape. 

2. To turn round, to fly about suddenly ; B. gypen, 
from gyp, an eddy. 

Giblets, s. pL small parts of a goose ; from If. G. giUa ; 
S. gibiai ; T. giebu, a wing. 

Giddy, a. having a sensation of going round, whirling; 
inconstant, heedless ; S. gidig. See £ddy. 

GiER EAGLE, #. an eagle of a particuhr kind. See 

Gift, #. a donation, favour, acquirement; O. gio^/ T. 

and S. gift. See to Givb. 


GTiG, #. I. a quick motion, something whirled round; 
from G. ga, gega, to go. See Jack, 

2. A fiddle; G. and SwecL^^/ T. ge^. 

GiGGLB, V. n. to laugh sillily, to titter ; S; geagl, a sup- 
pressed laugh; T. gackeUn, to grin; mjcXiitf. See 

GiooT, s. a hip, a haunch; Port coehado; F. cvutot, 
gigoty from Lr. coxa. 

Of LD, V. a. to wash over with gold ; G. gUda ; S. gild&n, 

from Gold. 
Gill, ^. 1. a stream within high banks ; Gr gUs. See 


2. A measure containing the fourth part of a pint ; L. B. 
gUlo, geUo; S; wtegd; »vXi(. 

3. A ffirl, a wench; O.jugge, dam,ju^eh, feminine of 
Jock or Jack. See Jack. 

4. An herb called ground ivy; "B. gyl, geil; Scot, gvle, 
from B. geilen, to ferment, signi&Mi wort, into ^ich 
this plant was infused. See Alehoof. 

Gills, s, pi. the openings at the neck of a fish for res- 
piration; G. gtWjT Swed. gc/y D. geller ; T.giUe; 
Sp. agaUas, u. gte/, gil, a nssure. 

GiLLT FLOWER, JuLY FLOWER, s. akiudof Wall flowcr; 
F. girqflier ; L. caryophyllum. 

Giu, GiMMT, a. neat, spruce^ fine^ gay; Scot, gtm, 
gtnupi supposed to be W. cwymri ; but probably cor- 
rupted from gemmjfy as resembUng a jewel, in the 
same way that F. htjau is applied 

Gimlet, a. a borer for nails ; F. gimblet. See Wimble. 

GiMMAL, GiMBAL, Gemmow^ Gimmeb, s, a marriage- 
riiiff, a circle or link, a device of connexion ; from G. 
nianlen, gemaklen, getnaeUn, to betroth, to join ; Swed. 
gonad; B. gemaiu, a spouse^ from G. mal, a con- 

Gimp, s. a bindings a border ; B, gtmp ; F. guipe. See 
to Whip. 

Gin, ^. 1. a machine; contracted frmn Engine. 

2. A snare, a trap ; corrupted from 8. and Scot. gtm. 
See Grin. 

3. A contraction of Geneva; juniper spirit. 
Ginger, s. a warm spicy root ; P. zingebut ; L. zingi* 

her; ytfyKt^t. 

Gingerly, ad. nicely, cautiouslv, softly ; from Swed. 
gamgare, a smooth pace, an amble. See to Gang. 

GiNOLE, V, to make or cause a sharp reverberating 
sound. See Tinkle. 

GiNNBT, #. a small Spanish horse; in^; L. hinnus, 

GiPSET, s.l.SL vagabond, a fortune-teller ; meaning an 
Bgyptian, and applied to a race of wanderers, who 
first appeared in Europe, by Hungary and Bohemia, 
about tne beginning of the fourteenth century, under 
the name of Tatars, Tartars, Zy^^uners, Cingare and 
Babylonians. L. B. Zigareus signified both Saracen 
and Gipsey ; P. Zangi were apparently the same peo- 
ple ; and there is said to be a tribe called Zingane 
near the Indus. Their countenance, complexion and 
manners indicate eastern origin, and resemble parti- 
cularly the low castes of the Hindoos, some part of 
whose language they are said to retain. 

2. A loose wench, a saucy girl; G. kieps; S. cyfeiBy a 

Giraffa, s. an African animal ; A, zerafaf the stately. 

OiKAdoLB, #. a^unficrwer ; L* gyro 9oU; F. giraiolfit 


GlBJ», V. 1. to bind rounds to clothe; P. gird^ a circle ; 
girid, what goes round ; G. gyrda ; Swed. giorda ; S. 
gyrdan ; T. gurten ; B. gorden. 

8* To sneer, taunt. See to Jber. 

Gird, s, 1, a, pang, twitch, acute pain ; G. geir, 

2. A sarcasm, a sneer ; G. garrcsd. See to Jeer. 

Girdle, s. a cincture, a belt, what girds ; G. gyrdU; S* 
gyrdle ; T. gurteL 

Girl, s. a female child, a young woman ; G. kiria, dim. 
of karla, a woman, which is fem. oikarl, oiur Carl, a 
man, a boor ; whence Isl. kyrla ; S. cvrU, which cor- 
respond with T. swenth, the fem. of Swain. 

GiRRocK, s, the gar-fish, gave, or gaff-fish. See Gab. 

GiBT, «. a bandage for a saddle. See to ^ird. 

GiSE GROUND, s, land hired out for pasture. See Agist. 

GisL, s, an hostage, a pledge; T. giisd; S. gisl; D. 

GiTH, s, an herb called cockle ; S. gitk ; L. agroHema 

C^IVE, V. to grant, bestow, impart, concede; G. gutfa, 
^va ; Swed. gifwa ; S.gifan ; T. geben ; B. geeven ; 
from G. gia; S. ge; T. gche; yi, our yea, assent, 
prefixed to; Swed.Ji; S.Jim, to possess. 

Gizzard, s. the mnsculous stomach of a fowl ; F. geiter, 
from L. gigeria for digeria. 

Glacis, s, a sloping smooth bank in fortification ; 6. 
lid, hlid; S. hlithe ; Swed. gldtt ; T. gldiU; B. 
gladtje; F. glacis. See Glade. 

Glad, a. joyftil, gay; G. and Swed. glad; S. ghed; 
T. ^latie, from to/, hlat, part of the verb to Laugh ; 
L. uetus. See Glee, Blithe and Laugh. 

Glade, s. a lawn, an opening in a wood ; S. glade ; B. 
glad. See Glacis. 

Glair, s. the white of an egg ; Arm. glaur ; F. glaire, 
from G. gler ; S. glcere, any thing clear or shining 
like glass ; Arm. giaur, spittle. See Glare. 

Glance, s. a sudden shoot of light, a quick short view ; 
G. ^n9, g/jfMf ; Swed. giant ; T. gljanx ; B. glantz, 
from to Glow, corresponding with yA«ni. 

Glance, v. 1. from the noun ; to shoot a sudden ray of 
light, to view abruptly. 

2. To move or view obliquely, to squint, to censure in 
an indirect way ; G. gUnta ; Isl. glena, glea ; whence 
Swed. glint ; Scot gtent, gley ; O. £• gua, oblique. 

Glare, s. 1. fhmi Glow ; an overpowering light, great 
brightness, splendour ; Qt,gloer; S.ghtre; B. gloor. 
See Glory. 

2. A sharp piercing look, a fixed regard. See Gloar. 

Glass, s. vitrified matter, a transparent substance; G. 

gkes, from gloa, to shme; S. glass; Swed, glas; T. 

B. and D. glas. Amber found near the Baltic, was 

named glasum in the time of Tacitus; W. gloyw, 

splendid, bright. 
Glave, Glavie, s. a broadsword; G. glavel; Swed. 

glave ; T. glawe; F. glaive; W. glaif^ gleddif; Arm. 

ckzef; I. claidham, from L. gutdxum: G. lia is a 

Glaver, s, wheedling discourae^jpalaver ; G. glaumur ; 

Scot claver; T. klaeffer : W. llqfer; Arm. lavr, 

Glaze, v. a. to furnish or cover with glass, to overlay 

with something smooth ; Swed. glasera, from Glabs. 
GlxaMi s. a coruscation, light, brightness ; S. ifiam ; 

T. giatm. See Look. 

O L O 


Glban> v. a, to gather what is left of the harvest^ to 
lect; F. gldmer, giasner, fVom G. gaUsan. See to 

Glede, Gledoe, #. a kite or buczard ; Swed. glada : 
S. gUda ; D. glad^ gletUe. 

Glee, #. 1. mirth, joy, gnety ; G. kleija; Swed. lee; 

S. gUe. See Laugh. 
2. A song, a musical air ; S. glig, music, glio nerd, a 

song. See Gjubiek. 
Glebd, t, from Glow ; a hot glowing coal ; Swed. glud; 

S.gM; T.glui. 

Gleek, s, music, a musician, sport, a game; G. leik; 
Swed. kk; D. leeg; S. gUgg. See Play. 

Gleen> «. from Glow; brightness; T. ^ien; Arm. 

Gleet, s, a flux from the urethra ; supposed to be from 
Glide ; but S. geleht, what drips, is nrom gelecan, tp 
leak. See Clap. 

Glen, #. a narrow valley, a depression between hills ; 
G. gU; S. glen ; I. gUann ; W. glyn : G. gi/ is an 
opening, a fissure. 

Glib, o. smooth, slippery, voluble; B, gUpp, from G. 
Meipa, to run. 

Glib^ s. a kind of bushy wig worn by the Irish ; L 
glib, hair. 

Glib, v. a. to cut, to emasculate, to geld ; T. gelmben; 
B. gelubbe. See to Lib. 

Glide, v. n. to slide, to go gently and silently ; Swed. 

fUda; T. gletten; B. glyaen; S. glidan; D. g/icfe/ 
'. gUsser : G. A^, a slope. See Glacis. 

Glike, s. a sneer, a flout See Glbbk. 

Glim, «. a small light, a candle; Swed. glitnma; B. 
glim ; S. geleom. See Gleam and to Loom. 

Glimmeb, s, flrom Glim ; a faint light, a coruscaticm ; 
G. gfytnr ; Isl. glimber. 

Glimpse, t, a faint quick light, a short view; G. glyms; 
B. glimp. See Glance. 

Glisten, Glister, v. n. to shine, sparkle, glitter; G. 
glusa; Swed. glista; B. glisteren, gUusteren; T. 

Glittbr> v. n. to shine bright, to glare ; G. and Swed. 
gUttra ; S. gUtenan ; D. gliitere. 

Gloar, 17. It. to look earnestly, to stare; Swed. glo; T. 
glauren ; B. gluuren ; Scot, glaur. 

Gloat, v. n. to look wistfully, to cast amorous glances; 
G. ^^ galita ; Swed. g2i>, g/o^a ; hmm. 

Gloom, #. cloudiness, heaviness of mind, a frown ; T. 

flum, turbid, not serene ; S. ^omung, twilight ; 
wed. glammig, appearance of ill health ; Isl. gleyma; 
Swed. gUma, uncertain recollection, were all cognate 
with our words horn, gleam, gUmmer, signifying at 
first an unsteady light, and afterwurds obscurity, 

Glory, s. lustre, brightness, fame^ honour, a circle of 
light surrounding tne head; L. gloria ; F. gloirej B. 
gloor. See Glare. 

Gloss, «. 1. a comment, a scholium ; yA«l«^«; F. ghse. 

2. Lustre, brightness; G. glye ; Isl. glass; D. gUse. 
See Glow. 

Glove, *. a cover for the hand ; G. ghvar; Swed. glqf; 

Isl. khfe; from klqf, a finger. See Claw. 
Glow, v. to shine, to bum, to grow hot; G. gloa; S. 

gUwn ; T. gUen ; W. glo; Am. gUnf, corresponding 

with yoim. See Low» 

Olozb, v. «« to explain, wheedle, flatter^ give a bri^tf 

colouring; G.glosa; Si glesan. 
Glue, «. a strong cement used to joiii wood ; y?Jm; L. 
. gluten; F, glue. 
Glum, a. sullen, sour, grave, stubborn; G. gUupr, gissp; 

Swed. glam, troubled in countenance. 
Glut, v. a, to devour, sate; doy, disgust ; from I#. gbt* 

iio; W.glnfth. 
Glutton, #. one who eats to excess; F. f^ouUnu See 

to Glut. 
Gnar, Gnarl> v. fi. to growl, to draw up the nose like 

a dog in anger, to snarl ; S. gnyrran ; Swed. knorwa; 

T. knarren. See Snarl. 

Gnar, Gnarl, s. a knot in wood ; T. knorr; D. ^htorr, 
dim. knorrle, from G. knutr. See Knot. 

Gnash, v. to grind the teeth, to exhibit rage or anguish; 
G. gnata; Swed. gnissa; T. huuchen; & cnysan; 
D. knashen. 

Gnat, s, a small winged biting insect; mmf v«^; 8. 
gnasi, from Gnaw. 

Gnaw, v. a. to bite, grind with the teeth, eat by de- 
grees, corrode ; G. gnata ; Isl. naga ; Swed. gnaga ; 
D. gnawe ; B. knaogen ; T. gnagen ; S. gnagan ; W. 
cnoi; «M^. 

Go, V. n. to walk, move, proceed; Sv. f«, WW; L. eo; 
Hind.ya; G. and Swed. ga; 8.gan; 'B.gaan; T. 
gehen; Arm. jra. It was a regular verb with the 
Goths ; the Danes and Scots still use Oaed for Went 
Grg, gait, jack, are some of its derivatives. 

Goad, s, a stick with a sharp point ; G. gadd; S. gad: 
W. got, a spur. See Gad. 

Goal, s, a barrier, a limit, a starting post, a final object 
or purpose; G. tiule; Swed. ijdT, thiol; S. thU; T. 
theil, ztel; B. doel; I. diol; Scot dule, our Dole and 
Toll, are all co^ate with our words deal and taUle, 
meaning division, separation. Hence also S. thyk, 
the ultima Thule, which is now called Fula fhxn the 
usual mutation a£Q, tk into^ like I into p. 

GoAR, s, a triangular piece of cloth inserted in a robe or 
sail, a stripe or piece of patch- work; IsLgetV/ T. 
gdre, geren; B. f^eer; Scot gair; L. K gero; It 
gherone de la camua, the goar of a shifl. 

Goat, s, an animal of a middle species between a deer 
and a sheep ; G. gdt ; Swed. fe< ; B. geit ; T. geist; 
A. gadoo ; Heb. ghede, gez ; W. gitt. See Qazel. 

Gob, s. a heap, a quantity. See Govb. 

Gk>BBET, s, a mouthful ; F. gob^. See Gab. 

Gobble, «. a hasty swallow, a gulp ; L. B. guvela, git» 
bela. See Gobbet and Gulp. 

Goblet, «. a kind of large cup; F. gobeletf said to be 
from It coppeUa, and first known as a juggler's cup. 

Goblin, #. an elf or fairy, an apparition; F. gobelin; 
T. gobold, kobolt ; B. kabouter ; L. B. cooaUi, a^ali^ 
nus, gobalinus, were used nearly in the same sense, 
although perhaps of different origin. G. gmmme; 
Swed. gubbe was an old man or elf, and Tmwtpte 
Gubbe, our Hob or Hope Goblin ; for with us kope 
and tump ragnify a fiela. Cov, cob, signifies meta), 
with the miners of Bohemia, and Cobal is an elf fire- 
quenting mines. 

God, s, the supreme being, an idol; G. god; Isl. gaud; 
Swed. gud; a god; T. got; B. god; P. khoda. See 

GoDHBAD, GoDHOOD, s. the diviuc nature. See Hood. 
God tbld, «. protection of God; G. god hylldi Aytfj 
gudanna, favour of the gods. 



OoEL, a. orange-coloured; S. goekfv* See Ybllow, 
sun-coloured. • > 

GoFF> t, a play with a stick and ball ; Scot, goff, gouf». 
from G. kil/ii ; Swed. and B. hclfay a club. . . ' > 

Gog, «. joy, delight ; Romaunce gaug; F. go^o, g9gw i 

T. gau ; L. gaudiunu 
Google, v. n. to look asquint; from G. auga^ geauga, 

to eye, and gUa, to squint See Ejbsk and Glancb. 
Gold, s, the most perfect of metals ; G. guU, guld y Swed. 

guld; T. and S. gold; B. guide. It seems to be 

named from its colour. See &>el. 

Gold haumer, «. a small bird ; T. gold hammer. Yel- 
low HAMMSB. 

GoLDY locks, s. butter cups; from gold, yellow, and G. 
lyk, a cup, a concavity. 

GoLL, s. a hand; used in contempt; G. kougl, contracted 
firom knuckle. See Hot Cockles. 

GoHB, s. black grease of cart wheels ; M. G. gawamm. 
See CooM. 

Gondola, #. a long flat Venetian boat ; It. gondola ; F. 

Gonfalon, Gonfanon, #. a royal standard, a military 

ensim; G. gunfana, gunfalla ; It. gonfalone; F. 

fonfanon; T. gunfannen: ^' j^^g: Hind, ghung; 
V. gun, an army, battle. See King, Fane and 

Good, a. having desireable qualities ; G. Swed. S. B. 
god ; T. got ; A. qudr. It is the adjective of God, the 
Dei^ ; fromG.ttud; P. ud; W. od ; S.ead; T. od, 
ot, signifying riches, wealth, power, happiness. Odin, 
Woden, €k>den, was also the powerful, the mighty ; 
and the Gauts or Goths called themselves Sants. 
From this root, G. Audward: S. Eadfvard is our Ed- 
ward; Aud'hialp, powerful help, Adolphus. See 

Goodman, s. neighbour, master, gaffer ; from Good in 
the sense of substantial, or a free man; but sometimes 
like Scot, gudman, from S. cetvd, gectwdj B. gehuuwd, 
plighted, betrothed, it signified the head of a family, 
a feudal tenant, and a married man. See Yeoman. 

Goods, s. furniture, effects, merchandise, wares ; corre- 
sponding with L. bona J It. heni; F. biens. 

GoQDT, s. a term of dvilitv used towards an elderly 
woman, corresponding with Ganmier. See Goodman. 

GooL, «. apig, a hog; G. goU; D. gyH ; S.gilt; T. 
galz, apparently from G. gall, sterile, gelt 

GooLE, s. a gutter, a gulley, a puddle; Inhgaul; Swed. 

g'^; B.gulU. 
GoosB, #. 1. a large water fowl ; P. and Turk, kazz ; O. 

goes>- 'B.goes; &.gos; T.gaas,kue; A. 

ooz; W.guyz; Arm.goasf l.gek. See Gandbb. ,, 

2. A taylor's pressing iron ; B. yzer, geizer, from G.- 
isar; S. eisag, ge eisag, iron. . i 

3. A simpleton, a gawky. F. otion signified a gosling, 
and also a young bird or simpleton. T. gauche was 
a fool. See Pigeon and Gawkt. %, 

Goobbbbbbt, 8. a bush and its fruit; aBparently from 
T. and S. hoe, gehoe, rough, hairy, ana berry : Swed. 
kruebcsr, gmsbasr ; B. kruisber ; T. krone, friaaled, 
was apparently the origin of L. groseula; F.f groe^ 
seille. . ' 

GoosB CAP, 8. a silly person, a goose. See Coxcomb. , 

GrORE, 8. 1. filth, excrement; G. gar; Swed. gorr; S. 
gor. . See OA|iBA«B. . ..; . . 

2. Clotled blood; S. gore; Swed. gory W.gor; Arm. 
gore; Ixfi^. 

3.' A slanting piece of cloth. See Goab. 

4. A point, a prickle, a pike; the top of a horn ; G. geir ; 
S. gaire ; I. geur. 

Gorge, e. the swallow, the throat; L. gurguUo; F. 
gorge; It. gorga. 

€k>BGE0Us, a. splendid, showy, glittering ; F.gorgiae; 
Arm. giorgua, from O. F. gorier ; lu gioire; L. gau^ 
dere. See Gaudbt. 

Gorget, 8. throat armour ; It. gorgidta, gorgiera. See 


Gormand, 8. a great eater ; F. gourmands perhaps from 
L. voro and mando, the fcmner being pronounoHl goro 
by the Gauls. 

GoRSE, 8. a prickly shrub ; S. mr8,jtor8i denoted also 
the juniper and restharrow. See Gorb. 

Gk>8HAWK, 8. a large falcon, a goose hawk; S. goe hqfoc. 

Gk)8PEL, 8. the word or record of God ; G. godepial, gud^ 
epial; S. godepd, from epiala, which, uke Tell, sig- 
nifies originally to detail. See to Spell. 

Gk)88AMEB, 8. s fine spider's web, the light down of 
plants ; properly cob'e hammer, a spider's veil. See 
Cob and Heam. 

Gossip, e, a sponsor in baptism, a tatler ; G. gudeip, 
guseiv, from ^focf, gud, religious, and eib ; S. eyp ; A. 
- eihab, a relation. 

GosTiNG, GoELSTAiN, 8. an herb for staining yellow, ga« 
ranee. See Gk>BL. 

Gotham, s. the town of fools ; L. B. gotiicue, with the 
Romans, was a Goth and a simpleton. 

GouD, 8, a plant for dyeing blue ; F. guede ; It gaude ; 
L. glaetum, from glaucue ; W. glae ; Arm. glaz, blue. 
See WoAD. 

GoYE, 8. a mow, a mass ; T. gehauf; B. gehoop; S. ge- 
heape. See Heap. 

GoYEBN, t;. a. to steer, direct, rule, manage ; ttiAt^fdtf ; 
L. gubemo ; Sp. gobemar ; F. gouvemer. 

Gouge, e. a kind of chisel for grooving ; F. gouge ; Sp. 
guvia, from L. cavo. 

Gour, 8. a growler, a badger ; G. goor, from gey a, to 
bark or yell. See Gray. 

Gourd, e. a plant resembling a melon ; L. cucurbita ; 
F. courge, gourde. 

GouRDT, a. swelled and stiff in the legs ; F. gourd, en^ 

gourdi ; Arm. gourd, from L. corigtdue. 
GouRNBT, 8. a fish. See Gurnard. 

Gout, 8. 1. the arthritis, a periodical disease attended 
with flpreat pain; F.goute; It and Sp. gotla, gota, 
from L. gtiMa, on the supposition that it was occa- 
sioned by the distillation of catarrhal humours in the 

> joints ; Swed. gtckt ; T. gicht ; S. gectha, are also 
names for the gout ; but, like B. Jeukt ; Scot youk, 
signify itching. 

2. A drop ; L. gutia ; F. gputie. 

3. Taste, liking ; F. goii^, from L. guetue. 

Gown, #. an upper garment, loose habit ; It gonna; F. 
gonnelle; T.gowne; W.gwn; L. B. gunna, gaunan 
cum, supposed to be from ywtf, reaching to the knee, 
as talans to the heel. 

Grab, v. a. to seize, snatch ; Swed. grabba ; T. grapp, a 
claw, the hand. See Gbipb. 

Gbaff, «. a ditch. See Gbayb and Grip. 

Graff, Gbaft, e. a small branch inserted into the stock 


G B A 

6 B I 

of another tree ; F. greffe ; B. grejg^ ; S. gn^» ftom 

G.graqf; S.grqfan; y^Jt^m. 
Grail, *. hail; L. B. groHula ; P. grtk, fromL-groikto. 
Grain, #. !• a single seed o^ corn, a small wieight, a 

particle; It^granum; lUgrano; F. grain; T, gran; 

W. grown ; seemingly allied to cam. See Gry. 

2. A substance for dying stuffs ; F. grmne ; It grana, 
signified kermet, wnich was supposed formerly to be 
the grain of a plant; and what we call dying in 
grain, is called by others dying in kermes. 

•3. The fibres of wood or cloth ; F. grain; L. B.greno; 
Q. graun, green; T. eran; B. gretn, hair, fibres; sig- 
nifying also the beardl 

Grains, #. fL 1. from Grain ; the particles of malt ex- 
hausted m brewing. 

3. Prongs, points, forks; D. greens; G, grinds, from 
G. greina, to divide. 

Grampus, «. a kind of whale ; S. kranfisc, frnsn 6. 
hrina, to gnmt 

Grand, a. 1. great, illustrious; L^gramdis; F. grand; 
It grande. 

3. Very ancient ; L. grandanms, 

Granor, #. a farm-house, a bam, a grainage ; It. gran* 
gia ; F. grange, from Grain. 

Grant, v. o. to admit kindly, to bestow, allow ; L. B. 
gratianare, from L. groHa. 

Grape, j. 1. the fruit of the vine ; but originally signi- 
fying what grew in clusters ; P. grappe; It grappo, 
graspo, grappolo ; T. iraube. See Rape. 

2. A fork with several daws or prongs; G. gftf; 
Swed. grepe; T. grappen, rappen; It grappa. See 

Grapnrl, s. a grappling iron, a small anchor ; F. gra- 

pin. See Grapnel. 
Grapple, t;. to lay fast hold of, to fight dose ; T. grap^ 

pen, from G. graff, kraff, the hand. See Gripe. 
Grasp, v. a. to hold in the hand, seize ; T. graptem. 

See Grab, Grips. 
Grass, s. herbage of the field ; G. gras ; Swed..grds ; S. 

gross ; T. grass ; B. gras ; y{«^r<j. Our word is from 

the verb to Grow : T. wase has the same meaning, 

from wasen ; G. waxa, to grow. 
Grate, v. a. to rub small, to offend by any thing harsh; 

P. gratter ; It. grattare, from L. rado^ corrada. 
Grate, s. a range of bars, a fire-place ; It grata ; h. 

Grater, s. an instrument to grate with ; F. gratoir. 

6ravs, s. a place for the dead ; G. grauf, grav ; Swed. 

and B. graf; S. grcef. 
Grave, v. to dig, carve, engrave ; G. grqfa; Swed. gra- 

va ; S. graf an ; B. graaven ; y^tt^m. 
Gravel, s. hard coarse sand ; G. grio ; W. gro ; B. gra^ 

veel ; F. gravier ; It. gravdla. 
Oravt, s. drippings from flesh in coction; G. gruajml, 

pan fat, from S. greofa ; T. grape, a pan. 
Gray, s. a brock, a gour ; D. grevUng ; Swed. gr^efi^ 

swine, from grave to burrow ; but It graio seems to 

denote its gray colour. See Badger. 
Gray, a. hoary, white mixed with black ; 'Q*frif; Swed. 

gra ; T. grau ; S. grceg ; F. gris ; It grigto, graio. 
Gratseard, s. a stone jar, an earthen jug; from It 

fkiara brocca, from L. glis and hrocca; F. hroc, a 
umt jug. See Jar and Brick. 
Gratseard, s. one whose beard is white widi age, an 
old man* 

OmAVLXNO, «. a gny«coloured fish ; JLombra. 

Graze, v. ». 1. to touch slightly ; P. rastr. Seft Rasb. 

3. To eat grass, to pasture cstUe. 

Grease, #. I. die soft -part of fat, smear; x^W ; It 
grassa ; F. graisse. 

2. A disease in horses ; L. crassus ; It grosso ; F. gros. 

See Gross and Gourdy. 
Grbat, a. large, thick, grand, noble, intimate ; S. great; 

B. groot ; Swed. groti. See Orobs. 

Greaves, s. pL ancient armour for die legs ; frtmiL. crms; 
L. B. crea; W. gar; F. greve. 

Orbs, s. grace, frivour ; L. gratia ; F. gr^. 

Greece, Grebzb, s. a flight of steps ; F. gres, from L. 

Greedy, a. voracious, avaricious; G. gradag; S. gra^ 
dig ; B. gretig. 

Green, a. verdant, new, fresh, unripe ;'G. and Swed. 
grasn ; S. grene ; T. grun. 

Greet, v. a. 1. to congratulate, salute; B. greetan; T. 
grussen ; S. grithan, from G. and Swed. grid, gntd ; 
Scot gryth, peace, tranquillity. See Fred. 

2. To accost, to address, consult ; O. rada ; S. gerasdan ; 
T. gereden. 

3. To cry, to weeo; O.jgreitu; Swed. grasta ; M. 6. 
greitan ; S. graaan ; O. B. grede; B. kriien ; Tartar 
criden; It gridare; Sp. grtdar, critar; Scot greet; 
F. crier; P. giryah. See Cry« 

Grenade, «. a small bomb, a fire ball; F. grenade; L. 
granaium, resembling a pomegranate. 

Grbve, s. I. the register or reccurder of a court; L. B. 
gravior ; P. gr^ffier, from y gi^ 

2. A steward, a saperintendent ; S. gerefa ; Swed. gref- 
we ; T. grafioe. See Rbbvb. 

Greyhound, s. a fleet kind of hound ; S. grigkmtd ; 
Soot gnew ; G. grey, a dog. 

Oricb, s. 1. a pig ; O. grijs ; D. and tSwed. gris, a pig ; 
Xfi^ ; P. gore, a sow. 

2. A flight of steps. See G^rebce. 

Gride, v. ». to creak, to make a sharp noi^e ; It gridare. 

See Grbbt. 
Gridelin, a. flaxen gray ; F. gris de Un. 
Gridiron, «. a grate to broil meat npon; it gradeila; 

F. gr^; W. gradelt ; Scot, gridae, fttim L. crates, 

craticula. See Gratb. 
Grief, s. sorrow, pain, trouble, harm; V. grief / It. 

grave, from L. gravis. 
Grievb, v. to afflict, hurt, mourn ; P. greoer^ 

Grio, s. a sand eel remarkable for its vivad^, a-ntenry 
creature ; B. kriekie, which signifies also a ericket 

Grill, s. I. a gridiron ; P. grille; L. cratictUa. 
2. An iron cage with bars like a grate ; P. grille. 
Grilly, v. a. from Grill ; to broil, to roast 

Grim, a. horrible, ill-looking, fierce; G. grtm; 'Swed. 

grym ; S. grim. 

Grimace, s. a distortion of the countenance, an air of 
affectation ; It gimmaeia ; P. grimace, fr^omG. grima, 
a mask ; S. egU grhna, grima egis, a frightflil mask. 
See AoASs. 

Grihalkin, *. a tabby cat; from gray and T. mal; L. 

macula, a spot 

Grivb, *. dirt, soot; G. grim; B. griem; "9. hryme, 

Grin» «. h. to set the teeth together; 4o%niik'affectedly 

6 R O 

G U A 

and with displeasure; 6. grima ; 6. grmnan; B. gru» 
nm ; T. greinen,to^ow tne teethj to laugh. 

Gbin^mT. 1. from Uie verb ; Br sneer, «n affected smile. 

2. A snare^ a net ; S. grin, girm ; B. garen ; Scot gitn, 

signifying originally yam ; like F.Jiktf from h.^lufn. 

See 6nabe. 
6rind» v. a. to reduce to powder, to mb, to sharpen 

by friction ; 6. grindja ; S. grindan, from G. grunn, 

a stone. See Obit. 
Grip, 9. a small ditch; Q,grep; & grap j T , grube, 

from Gbayb, to dig. See Gbaff. 

Gripb^ s, a grasps a aquecEe, a pinch ; S, gripe ; Swed. 

frif}; B.grijp; T. greiff; F. gripe, from Q. ^reip, 
rdf; T. kraff; Swed. grip/ Heb. gampAy P. gvrifi; 
F. griffe, a mager, a daw, the hancL 

Gbiskin, t. a pork chop^ the bade bones of a hog broil- 
ed. See Gbiob. 

Grisly, a. horrible/ frightful, grim; G. griselig; Swed. 
grdselig; S. grisUg ; D. greessdig: S. grctsan, agry* 
saUf to have dread ; T. graut, horror. 

Grist, s. com to-be ground, profit to the miller for 
griiuKng; S. grist for grindsi. 

GribtItV, s. a-cartih^; T. croeitel; -^gristle; L.-^mt- 

Grit, s, 1. the coarse part of meal; Q.grii, frtnn grind; 

S. grkta ; SwmL grM ; fi. grut : T. grtitee; Bidet. 

gnmU; f. gmau, mmtgrugger to grind. 

2. Sand, a small stone, a Itmd of fossil; O.'griot; B. 

gruiz ; Swed. giyf, grus; S. gf"^'* T. jfric*/ W. 

^<,' Scot grrfe/ It. grrto; F. grw/ Soot gfeeky 

Grizblin, Grixzlb, a. gray, roan, flaxen-gray. See 

Groan, #. a hoarse, dead, mournful smxnd ;-G. hryn; %, 

grane; B. krtun. 
Groat, #. 1. hulled oaten grain ; G. graul ; Swed. g;M; 

B. grutte. Bee Grit and Groitt. 

2. A fourpenny piece ; B. groo^, great 

Grocbr, « . one who deals in spices, tea and atwu*. G. 
and Swed. gras, signified aromatics ; and, Sam. the 
same root, G. griid,knU; T. kraut; Swed. krtfdd; D. 
kryda, were vegetables, aromatics, spicery ; alao G. 
aur^; D. urt ; 8wed,M; B. wort; S. vyr/ ,«- T. wurtz, 
were used in'the same sense; ao'^tut groner, grodter, 
krantzer, "were cognate with T. gemMzer, a cteal^ in 
spicery or dry herbs, in contraidistinction to a^jrreen 
grocer, ^e Devo and DBTaALXBR. 

Grog, «. spirits and water ; from A. uruk, which signi- 
fies ardent spirit 

Grooram, s. a kind of stuff; T. grot grain, from grosM 
and gratn. 'See Lockram. 

Groin, s. the part next above the thigh; F. giron; Jj. 

Groom, «. 1. a man, a master, a chief; G. gum; Swed. 

gumme ; S. guma ; T. gaum ; B. gom, 
2. An attendant, an overseer, one who tends and deans 

horses ; Swed. g^ ; S. gjnne, from G. gaum, care, at^ 

tention ; ga huga, to mind. 
Groovb, 9. a hollow cut with a tool ; G. grauf. See 

Gbaff and Gravb. 

Gropb, «. to feel for in the dark; S. gropian. See 

Gross, a. coarse^ thick, bulky, unrefined; G. grit; 
, Swed. griMj T»groax, gross; V.gros; It, grasso; 

L. B. grossus, from L. crassus^ signifying also in G« 

generally great. 

Grot, Gbotto, s. a cavern, a cave of pleasure; M^vwlit; 
C^. graft; Swed. grvft; D. groUe; It grotta; F. 
gro^e ; Sp. grti/a. See Gravb and Groovb. 

GrotbaqUb, a* distorted, caricatured, ridiculous; Sp. 
grutesque; It grotesco, from Grotto. The lower 
story of a Roman house contained the hall, baths 
and studies, decorated with mythological representa- 
tions; and apartments of this kind being called 
grottos, the figures obtained the name of Grotesque. 
See Antiqub. 

Grovb, s. a walk shaded by trees, a small wood ; G. 
grqf; S. grove, apparently from gro hof, a growing 
cover, as G. and S. ht^, signified a cover and a court. 

Grovbl, v. It. to lie prone, to orawl, to be mean ; G. 
g;rufia ; F. grouiUer. See Cbawx«. 

Ground, s. the «arth, soil, floor, foundation ; G. Swed. 
T. D. S. grund; B. grand. 

GnouNoiiiNO, s. a loaeh, a small fish that keeps near the 
^ound; D.grundUngj but Swed. grda^'fig denotes 
Its green colour. 

Groitmdsbl, s .a plant called lumson ; F. senefon ; S. 
grunde sweige; Swed. slemvort : G. grunn, grunt ; T. 
grien, stone, sand, corresponds with the Swed. name ; 
and S. swelge is a potion, apparently used fcnr the gra- 

Gbounosil, s. the beam that is next the» ground. See 

Gboup, s, a cluster, a crowd; It gruppo, groppo; F. 
froupe, a bunch, a knot, a dump of ^g^tires in paant« 
ing. See Grapb. 

GhaouaB, s. a heath cock ; W. grugjar, frtmi grug; L. 

Grout, «. coarse meal, pollard ; 8. grut. See (huMT. 
and Grit. 

Qaow, V. to vegetate, increase ; G. groa ; Swed. gro ; 
B. grayen ; S. grawan. 

GttowL, e. n. to-anarl, to mutter. See Gbumblb. 

Grub, v. a, to dig up, to root out, to -destroy; G. grau^ 
pa; &*groban. See Gravb. 

Gbubblb, v. a. tO'feel about in the dark ; frequentative 


Grub strbbt, o. meany ]tiw, drudging in literature ; from 
F. greft, gr^ffScTj a registry, which was held there. 
See GFbbvb. 

GavDGB, s, ill will, animosity, a quarrel ; S. gemrmc ; 
B. gewrak; F. gmge, grouche; Scot, gruieh. See 

Gbubl, #. oatmiBBl boiled in water.; F. gruelle, grnau, 

Gruff, Grough, Gbum , a. eoaree, rude, rough, surly, 
■sour ; Swed. grqf; T.grobe ; B. grojff^. See Rough. 

Gbumblb, v. n. to mutter, snarl, growl ; B: grommelan, 
to speak angrily, appears to be G. grum, anger, and 
mela^ to speak ; Swed. grummla, to trouble, to vex ; F. 

Gbunt, s. the common cry of a pig; L. grunitus : G. 
rutUe; Swed. runte, a boar. 

Grutoh, V, to have ill will, to envy. See Grudob. 
Grt^ «. the tenth part of a line, an atom, any thing of 

lit« account ; y^v. See Grain. 
Guana, #. a large lizard ; called iguana in America. 

GuARANTBB, s. a sccurity ; It guarantia ; F, garantie. 
See Warrant. 

G U L 

G Y V 

GuABD, s. a defence^ protection ; It guardia ; F. garde ; 

W. gward. See Wakd. 
GuASCH, s, painting in water colours ; It. guazxa. See 


Gudgeon, #. a small fish with a large head ; F. goujon ; 
It. ghiova, ghiozza ; Sp. gadoze, mm. L. gMus, 

GuBBDON, s. a recompense^ reward ; F. guerdon, fh>m 
G. fverd, value^ worth ; 8. geweorthian, to recompense. 
See AwABD and Rbwabd. 

Guess, v. a. to conjecture ; G. gieta, giesa ; Isl. gxsha ; 
Swed. gu^a. See Get. 

Guest, s, a visitor, a person receiving hospitality ; G. 
gte«/, gaft ; Swed. gM : T. gaet ; 3. gtef ^ ; S. gesi ; 
W. gwesi : Isl. gw^tf, to eat 

GuGOLE, v. n. to sound as water running from a narrow- 
mouthed vessel. See Gubglb. 

Guide, v. a. to direct, rule, instruct ; F. guider, from G. 
wiia; Swed. weta; D. wide; S. witan, to know, 
to teach, show, demonstrate. See Wis. 

Guide, s. a director, a conductor ; fhmi the verb ; S. 
tvastka, wisa ; F. guide ; It. guida ; Arm. gkida ; Sp. 
guia, supposed by some to be from L. via. 

Guidon^ #. from Guiob ; a standard bearer ; F. guidon. 

Guild, s, a society, a corporation ; G. gield; Swed. 
giid; S.gHd; T. gilde; B. gild, contribution, tribute, 
signified also a dub, either religious, mercantile or 
social, maintained by individufQ contribution. See 
Yield, and Club. 

Guile, s, artifice, subtlety, cunning ; O. F. guiUe, See 

Guilt, s, oEeiate, crime, wickedness; G. and Swed. 
glide ; S. guUe, signified value, worthy a debt, com- 
.pensation tat a crime; and thence came to denote 


GuiLTT, a, ftom the noun ; criminal, liable to fine or 

Guinea, s, a gold coin worth twenty one shillings; 
first coined from Guifiea gold. 

Guise, s, manner, mien, habit ; G. wifs ; Swed. mj6 ; 
T. wise ; Arm. gJdt ; F. guUe ; It guisa. See WiaB. 

GuiTAB, s. a stringed musical instrument ; P. kekir, per- 
haps chutara, four strings ; It ghitara. . See Cithxbn. 

GuiVRE, a figure in heraldry ; F. guivre ; L. viper. 

GuLGH, «. a swallowing, a glutton ; L. gulo, 

GuLB, s, lammas ; S. gauel; L. B. gulo, a contribution. 

See Gabel. 
Gules, a, red, in heraldry or a coat of arms; T.gueules', 

fVom A. gul ; P. gool, a rose, bri^t red. 
Gulf, *. 1. a whirlpool, an abyss; 0,gialfur; P. golfre^ 

goufre ; Swed. gif. ; Isl. gauL See Goolb. 
2. A deep bay in the sea ; K^A^ra^ ; It. golfo ; F. golfe. 
Gull, s,l. a sea mew; G. kuail; It. guaglio; Arm. 

gall; W. gmylan, the waller. It is fabled to be die 

ghost of some person lost at sea* 

2. From the verb ; a dupe, a silly fellow. 

Gull, v, a. to trick, defhiud, dupe ; G. goela, gamia ; 

Swed. gylla ; T. giUen ; P. go/, fraud. See Cajole. 
GuLLTHOLB, #. the holc where gutters empty themselves 

into the sewer. See Ooolb. . 
Gulp, v. a, to swallow down at once ; G. glaspa : Isl. 

^i^^fpa ; Swed. glupa ; D. g^he ; B. gulpen, to swaW 

low. See Gulch. 
Gum, s, 1. a vegetable adhesive substance ; tUfi^ ; L. 

gumma ; F. gomme, 
2. The fleshy substance that contains the teeth; G. 

Swed. S. goma; B. gomme; T. gaum. 
Gun, *. a cannon, a firdock ; Scot gyn, from gin, eft- 

gtne; andeady crack gytufs. 
Gunnel, Gunwalb, s. a rim of thick plank that rises 

highn* than the deck on a ship ; G. and Swed. mat 

signifies a cylindrical ledge or perch ; but as gtcjt is a 

modem word, perhaps the term was taken from the 

ledge of a cask. See Gawn. 
GuBOLE, V. n, to gush out with noise as water from a 

bottle; It gorgoliare. See Gabolb and Gugglb. 
Gubnabd, 8, a fish ; L. comuia ; F. comard, gomart, 

Gvaa, 8. a sudden emission of liquor; Isl. guta; T. 
gusse; B. gudse; Arm. gwaz; ^m; G. ge^a, to 
pour out See Jbt. 

GuflSBT, a. an angular figure in heraldry, a goar ; F. 
goutset, supposed to be couseei, a sewing togedier, 
from L. coneuo ; but P. mhu is a comer, and gosk aa 
ear. Chiles, Sid>le and Azure^ are eastern words. 

Gust, #. I. a liking, a taste ; L. gustus ; F. goul ; It 
gusio. See Gout. 

2. A sudden blast; G. gu^t; D. guii; S. ifsl; Isl. 

Gut, «. the intestine, gluttony; G. kuid; Swed. quid; 
S. cwyth ; T. kuUeln ; Scot kile, a bowel or 

GuTTBB, s. a channel for water, a sewer ; F, egoutoir, 
from L. gutta, 

GuTTLB, V, to feed luxuriously, to gormandiae; fre- 
quentative of It gkiotto, fhmi L. gluio. See also 

GuTWOBT, i, an herb ; mAvhh ; L. alypum, white tur- 

Guy, s, a ship's rope^ saving to direct the moving 
any heavy we^ht^ and prevent it from swinging 
See Guide. 

Guzzle, v. a, to drink immoderately; It gozzovigUar 
from F. gozt^r ; W. gotle ; L. guttur, the throat 

Gtpb, #. a species of limestone, plaster of Paris; I«-^/>- 
tum; A.guipe; F.gypse. 

Gyves, #. jd, fetters, shackles for the 1^^ ; T. gefesser, 
{rom Jesser, a fetter. 

Gyve, v. a, from the noun ; to fitter, to shackle, hold 


^' ■ rt. . •: . I , 

r . I 

i *:•■■ ,j .-^.J^;!. I V^tOr.' '•j"'.' 


H A A 

HiN all languages^ is a note of respiration, sounded 
9 only by a strong emission of the breath, without 
any conformation of the organs of speech, and there- 
fore by many grammarians accounted no letter. The 
desire of producing energy, apparently, occasioned the 
use of some guttural sound before vowels at the be- 
ginning of words ; and this uncertain expression was 
varied occasionally into others more distinct, or en- 
tirely omitted. 'Enrm, Venetia, "B^a, Terra, 'E^i^ 
Vespera, *%wltk, Septa, are instances of this in the an- 
cient classics. H was also substituted for F both in 
the Latin and French ; as Horda for Forda ; Foras is 
the French Hors; and Forest is Hurst, in Teutonic 
as well as in English. The Gbthic and our own pro- 
nunciation of H appears to have been unknown to 
the Celts <^ l^tain and Ireland, who had abundance 
of other gutturals. The Welsh say Onest or Oonest 
for Honest ; and the Irish Talla, Tain, Toll, Tocsaid, 
for Hall, Heap, Hole, Hogshead, aj the French it 
is seldom pronounced, although retained in their or- 
thography ; and theref<nre when initial to any of our 
words, derived from the Latin through the nendi, it 
has no power: otherwise it is never mute, except 
when following a consonant in the middle of a word, 
as in Bought, Right, which anciently had a guttural 
sound. Nothing can be more absurci, than Uie pro- 
nunciation of Wo, Wich, Wat, Wen, for Who, Which, 
What, When, except die bc^barous practice of the 
Dalecarlians, who omit this sound in words where it 
ought to be retained, and prefix it to others contrary 
to general custom. From them, perhaps, the illite^ 
rate people in and near London have learnt to speak 
of the hair, instead of the air they breathe ; ana say 
Air of the Ed, for Hair of the Head. 

Ha, intetj. of surprise and sorrow ; A. and Sans, ha ; L. 
and F. ha. See Ar. 

Ha ha, an expression of laughter; A. and Heb. ha ha, 
common to all languages. 

Haak, 1. theaea pike ; 6. hackel; S. haccod ; T. hechte; 
L. B. hakMt; W. haig, marhaig/ L. ludus msrinua. 
See Hakb and Jack. 

fe[ A C 

Habbbdashbb, «. a retailer of ffoods, a dealer in small 
wares ; T. haabvertauscher, from haab ; B. have ; It. 
haveri, haberi, goods, wares, and tauscher, vertauscher, 
a dealer, an exchanger; G. tuUkar; D. tusker; B. 

Habbbdine, s. dried cod or stock fish ; F. habordine ; 
B. aberdaan, done or cured on board. 

Habebgion, s. a ^own of mail descending from a gor- 
get, or breast plate ; O. halsberge; S.halsbeorg; T. 
nalsberg ; F. nauberg, from G. hals, the neck, and 
berga, to cover, to d^bnd. See Haubbrk. 

Habilmbnt, s. attire, clothes, apparel, dress ; F. habiU" 

ment, from L. habiUa. 
Hability, s, faculty, power. See Able. 
Habit, s, usa^, dress, custom, condition, state ; F. ^a- 

bii; It. habUo, from L. habitus. 

Habnab, a. at random, come what may, happen or not. 
Hap ne hap, from Hap, chance ; but as applied to the 
practice of touching glasses in drinking, it may be 
connected with G. £ and S. Nap; It nappo, a cup. 

Hack, v. a. I. to chop, to mince, to cut irregularlv ; G. 

hauga ; Swed. hadui; D. hakke; T. hacken ; S. Anc- 

can ; B. hakken ; F. hacher ; Scot hag. See to Hew. 
2. To speak with hesitation, to stammer; Swed. hacka- 

See to Haw. 
Si To vend small wares in the streets. See to Hawk. 
Hack, s. I. a horse let out for hire, anv thing commonly 

used, a prostitute ; Sp. haca, a small pad norse. See 


2. A rack, a crib, a railed inclosure : G. haeker ; D. 
hwkU ; Swed. hdk, hack ; B. hek. 

3. From the verb ; a cut, a gash. 

4. A hook or claw, a sharp point ; G. and Swed. hake ; 
B. haak ; T. haeck. 

Hackle, s. 1, from Hack; an instrument with iron points 
to dress flax; G.hakd; J>.hetde; Swed. halda; T. 

3. Flimsy dressings of flax that come from the hackle,, 
raw suk. 



Hackney^ s. a pacing horse let out for hire^ a hireling 
of any kind, a prostitute; It. chinea, achinea; Sp. 
hacanea ; F. haquenie; W. kacknai, supbosed to be 
from L. hinniis; out apparently from L. clino, aclino; 
It. chino, to kneel, to bend, to be submissive. The 
palfrey, heretofore sent annually by the king of 
Naples in homage to the Pope, was of this descrip- 
tion. He was taught to kneel to his Holiness. 

Had, pret. and part, of the verb to Have ; contracted 
from haved. 

Haddock, «. a sea fish ; F. hadot, named like the cod- 
fish from its head. 

Haft, s. the handle of an instrument ; G. heft ; Swed. 
hdjte; D. h^e; 8. heft. See Have, to hold. 

Hao, s. 1. a witch, an enchantress, a fury; Swed. hexa; 
T. hex, hecse; B. hecks; 8. hcegis, haegsclie ; Sp. he- 
chissera. See Hickholt. 

2. Withered, shriveled, dried, meagre ; T. haeg, hager ; 
W. hagr. 

Haggard, a. 1. from Hag ; lean, meagre^ shriveled. 

2. Wild, savage ; F. hagard, a term in heraldry, from L- 

Haggess, s. a sheep's head and pluck minced. See to 

Haggle, v. 1. to mangle, to mince. See to Hack. 

2. To bargain tediously, to deal in small matters ; T. 
haecklen, haeglen. See to Hack. 

Haha, s. a sunk fence ; 6. haija, an inclosure ; S, hceh, 
a ditch. See Haw. 

Hail, s. drops of rain frozen in falling; G. hragel; Swed. 
hagl; T. hagel; 8. hagal. 

Hail, interj, all health, prosperity ; G. hail, heU; S. hwl; 

Swed. hel; T. hail See Hale. 
Hail, v. 1. to pour down hail. 

2. To wish health, to salute. 

3. To speak, to inquire ; a sea term, from G. hiala ; 
Swed. hialla; B. heelen'; W, harvli, holi. See to 

Hair, s. one of the coverings of ^e body, the coarse or 

grain of any thing ; G. heer, hoar ; T. hat ; D. haat ; 

8. Aorr; Swed. har; B. haair; F. haire* 
Hake, s. a fish called poor Jack, when fresh; but «tock- 

fish when salted. See Haak. 
Hal^ when form ng part of local names, signifies a hall. 
Halberd, s. a battle ax; G. hUdhard; S. heUebard; D. 

heU^ard ; F. hal^harde ; It. aktbarda, from G. hild, 

battle, and bard, an ax. 

Hale, a. healthy, robust^ sound ; G« and T. heil ; S. ka^l; 
Swed. heL See Whole. 

Halb, r. a. 1. to drag by force; F. haler. See Haul. 

2. To call to. See to Hail. 

Half, «. a moiety, one part of two ; G. Swed. and S^ 
ha^j D. halv ; T. halb. G. alf, half, signified genea* 
logical line or descent ; and when a woman was su- 
perior in birth to her husband, she was called bitter 
alf, and her children partook of her rank. 

Half-seas-over, in liquor, half falling fr^m the seat ; 
G. sess ; T. sez ; F. cnaise ; L. sedes, a seat, a chair. 

Halibut, f. a fish called St. Peter's ; P. heiUtot; D. heU 
lebt/l. See Holy and But. 

Hall, s. a court, a public room^ the first large room of 
a house ; G. halh Isl. hauU ; S. heall; T.hall; mM; 
L. aula : G. and Swed. sal; F. salle, appear to be 
the sam^ word,, from G« hiigla, to cover ; whence G« 
Upsal, the upper or high court. 

Halloo, t;. 1. to call after dogs, to excite them to the 
chase, from ha or ho, and loo ; F. Ao^used in nearly 
the same sense, is our Hail or Hale, to call. 

2. To shout or call to. See Holla. 

Hallow, t;. a. to consecrate, make holy. See Holy. 

Halm, s, stubble, straw; G. Swed. D. T. hahn ; S. 

Halo, s. a reddish circle round the sun or moon ; L. 
hah ; P. holu. 

Halber, s. a small cable, a hawser ; B. hals, a towing 
rope. See to Haul. 

Halt, t;. it. to stop, to limp, to hesitate ; G. and Swed. 
halta ; T. hallen ; S. healtian. 

Halt, s. a temporary stop, a sta^e on a march; F. 
alte; It alto; T. AoA /properly Uie imperative of the 
verb to Halt See to Hold. 

Halter, j. a rope, a headstall ;^Blif)lifti/<er,fAa2/^; T. 
halfter, fr^m G. haida, to hold, to which hqfud, the 
head, seems to be added. 

Ham, whether initial or terminating, in the name of a 
place, is G. haim ; Swed. hem ; T. heim ; S. ham, a 
nome, a house, a village ; from hema, to cover. 

Ham, s. the hind leg of a hog cured ; Swed. S. T. and 
B. ham. See Jamb. 

Hames, s. pi. a pair of wooden bows or jambs placed over 
the collar, to which the hooks of the traces are fixedt ; 
B. haam; G. thamb ; T. hamm, a bow, an arch. 

Hamlet, s. a small village ; from ham, and G. lit, small, 

Hammer> s. an instrument to drive nails or forge me- 
tal ; G. and D. hammar; Swed. hammar; T. and B. 
hammer ; S. hamer. 

Haicmerwobt, s. house^leek ; Si. ham teyrt. See Ham 
and Wort. 

Hammock, #. a swinging bed in a skip ; Swed. hdwge- 
matta; D. hanganaU; B. hangmaU; but Sp. hamaca; 
Port amaca ; 1?. Juunac is said to have been an Ame- 
rican bed slung between two trees. 

Hamper, «. a basket used for carriage ; supposed to be 
hand pannier. See Ha^apbb. 

Hampbb» v. a« to shackle, to perplex ; G. hamla, frvm 
hamna ; Swed. hamma, hismma, a modifieatiOQ of the 
verb to Hiva. See Hobbi«b« 

Hamapbr, s. a receptacle for tribute, a treasury, an ex- 
chequer ; tmmf, hanap, was a measure used for seigno- 
rial revenue in Britannv, whether in grain or other 
produce, supposed to be from L. annona, to which 
jpoer, pamer, was added in forming L. B. anaperium, 
hanaperium; in die same way that ^sca/ is derived 
from Jj»Jitaus, a basket See Pamhibr. 

Hakckb, 1. j»l. 1. falls of the. fife rails in a ship, pkced as 
banisters in the poop, and down to the gangway ; 
from L. ansa ; F. ante. 

3. In architecture, are the ends of elliptical arches which 
are arcs of smaller circles than the scheme or middle 
part of the aroh; F. hanche, anche ; It ansa; B. 
Greek urr^u. See Haunch. 

Hand, s. a part of the body, an aot, a peculiar mode of 
writing, cards held at play, an index, a workman, a 
measure, rate or price, superiority, care ; G. Swed. D. 
S. T. B. hand; Sans, hath : G.ha, hitn, had; S. ha, 
a hold, corresponding with xi»*^ from %»>•»»; L. 
hendo, to have, to hold. 

Hanbbiebchiejp, s. a kerchief used occasionally in the 
hand for wipii^; in tl^ same way that F. chapeamde 
bras is a hat for the arm. . t 

H A R 

H A R 

HandlSj v. n. to touch, feel, manage, treat; O. and 

Swed. kandla; D. handle; T. hendeUn; S. handlean: 

signifying also to manage, traffic, deal. 
Handle, s, the part of a thing that is held, a hold, an 

Handsel, s. the first sale, the first use; 6. handsal; 

Swed. handsol; B. hensel, a sale or transfer offhand. 
Handmaid, s. a waiting maid ; from Hand, to serve, 


Handsome, a. 1. handy, dexterous ; 6. handsam ; B. 

2. Beautiful, elegant, liberal; G. lutntsame, hatsame, 
from hasnt, halt ; O. £. heynd, as used by Chaucer ; 
Scot hanty, hende, coiu-teous, graceful. 

Hano, V, to suspend, to suffocate by suspension, depend, 
adhere, linger ; G. hanga ; D. hasnge ; Swed. koenga ; 
S. hangan ; T. and B. nangen. 

Hanger, «. a short broadsword; G. hoegin hior, a cut- 
ting sword ; T. hauenger ; B. hanger, hotver. See to 

Hank, s. a skein^ a twig, a wreath ; 6. D. and Swed. 
hank, a ligature. 

Hankeb, V, a. to long afler, to desire ardently ; 6. ogt- 
arna ; T. angeren ; B. hunkeren. See to Ybabn. 

Hans towns, certain associated towns of Germany, of 
which Lubeck was the chief; Swed. hanse; B. hans; 
T. hanse, an associate, a companion. 

Hap, s. a casual event, accident, chance, luck ; G. and 
Swed. happ ; T. happe. 

Happy, a. lucky, fortunate, at ease ; from the noun. 

Haqueton, s. a cloak of mail; A. haik; S. hcecce; T. 
hoicke ; F. hoqueton. See Huke. 

Har, Hare, in the names of persons or places, is gene- 
rally G. har, high, eminent, chief; as Hare, Harley, 
Harrow, Har wood, Harrington, Harborough. 

Hara, s. a shed, a place for keeping brood mares ; F. 
haras, from A. and Heb. hara, to breed. 

Haram, s. an enclosure where the Mahometans confine 
their wives ; A. haram, precluded, inviolable, sacred. 
See ZuNANA. 

Harangue, s. a speech, a popular oration; F. harangue; 
It. aringa, from G. and Swed. ring, a circle, a popu- 
lar assembly. 

Harass, v. a. to fatigue, weary ; F. harasser, harceler : 
G. herska ; Arm. hars, military endurance. See to 

Harbinger, s. a forerunner, a messenger ; G. herheor^ 
ginger, a ouarter-master to an army, ^om her, an 
army, and oerga, to lodge. See Harbour. 

Harboub, s. 1. a lodging, a place of repose or security ; 
G. herberg ; Swed. D. andf T. herherg ; S. herbeorg ; 
It. arhergo, albergo; F. auberge, written Herborow 
by Chaucer, from G. berga, to preserve, shelter. 

2. A haven, a port : from the foregoing word, as a place 
of security, or perhaps from Aq/r berg. See Haven. 

Habd, a, firm, solid, close, near, fast^ difficult, severe, 
harsh; G. and B. hard ; Swed. hard; S. heard; T. 

Hardock, s. hairdock^ hurbur. See Burdock. 

Hards, *. the refuse of fiax ; S. heordas, tow, from G. 
heard; D. hasr ; Swed. h&r; T. har, fibres, flax, 
hemp ; .whence Scot ham, coarse linen ; F. hardes, 

Hare, s. a small quadruped; G. hara, hera ; Isl. 

kiere; D. and Swed. hare; S. hara, from ear, hear; 
A4»y^ from •uf. 

Hare, t;. a. to vex, agitate, fright; G. cera; Swed. 

arga ; S. eargian. See to Haze and Harry. 
Harebell, s. the wild hyacinth ; S. hamr ; Scot, haw, 

blue, and bell. The Gothic tribe called Heruli are 

known to have affected a blue colour. 

Habbbrained, a. giddy, volatile, roving; G. hyra, 
hwera, to turn round, make giddy, and brain. 

Haricot, s. a kind of bean ; F. haricot ; H^ttMlf. 

Harlequin, s. a buffoon in a plav ; G. harleiken, gar^ 
leiken, from gar, a jeer, and leika, to play ; F. harle- 
auin; It. arlequino. See Pickle hebbing and 

Hablot, s. a prostitute, a whore ; G. hor, a whore, was 
from hire; and Harlot, like Hireling, Chaucer applied 
to men as well as women. The mother of William 
the Conqueror was named Arlota, apparently from 
her submissive manner. See to Lout. 

Habm. s. detriment, injury, mischief; G. Swed. D. T. 
harm; S. hearm, sorrow. 

Habness, s. armour, gear, trappings for horses; G. 
hameskia ; Swed. harnesk ; D. and T. hamisk ; B. 
hamas ; Arm. arnes ; W. arnais, military accoutre- 
ments ; from G. her, an army. See Hebe. 

Habp, s. a musical instrument; G. harpa ; D. harpe; 
S. hearp ; T. hatfe ; F. harpe ; It. arpa. 

Habpoon, s. a dart to strike fish with ; L. harpago ; F. 

Habpsichobd, s. a musical instrument with strings like 
a harp. 

Habridan, s. an old hag, a strumpet, a jade ; F. hari^ 
dele, worn out, sterile, an old mare, from L. arida. 

Habrieb, Hen-harrier, s. a kind of hawk ; from 
Harry, to destroy. 

Harrow, s. an agricultural instrument for breaking 
clods; G. harf; D. harwe ; Swed. harf; B. hark; 

F. herse : A. harth is a plough. 

Harrow, tn/. well now ; ^a^tf ; L.hora: F. heure; It. 
ora ; Port, ora ; W. ora ; I. urrash ; time, the pre- 
sent time, now ; and also a good time, luck, fortune, 
as F. heure, heureux, bonheur, 

Harrow, v. a. 1. to break clods with a harrow. 

2. To ravage, harass, disturb. See Hare and Harry. 

Harry, t;. a. I. to invade, devastate, ravage; G. heria; 

Swed. hdrja ; S. hergian ; Scot, herry. 
2. To disturb, worry, irritate, vex. See to Hare. 
Harsh, a. rouffh, sour, austere, grating ; Swed. ha^sk ; 

T. harsch ; D. harsk. 

Harslet, s. a roast made of the inmeats of a pig. See 

Hart, s. a male deer, a roebuck ; G. hiart ; D. hiort ; 
T. hirtz ; S. heort ; B. hert. 

Hartbebry, Hartleberry, *. a bilberry; from Hart 
and Berry. See Hindberry. 

Harvest, *. the season for reaping; S. herfest, harf est; 
T. herbst ; B. herfst, contracted into haust in several 

G. dialects; Scot haist. Q. or ; Swed. ^r; S. gear, 
signified a year, and also the produce of a year (as 
annona, from L. annus) to which G. and S. vist, vege- 
table food, was added. 

Harum scARUM, a. giddy, thoughtless, volatile; G. hyra 
um, signified to turn round, make giddy ; and Scaruxi^ 
is merely the same word with the intensive particle 
prefixed ; such jingles of words as Mish mash, Heher 


H A V 

H A Z 

dcelter, Hurly burly, are common to all langvageB ; 
but most in use with the Hindoo*. See Hahb« 


Ha8H^ V. a. to mince, cut small; F. kaeker ; Swed. 
kacka. See to Hack. 

Haslxt, s. the neck, throat, lights ; Scot hazel, from 
6. T. S. haU, the throat 

Habp, s. a clasp folded over a staple, a hook for fasten- 
ing ; 6. hespa ; Swed. haspa ; D. kaspe ; S. hoBpSy 
from Isl. hxsa, hcrfsa, to hold. 

Hassock, Hask, «. a rough mat to kneel on ; O. hoer ; 
T. Aar, refuse of flax or hemp, was also written kos 
and ha8. See Habds. 

Hast, second person singular of the present tense of the 
verb to Havb, contracted from havest 

Haste, s. speed, precipitation, hurry ; G. huast, hast ; 
Swed. D. T. hast ; JB. haast ; F. haste, hdte ; Arm. 

Hat, *. a cover for the head ; G. hatt; D. hat; T. hut; 

S. ha^. 
Hatch, s. a half-door, the trap-door on a ship's deck ; 

Swed. hcekte ; S. haxa ; B. hechte, from Swed. hasfta, 

to contain. See to Hitch. 

Hatch, v, a. 1. to produce young; D. hekke; T. 
hecken ; S. €Bcan, eacnian, from G. auka. 

2. To shade in engraving by hacking cross lines ; F. 
hacher. See to Hack. 

Hatchel, s, an instrument with iron points to dress 
flax. See Hackle. 

Hatchet, s, a small kind of ax ; F. hachette ; It ac- 
cetta; T. haetze; Swed. hacka. See Adze and to 

Hatchet face, a. hatched face, deformed by scars. 
See to Hatch. 

Hatchment, s. an escutcheon for the dead. See 

Hate, s. detestation, malice ; G. hala ; Swed. hat ; S. 

hate ; T. hass ; F. haine. 
Hath, third person singular of the present tense of the 

verb to Have ; for Haveth. 
Hauberk, s, a gorget, armour for the throat ; G. hals- 

beorge; F. hauberg. See Haberoion. 

Have, t;. a, to possess, hold, catch, keep, contain, main- 
tain, manage ; G. hava ; Swed. hafma ; D. have ; M. 
G. haban ; S. habban i T. haben ; B. hebhen ; L. ha- 
beo ; x^y *^'KI^ • ^* ^> ^/?^> ^ha, ha, hava, seems to have 
been the progress of the Gothic word. 
M. G. haba ; L. habeo ; M. G. habaith ; L. habetis ; 

habats; habes ; haband; habent ; 

hnbaith; habet ; habands; habens ; 

habam; habetnus; habandin; habenti. 

Haven, s, a harbour, a port ; G. hafn ; Swed. hatnn ; 
D. havn ; T. Aa/e» ; S hasfen ; B. haven ; Heb. hoph ; 
W. hafn ; Arm. hqfr ; F. havre ; Sp. and Port. abra. 
See Aber. 

Haver, s. 1. from the verb ; a possessor. 

2. Oats ; D. havre ; T. haber ; B. haver ; L. avenaria, 

Haught, Hioht, «. lofliness ; M. G. hahiiha ; T. hach- 
heit ; D. hoyed, from G. ha, high ; but F. haui is from 
L. alius. 

Haughty, a. lofty, proud, insolent ; F. hautain. See 

Havioub, s. from Havb ; oountenance, conduct, man- 
ners. See Bbbulvb. 

Haul, v. a. to pull, to drag by violenee; O* Mim, 
haldza, halza ; Swed. kola ; D. hA; B. k^alen ; F. 
haler; Sp. halar, 

Haum, 1. stubble, straw. See Halm. 

Haunch, Hanch, s. the thigh and hip; F. hancke; It 
anca; Scot hunker, the bending of the hip, the 
croup, apparently from G. huka. See Hook and 


Haunt, v. to frequent ; F. hanter. See to Wont. 
Havock, s. devastation, destruction ; W. hafog is B]^- 

rently the English word, from G. havega, mega; 

Swed. wuga, to destroy, wmnna wdk, mansUughter. 
Hautboy, #. an instrument of music ; Chald. and Syr. 

abouba, a pipe, a flute ; F. i^foe, haiabois. 

Hautboy bt&awbbrby, s, a wood strawberry ; G. holt 
her ; B. homt by. 

Haw, s. 1. an inclosure, a hedge, the fruit of the haw- 
thorn ; G. hag, haija ; Swed. hagm ; S. hag, heow ; 
T. hage; F. hate. 

2. An excrescence in the eye ; G. and Swed. hake ; D. 
hage ; B. haak ; L. unguis. 

Haw, v. II. to hesitate, to stutter. See to Hack. 

Hawk, s, a bird of prey; G. haukur; Swed. hok ; T. 

habech; B. havik; S. hawc ; D. hasg ; Arm. hak ; W. 


Hawk, v. a. 1. from the sound ; to force up phlegm from 
the throat. 

2. To chase with hawks. 

3. To vend small wares, to carry them from door to 
door; Swed. hoka ; D. haskre; T. hoecken, to truck, 
from G. aukm ; Swed. 6ka, cognate with L. audio. 
See Hawker. 

Hawker, s. from the verb ; a retailer of small wares ; 
Swed. hbkare ; T. hoker; B. koeker, heuker, from g! 
okur ; B. oeker, woeker ; Swed. oker ; S. wocer ; W. 
occr, transaction for gain, usury. 

Hawse holes. Hawses, s. the holes in the bow of a 
ship for a hawser. 

Hawser, s. a small cable, a towing rope. See Halssr. 
Hawthorn, s. a thorn used to make haws or hedges ; 
G. hagtharn ; Swed. hagtorn. 

Hay, s. 1. a fence, an inclosure, a park ; S. heow ; G. 
haija; F. haie. See Haw. 

2. An inclosure for the purpose of catching wild ani- 
mals, a large net. 

3. A line or row, a ring formed by joining hands in 
dancing round the maypole at festivals. 

4. Grass cut and dried; G. hau ; Isl. hei; Swed. ho; 
D. ha:; B. hooi; S. heg ; M. G. haui. Isl. hio is the 
imp. tense of G. hauga ; S. heawian ; T. haaen. See 
to Hew. 

HAZARn, s. 1. a game with dice; It and Sp. azar, from 
as, an ace, which was a critical number. 

2. Chance, peril, risk; F. hazard; It azzardo; B. 
hachsaard, from hach ; G. haski ; Swed. haske, dan- 
ger, peril, difficulty; whence perhaps the vulgar 
phrase to settle the hash. 

Haze, *. a fog, a mist ; S. haswe, hare : Arm. oez, from 
G. hcera, hasa, hoar frost, in which sense the Danes 
and Swedes use rime to denote base. See Rimb. 

Hase, v. a. to fright, intimidate, vex ; Swed. hasa. See 
to Hare. 

Hazel, s. the corylus or nut-tree; G. hesle; Swed. 
hassel; S. hmsl; T. hasel; B. hazei. 

H E A 

H E L 

Hazel mbs, s. the heath fowl or fraticolin ; common to 

all G. dialects. 
He, pron. a male, a man that was named before ; A. 

Heb. Chald. hu, houi G. ha, ho; B. Ajr; S, he ; T. 

Ha AD, 1. the top, the chief; O. E. heved, heud ; G. 

haufd; D. hoved ; S. heqfd, hasued ; T. haupt; B. 

horfd; L. caput, Robin Hood or Heud was Robin 

the chief. 

Head, Hood, as a termination to nouns, signifies state, 
condition, quality ; as Godhead, Priesthood, Man- 
hood, Womanhood, Maidenhood or Maidenhead ; G. 
haity het ; Swed. hei^ had ; T. heil ; S. had. It was 
used like L. tas, to change an adj. into a subst. as 
true, truehood, truth ; wide, widehead, width ; broad, 
broadhead, breadth, in the same way that L. verus, 
probtis, vanus, became Veritas, probitas, vanitas. 

Heal, o. to cure, grow well, make whole ; G. haila ; 
M. G. haUgian ; Swed. hda ; S. hadan ; T. hexlen ; 
B. keelen. See Hale. 

Hbam, s. a cover, a veil, the afterbirth of beasts ; G. 
hdm, hatnur ; S. hatna ; Swed. hatnn. See Sham. 

Heap, s. an accumulation, a pile, a cluster ; G. a;fa ; T. 

hauff ; S. heap; Swed. hop ; D. hob ; B. Aoop. 
Hear. v. to perceive by the ear, to listen ; G. heyra ; 

D. hasre ; T. hoeran ; S. hieran, heoran; S'wed.hdra; 

B. hooran. See Eab. 

Hearken, v, n, to listen, to attend to ; S. heorcnian. 
See to Hear. 

Hearse, s. a wheel-carriage for the dead. See Herse. 

Heart, s. the chief or vital part ; Sans, hirda ; G. 
hiarta ; Swed. hierta ; D. hierte ; S. heort ; B. hart ; 
T. hertz ; Km^U, 

Hearth, *. a fireplace; 8. heorth; Swed. hard; T. 
herd ; B. heert, haard, apparently cognate with horg; 
A. erat, harak ; G. haurg ; M. G. haurga, a fire, an 
altar, ft'om A. ar ; Heb. aour; Chald. ur ; Arme- 
nian, otir, hour: Isl. Ayr, ar ; G. arn, fire. L. ara ; 
it^t^; and Heb. jare, jaru, may possibly have the same 
origin, for Jerusalem was the altar of safety. The re- 
semblance in sound of Hearth and Earth may have 
led to a supposition that the Goths worshipped the 
Earth; but G. haurge; S. hearge, hearch, 8i>>n]fied 
not only an altar, but also the idol of fire, correspond- 
ing with Vesta, *£«-/«, fire ; and argeo, anciently a 
temple, supposed to be of the Argives, may have 
been cognate both with haurge and L. rogus. See 

Heat, s. warmth, hotness; G. heit ; T. heitze; D. 
heede; B. heit; S. heat; Swed. hetta: Chald. and 
Heb. hit, fire, the sun. 

Heath, s. 1. uncultivated ground, covered with low 
shrubs and perennial plants; G. heide; Swed. heid, 
hed; T. heide; B. heide, 

2. A plant growing on heaths ; T. heida ; S. hath, in- 
cluded the L. erica, and wild thyme, with furze and 
other shrubs. 

Heathen, #. a Pagan ; driMf, iiff, natives, gentiles : 
but G. heiden, haithen ; Swed. heden ; T. heyden ; D. 
heden, seem to be from G. heid, haiih, which signified 
a forest; M. G. haithi, the fields or country, and 
haithn, a heathen. See Pagan. 

Heave, v, to lift, exalt, raise, elevate, throw up / G. 
hefa ; Swed. hdftva ; B. hejfen, heeven ; S. heafan ; 
T. heifen, heben : G. ha is high, and qfa, yja, to 
raise up. 

Hbavb OQPFBRnro, s, the first fruits given to the Jewish 
priests; B. krf offer. See to Heaye. 

Heaven, s, the habitation of God, the sky ; G. havom; 
S. heqfen, heqfan, from G. hau, high ; hefa ; M. G. 
hqffan, to exalt. But G. himen ; Isl. himin ; Swed. 
and T. himmel ; B hemel, were more generally used 
for the sky or heaven, from G. hema, to cover ; as 
L. calum from celo; and the Goths used himmel, as 
the French do del, for heaven and the ceiling of a 
room or canopy. The heathen Goths, like the Greeks 
and Romans, seem to have considered heaven as the 
residence of Thor, Jupiter, and other celestial divi- 
nities, with whom houIs had little or no concern ; but 
the abode of Odin or Pluto, who had power over 
their future state, was believed to be subterraneous. 
See Hell. 

Heavy, a. weighty, important, grievous, dull ; G. 
haufgi; S. heq/ig ; T. hevig. 

Heck, s, a salmon caught in a machine called a hek or 
hatch. See Hack. 

Hedor, s, a growing fence; G. haga; S hegge; B. 
haag, heg. See Hay. 

Hedge prefixed to any trade denotes its meanness and 

poverty, as being practised by the way-side. 
Heooe, V, 1. to make a hedge, to inclose. 
2. For Edge ; to sidle, to put in edgewise, to make a 

He:ed« s. attention, care, caution ; Swed. had ; B. 

hoede ; S. hygad; D. agt ; T. achi ; G. hugad, ahu^ 

gad, from hug, the mind. 

Heed, v. a, to mind, observe, notice ; S. hedan, hyg~ 

dan ; from the noun. 
Heel, s. the hinder part of the foot, the latter part; G. 

hat; Swed. hdl; S. hel; D. hal ; B. hiel: G. hala . 

signified also the tail. 
Heel, v. to lean or sink on one side ; G. halla; Swed. 

hdlla ; B. hellen : S. hele, depression. 
Heft, s. 1. from Heave ; a heaving effort. 
2. Weight, heaviness ; heavihood. 
Hegira, #. in chronology, the date of Mahomet's flight 

from Mecca; A. hagirah, flight. 
Heifer, *. a young cow ; S. heqfre, hiah fearc, Heb. 

phara ; S.Jear ; B. vaer, a cow : P. and Heb. phar ; 

S.farr, a bull; G. and Swed. ^ara, to engender. 
Heigh HO, int. signifying uneasiness of mind ; Jj. hei, 

ehu ; W. hatha ; but we sometimes U8e the word as 

encouragement, from Hie, to hasten. See Hey. 

Height, #. space upwards, tallness; S. hihth. See 

Heinous, a. hateful, odious; F. haineux ; haine, ha- 
tred, from G. halgian ; S. hatian. See to Hate. 

Heir, s. one who inherits by law after the death of the 

present possessor ; L. hares ; F. ^oir, heretier : G. 

erf, arf; S. aif, signify inheritance, but properly of 

land. See Yarrow. 
Heir loom, s. what descends with a freehold to an heir ; 

G. Urn ; S. loma, an article or member. 

Hele, v. a. to cover, to conceal, to hyll; G. hyUa, Aur- 
la; Isl. hela; Swed. holja; D. hale; T. helen; 
S. helan ; L. celo. 

Hell, #. a place of torment after death; Q,hel; Swed. hai; 
S. hell; B. hel; T. helle, signified originally death, the 
grave ; supposed by some ancient authors to be a Scy- 
thian word the origin of which is lost ; but others de- 
duce it from G. hyla, our hele, to cover, to conceal, to 
biu-y. " Hyl hra nun," bury my carcase; '* Blar 
sem hel," m pale as death ; ^" Midme keim oc heUar," 


between this world and the next. Prior to the Chris- 
tian era, M. O. halga, like the Greek and Latin names 
for hell, signified merely the invisible or lower regions, 
the general residence of the dead. The hall of Odin 
or Pluto was the heaven of warriors. Odin's field was 
Elysium, which is the infernal paradise; and the 
Gk)ths must have believed in a corporeal resurrection 
when they deemed it meritorious to hasten their de« 
parture to Halawai, Hell we, the Hell god, Odin, be- 
fore their bodies had suffered through age or infirmi- 
ties. See Hbaven. 

Hbi«lebobb, s, a plant called Christmas flower; iAAiC#^ 
L. heUeborus. 

Hblm, 1. in the names of men or places signifies a cover 
defence, protection, government; 6. hiltn, kialm ; 
Isl. helm ; S. helm, as Wilhelm, William, Anshelm 
Anselm. See to Hblb. 

2. A covering for the head in war, a helmet ; 6. hiaUn ; 
Swed. hicdm ; T. helm ; S. and W. helm ; It. elmo ; F 
heaume* See to Helb. 

3. The rudder of a ship, the seat of government ; T. and 
B. helm; G. hialm, protection, government, produced 
helm, a crown, and hilmer, a governor, a ruler, a 

Hblp, J. aid, relief, cure, remedy; G. hialp; Swed. 
hielp; S. hcUp ; T. helpe, hulfe; B. heul, nUlp j W. 
help ; apparently cognate with hale and heed. 

Hblvb, s, a hafl ; S. helf, from Swed. hAUa, to hold. 

See Hilt. 
Hbm, s, 1. the edge of a garment, an inclosure; G. 

hamn ; Swed. h&m ; D. hemme ; B. hamey ; S. hem, a 

border, an inclosure, a prevention. 
2. A noise by a sudden expulsion of the breath ; B. 

hemy from the sound. 
Hemlock, «. a poisonous herb ; S. hemleac. 

Hbmp, s, a fibrous plant ; D. hamp ; Swed. hampa ; B. 
hennei ; T. hanf; S. hamep ; F. chenevi ; L. cannabis. 

Hen, s, the female of birds and fowls ; G. ham ; B. and 
S. hen ; Swed. hdna^ a hen ; G. hana ; S. han ; T. 
han, a cock. 

Hence, ad. from this place or time ; G. hingat ; Swed. 
hdn ; B. heen ; T. hxntz ; S. heona ; L. hinc ; O. E. 
hennes : G. hin signifies here. 

Henchman, s. a household servant, a page ; G. hians^ 
man ; S. hinesman. See Hind. 

Hbnd, v. a. to seize, to catch, to hold ; G. henda ; S. 
and T. henden ; L. hendo. See Hand. 

Henna, s. an herb used in the east by women for stain- 
ing the nails of their fingers and toes of a red or 
orange colour ; A. hena. 

Heps, ^. p^ the fruit of the wild rose ; G. hagalHBs, haga* 
basrs ; B. hagebes ; D. hybes ; S. heaps, literally hedge 

Heb, ^ron. belonging to a female ; G. hoar ; Swed. 
hcer ; S. her, the genitive and accusative cases of G. 
hy ; A. he; Heb. hi; Arm. and W. At, she. 

Hbbald, s. an officer who announces the titles or de- 
mands of a prince; Swed. hasrold; D. herald; T. 
herald; B. and F. heraut; It araldo. Her is an 
army and a lord; T. hold; Langobard. old, a trusty 
servant: but heren, signifies to extols to glorify, to 
proclaim ; and in the east an officer of this kind id- 
ways precedes a man of rank, announcing aloud his 
honours, titles and dignj^y. See to Hbby. 

H I H 

Hbbd, s. a guard, a keeper, and also what is guarded^ 
a flock, a drove ; G. herd; Swed. herde; D.Aiorde; 
S. heard; T. hert. 

Hebe, s. a multitude, an assembly, an army ; G. her, 
herja; Swed. D. hasr; T. her ; S. here: M. G. har- 
gis; S. herge, herige, have the same meaning. See 
to Habby. 

Hebe, ad. in this place, or state ; G. D. and. S. her ; 
Swed. hasr; T. hier; L. hie. 

Hebiot, s. a fine paid to the lord on the death of a ten- 
ant ; G. hergieed, a seignorial fine. See Hbbx. 

Hebnshaw, 8. a heronry. See Hbbon and Shaw. 

Heron, s. a large bird ; t^m, t^ititii ; F. heron ; It. air^ 
one; Sp. agrone ; D. haire ; Swed. hdger. 

Hebbino, #. a fish wonderfully productive, which mi- 
grates in large shoals ; S. hiring ; T. hering ; B. her- 
ink; Arm. harink ; F. hareng ; It. arenga. See 
Hebe, a multitude. 

Hebsb, s. 1. an inclosure for a corpse, a carriiige in 
which it is conveved to the grave ; L. B. hersia ; 
G. hirdz ; S. heard; T. huirt, huirste, a door, a fence, 
a frame of laths, from G. hirda, to inclose. See Hub- 


2. A term used in fortification ; F. herse. See Hab- 


Hebt, v. a. to extol, to praise, glorify, proclaim ; G. 

hasria ; S. herian ; T. heren, from 6. har ; T. her ; 

HssT, s. a command, a precept ; G. heit ; S. hcest ; T. 

heiss, geheiss. See Hioht. 
Hew, v. a. to cut, sever, chop with an ax or sword ; G. 
huga, houga ; Swed. huga ; T. hauen ; S. heawian. 

Hey, int. an expression of joy or encouragement ; quick, 
brisk ; D. and Swed. hui. See Hie. 

Heyday, s. a high day, a time of joy ; G. hatid; Swed. 
hogtid ; B. hoogtid ; S. heah tid ; O. £. hocktide, the 
hiffh time, was a nam? given to festivals ; but parti- 
cularly to those of Christmas and Easter. It after- 
wards became hey day tide, hockday tide, hoUy toUy, 
and highly tighiy, to denote rural pastime. Hock mtt- 
ney, or Cm-istmas, is literally the festival of the length- 
ening day, from G. muna, to increase. The term con- 
tinues to be used in Britanny and Scotland. See 

Heyday oives, s. holiday sports, frolics ; gaives, from L. 

Heyduke, s. a Hungarian messenger, an armed foot- 

Hiccius Doccius, a juggler, a cheat ; a cant w(N-d used* 
at cups and balls, to take ofi* the attention of spec- 
tators from the trick ; possibly L. hicce de hocce, this 
here, that there. 

Hiccough, Hickup, s. a convulsion of the stomach ; P. 
hukkak; Swed. hicka; Q.hixt; T. hix; B. hik, hickse; 
Arm. hie ; W. tg ; L. B. hoqueta ; F. hoquet. See 

s. a woodpecker ; S. hice, higar ; T. hei* 


Hick WAY, 


fer, haeger, hecse, signified a bird of this 
ind, and also sorcery ; apparently from 
C^. hyg; S. hige, mind, intelligence; Atc- 
^gian, to perceive; and holt, wood, may 
have been added to correspond with wood- 

rcker : but S. wigol, weohl, from G. veg ; 
wig, sacred, holy, denoted a bird used 
for cQvination. See Modwall, Wit- 
wall and Speight. 

H I R 

H,tDm, V. to corer^ conceal, keep out of sight ; Swed. 
kydda ; S. kydan ; B. hoeden ; T. kdten, 

HiDB, «. 1. the skin of a beast; 6. hud; B. huxd ; T. 
haut; S hy 

2. A portion of land usually allotted to a hut or cottage ; 
Swed. hydda; S. hyd; T.huUte; L. B. hida. See 

HiDBOUS, a. horrible, frightful, shocking ; F. hideux : 
O. oiti, uggad; J. uadn, fright, from O. oga, ugga, 
fear. See Aoazb. 

HiB, V. n. to move quickly, to hasten, to proceed brisk- 
ly ; O. heya ; S. nigian ; itm. See to Go. 

High, a. lofry, loud, eminent, noble, proud, dear ; 6. 
ha ; Swed. ha, hdg ; T. ha, hoch ; D. hay ; S. heah, 
hig; Arm. huch; W. uch: F. haut, from L. alius, 
hitf partaken of the Gk>thic word. 

HiOHT, called, named, styled ; an imperfect verb used 
only in the pret. tense ; from 6. hetta ; Swed. heia ; 
S. halan; T. heissen. 

HiGHTT TiOHTT, a, frolicsomc, thoughtless, giddy. 

See Hbyday. 
Highway, s. the main way, the public road. 

Hill, #. an elevation of ground, an eminence; 6. hoi, 
haugel; Swed. hygel; Isl. hialla; S. hyl, hill; T. 
h%igel ; B, heuveL See High. 

Hilt, s. what is held, the handle of a sword ; S. hUt, 
hoU. See Hblvb. 

Him, pran. the objective case of Hb ; Heb. O. S. him ; 
B. kem ; M. 6. imtna ; T. ihm. 

Hind, a. situate backward, the after part ; 6. hind; T. 
hitUen ; S. hyndan ; comp. Hinder, superlative Hind' 

Hind, s. 1, a, house servant; 6. hion; S. hine, hiwen. 
See Hbnchman. 

2. A labourer, a clown ; from Swed. hinna, to toiL See 
to Win. 

3. A female deer, the she to a stag ; 6. hedna ; Swed. 
and D. hind; S. hinde; B. hinde ; T. hint. 

HiNDBBRRT, s. the raspbcrry ; D. hind ban: See Hart 

Hinder, v. a. from Hind; to keep back, to impede, ob- 
struct ; Swed. hindra ; S. hindrian ; B. hinderen ; T. 

HiNGB, s. the joint on which a door turns ; O. gcsng, 
from ang ; T. ang, a hook ; whence D. hasng ; B. 
hengel ; It. ghangero ; F. gond. 

Hint, s. an allusion, slight indication, remote suggestion ; 
F. indice ; L. indicium, iniiium, or perhaps innutum. 

Hip, s. the upper part of the thigh ; 6. haup; M. O. 
hup; S. hype, hup; T. huiffe; B. heup. 

To HAVB ON THB HIP, to have the advantage of an anta- 
gonist ; a term taken from wrestling. 

Hip, s. the fruit of the wild rose. See Hbps. 

Hip, intj. used in calling to one ; G. cepa, dpa ; kxvm, to 
calL See Hoop. 

HiPWOBT, s. a plant ; L. cotyledon. 

HiRB, s. wages paid for service; Swed. hyra; S. hyre 
D. hyre; T. hure; B. huur ; W. hur. Theorigm o^ 
the word is not known; but O. eyr ; Swed. dre, er ; 
S. mr, yre, produced our ore ; and were either cognate 
or becune confounded with L. B. ctre; L. ms, value, 
pajrment. The Saxons had yres of gold, of silver 


■ » 

and of copper. The price of a slave was an yre of 

HiB, pron. belonging to him ; 6. his, ha sina ; O. £. 
htsen ; S. hys ; Sk ; L. efus. 

Hi88, s.l. a, sound of censure or dislike; D. huase; S. 
hyse, from hysian, to contemn, shame, may be cognate 
with F. huer. See to Hoot. 

2. From the sound; the voice of a serpent ; B. kisse. 

Hist, int. commanding silence; B. st; W. ust. See 

Hit, v. to attain, to strike, succeed ; O. hitta ; Swed. 
hitta ; D. hitte, in their first sense, signify to attain, 
find, agree, from which is apparently S. hyth, conve- 
nience. According to Festus, the Latin had a verb, 
hittire, with the same meaning. Our signification of 
to strike is conformable to the use of similar words ; 
for T. and B. treffen, which produced F. trouver, to 
find, signify to attain and to strike. 

Hitch, s. a hold, a catch, a hafr, a noose, a halt ; Swed. 
haskta, hopfia ; S. hasfian ; B. heckten, hegten, hinken ; 
T. hechten, heflen, from Have, to hold, to retain. See 

HiTHB, s, a wharf for landing goods : 6. hijt ; S. hyth, 
seem to have signified an excavation to admit boats, a 
small dock ; but B. hoqfd, a landing place, is proper- 
ly the end or head of a wharf; whence Maidenhead 
or Maidenhithe bridge. 

Hither, adv. to this place, to this end ; O. hit her ; D. 
hid her; S. hither, hider ; T. hieher : M. G. hidre : 
6. hit, corresponds with L. hue, and her with hie. 

HiVB, s. a company, a dome for bees; G. heiva; S. 
hyfe, from 6. hiu ; S, hiw, hiwisce, a family, a society ; 
whence T. husche; F. ruche. See Housb. 

Ho, hoa, intj. expressive of a call ; A. and P. aya ; 6. 
hoa ; S. oho, o, eho ; T. io, yo ; W. ho ; F. ho. 

Hoar, a. whitish gray; 6. hcera; Isl. har ; S. har. 
See Hazb. 

Hoard, s. a private stock, a treasure ; O. hord; S. hord ; 
T. hort, hord, a treasure, but properly any valuable 
accumulation ; from O. hirda, to guard. 

HoARHUND, s. a plant, white marrubium ; S. hun, sig- 
nified wasting of strength, consumption, for whicn 
this plant was esteemed a remedy. 

HoARSB, a. having the voice rough, harsh ; G. hies ; S. 
has ; Swed. hes ; T. heischer ; B. haarsch. 

Hob, s. a field, a clown; G. hap; L. B. hoba. See 


HoBBLB, V. It. 1. frequentative of Hop ; to walk unstead- 
ily, to limp ; T. hoppelen ; B. hobhelen ; W. hobelu. 

2. To impede, obstruct, embarrass ; G. hamla ; Swed. 
happla ; B. haperen. See Hampbr. 

Hobby, s. a kind of hawk ; T. habech ; F. hobereau ; 
W. hebog. See Hawk. 

2. A pad, a pacing horse ; iirwH, a horse ; but G. hoppe ; 
Swed. hoppa ; r . hMn, are said to be cognate urith 
hobble, and signify a pad horse. 

3. A clown, a booby, a dolt. See Hob. 

Hobgoblin, s. a bugbear, an elf, an apparition ; from 
hob, a field, and goblin; Swed. tumte gubbe, which 
signifies a tump goblin ; but G. ham, hamn, is an ap« 
parition, a ghost See Tump. 

HoBiT, s. a small kind of bomb ; the F. corruption of 

Hobnail, i. a nail with a broad head to put in shoes ; 

H O L 

H O O 


perbaps £vt cob, the head, which may haife been con- 
tbunded with O. E. hoved. 

Hocus PocuB, #. jugglery ; P. hokkak baz, a cup-juggler ; 
Swed. hokus poktu. The word is generally not known ; 
but S. hogian, behogian, signify to know, to attend, to 
perform with intelTigence, from O. hog, the mind. 

Hock, ^. 1. a bending, a joint, the small end of a gam- 
mon ; 6. huka ; S. hoh ; T. hock, hacks. See Hough 
and Buttock. 

2. The herb mallows ; S. hoce ; W. hoccys. 

3. Rhenish wine, formerly called Hockamore ; T. hoch^ 
hcitncr, produced at Hochheim. 

#. the second Tuesday after Easter ; 
from Swed. hdg ; T. hoch, a religious 
festival, as explained at Hbyday. 
The Goths had their jojrful and silent 
fasts; and the Germans at this day 
call a wedding feast, hochzcU, hock- 
tide ; G. hdknatt was the great nightly 
sacrifice of hawks to Odin, at Yule, 
according to the rites of the Egyptians, 
and appears to have been a silent cere- 
^ mony . 
HoD, s, a bricklayer's trough for carrying mortar on the 

shoulder. Isl. hud appears to be from hurd ; L. B. 

hurda, a shield ; T. hurd, hurt, hotie, a wicker basket. 

See HuRDLB. 
HoDOB, s. a clown, a peasant ; perhaps contracted from 

HoDGB PoDGB, #. a confuscd mixture, a medley of 

mixed meat. See Hotch Potch. 

Hodman, s. one who carries a hod, a bricklayer's la- 

HoDMANDOD, s. a SDOcies of crab, which carries a large 
claw on its back like a hodman. See Dodman. 

Hoe, s, an instrument for opening the ground, or cutt- 
ing the roots of weeds; G. hog; T. hotve ; B. houtv. 
See to Hog and to Hew. 

Hog, v. a, to cut ; G. hoggwa ; Swed. hugga ; S. hca^ 

wian ; T. hauen. 
Hog, .t. a pig, sheep, or ox of a year old, supposed to be 

cut. See Sheep, Mutton, Gool. 

Hogeral, s. a young sheep. See Hog. 

HoGH, Hough, How, Ho, in the names of places, sig- 
nify a small hill or tumulus; G. haug ; Swed. h6g ; 
S. houy from G. ha ; B. hoog ; T. hoch, high. 

HoGO, HoGoo, s, a high taste, a relish, a putrid smell ; 
F. haui goUt. 

Hogshead, s, a liquid measure ; Swed. oxhufud ; D. oxe^ 
hoved; B. oxhoofd, signify anoxhead, but apparently 
corrupted from G. ask, askr, a liquid measure which 
contained four bolls ; itTn^i : Swed. ask, is an ash tree, 
a boat, and a box. 

Hoiden, s, a peasant girl, a romp ; apparently contract- 
ed from Holding ; W. hoeden, signifies a female of 
loose conduct. 

HoiSE, Hoist, v. a. to raise, \\£i up ; Swed. hd^'a, hissa ; 
F. hisser, from G. ha ; S. heah, nigh : F. hausser ; It. 
alzare, are from L. alius. 

HoiTY ToiTY, s, giddy thoughtless sport, Christmas 
gambols; contracted, from Heyday lide, in which 
sense the French say Jour de Dieu. See Hocktide. 

Hold, v, to keep, contain, detain, retain; G. halda; 
Swed. htilla ; S. halden ; T. halten. 

Hold, s. a support, custody, place. 

Holder, s, one who holds, a tenant. 

Holding, s, a fiirm, a tenure, a eottager boaBd to die 
soil, a clown, a serf; T. koUen. 

Hole, s. an opening, a cavity, a cell ; G. S. and B. kci; 
Swed. hdl ; T. hM. 

Holla, Hollo, v. to call loudly; D. hollas T. koleu, 
from G. hial; T. hoi, voice. 

Hollow, a, I. from Hole; concave, excavated^ anipty, 

2. From Whole; complete, entire. 3. ad, wholly^ entirely. 
Hollow, v. 1. from the noun; to make hollow, teoop 
out, excavate. 

2. To shout. See Holla. 

Hollt, s, an evergreen tree ; S. holegn ; B. kuls ; F. 
houx ; L. ilex. 

Hollyhock, s. the rose mallow. See Holt Hock:. 

Holly- oak. Holm-oak, s. a species of ever-green oak, 
the ilex. 

Holm, s. an ascent, a rising ground ; G. and Swed. M; 
S. holm. 

Holme, s, a low inclosed spot of ground near a river, a 
small island ; G. holm ; S. holm ; Swed. holme. 

Holster, s. a covering, decking, furnishing, a pistol 
case ; Swed. and B. holster ; D. hylster. See to HEiLi. 

Holt, *. a wood, grove, thicket; G. and S. holt ; Swed. 
hull ; T. hoUz ; B. houl ; Itkn, apparently cognate with 

Holy, a. sacred, pious, immaculate; G. holg, heileut; 
Swed. helig; D. heUig ; S. halig; T. heUig ; P. aUL 
See Whole. 

Holy Hock, s. the rose mallow ; brought from Palestine ; 
S. hoUlioc, See Holy and Hock. 

Holy Robe, s. a kind of cistus. 

Homage, *. vassalage, obedience to a superior ; L. B. 
homagium ; F. homage, from L. homo, which, like G. 
man, denoted a vassal or dependent. 

Home, *. 1. one's own house, residence, country or pro- 
per place ; G. haim ; Swed. heim, hem ; D. hiem ; T. 
haim ; S. ham ; Arm. cluEm. See Ham. 

2. A low meadow. See Holme. 

Homely, a. ordinary, plain, unadorned, every day fare. 

HoMMOC, s. a hillock, a tumulus. See Holm. 

Hon, *. shame, contempt, derision ; Swed. hdn ; T. 
hohn ; D. haan ; B. hoon ; S. hone ; F. hon, ignominy ; 
from Isl. hia ; T. huoen ; S. henan ; F. horar, to con- 
temn, deride, despise; whence F. ho}\ie ; It. on/o, 
shame. Hon y soil. Shame be there. 

Hone, s. a stone to whet razors upon ; G. hein; Swed. 
hen ; Mcong. 

Hone, v. n. to pine after, long for ; G. hugna ; Swed. 
hogen ; 8. hogian, from G. hug, the mind. 

Honey, s. the sweet substance of bees, sweetness; Heb. 
oneg; A. and P. unguheen ; Scythian, honna; Swed. 
hdning, hanog ; D.honning; B. honig, honning ; T. 
honigy honec; S. hunig. 

Honour, *. dignity, reputation, glory ; L. honor ; F. 
honneur : P. hoonur, virtue. 

Hood, in composition, signifies state, quality, condition. 
See Head. 

Hood, s. a covering for the head ; O. E. home, from G. 
hufa, hud; Swed. htvif, hufwa; D. hue; T. hut; W. 
hott. See Head. 

Hoop, s. the horny substance of a horse's foot ; G. and 
S. hof; T. huf; B. haef, a covering ; but particidarly 
of a horse's foot. 

H O R 


Hook, #• a piece of iron bent, a crook, a 6imsp ; laL and 
SwedL hak$; T. haeke; B. haak, koeck ; 8. hoc, hooc ; 
D. hage. 

Hoop, s, a circle^ a band for a cask, a farthingale ; O. 
hiupr ; Swed. and S. hop ; T. hup ; B. hoepn 

Hoop, v. 1. to bind with a hoop. 

2. To shout, to hollo ; O. opa : Swed. dpa, appa ; wtrvm. 

See Whoop ana Roup. 
Hoot, t;. it. to shout in contempt ; Swed. hut is a word 

of aversion ; 6. and Swed. hctda ; Isl. haada; D. huje; 

F. huer, signify to call out in detestation or scorn. 

Hop, r. 1. to leap on one leg, to bounce, to walk un- 
steadily ; G. huppa : Swed. hoppa ; T. happen ; S. 

2. To cut, to notch ; to lop signifies to cut in a leaping 
manner ; and Hop may have been used in the same 
sense ; but B. hauwen, houven, is to hew. 

Hop, s, 1. from the verb ; a light leap, a rebound. 

2. A plant that winds round trees ; S. hopu ; B. hop ; 
T. hojjfen ; F. houblon : L. lupulus is said to have been 
anciently upulus ; but our word may be formed from 
Hoop, to bind. 

HoPB. V. to live in expectation ; O. hapa ; Swed. h&ppa; 
S. hopian ; T. hoffen ; B. hoopen, hopen ; D. haahe> 
O. ha, signified to hold, to possess, and ve was the 
origin of our verb to Be and Bide, which in our an- 
cient ahie and abidance was expectation. There was 
no p originally in the Gk)thic alphabet. See Won. 

HoPB, s, 1. from the verb ; expectation, confidence. 

2. A detached piece of ground, a small field ; G. hap, 
hump; T. hump; L. B. hoba. See Hump. 

HoppBB, s. 1. one who hc^s, something that rebounds ; 
S. hoppere. 

2. The receiver in which the grain is placed to be con- 
veyed between the millstones in grinding ; T. hup, a 
receptacle, frmn heben, to receive produce; habe, a 

HoBDB, s. a multitude, a tribe, a clan, a troop ; A. and 
Turk, oordoo; Tartar horda; G. hiord; S. hiord ; 
F. horde. 

Horn, f. 1. a hard substance growing on the heads of 
some animals, instrument of music made originally 
of that substance ; G. Swed. S. D. horn ; T. horn, hor^ 
ten ; B. hoom. 

2. A term for cuckoldom ; G. horen s S. hornung ; B. 
hoeren ; T. huren, adultery, fornication, whoredom : 
T. huim, signified a horn and whoring, owing to con- 
fusion of orthography ; whence apparently the origin 
of wearing horns. See Whorb. 

Hobn-mad, a. brain mad ; G. huarn ; D. hierne ; Swed. 
hiem ; T. hirn ; S. hamas ; Scot, hern, the brain. 

Hornbt, s. a large kind of wasp; S. hornisse ; T. 

HoBSB, s. a generous animal ; G. ors, hross, hyrsa ; 
Swed. oers ; T. hors ; S. horse; F. rots; S. rosin. 
This animal had names denoting his different quali- 
fications. Ors was from ras, speedf: hcest, from haste, 
of which the stallion heng hast, is Isl. hteng hast ; S. 
hengist : rinner, a runner : gangare, a goer : skeut, a 
scout, had all nearly the same tneaning : but fard, 
f^crd, from Jara, to go, to carry, was apparently a 
beast of burthen. 

HoRSE-CHBSNUT, s. the harsh chesnat ; but the F. and 
the Swedes have translated it as korse. 

HoBSB-FacJso, a. hassh faceil, huHL featured. 

HoRSB-BADiaH, #. harsh radish. 

H0B8B*MATCH, HOKSB-MATB, S. A kind of wild gOOSC, 

onanthe, which follows horses for their dung. 

HosB, s. stockinffs ; G. hosur ; T. hosen ; Swed. hosor ; 
S. hosen; B. kous; Arm. heus ; W. hosan; I. ossan; 
F. houseaux ; It. uosa. 

Hoar, #. 1. a landlord, one who entertains a strangef, 
the master of an inn ; F. hoste, hSte ; It oste, ospUe, 
from L. hospUor. 

2. A multitude, an army ; Sp. huesie ; O. T. hosie, from 
L. hostis, corrupted into ost, and osloyer, to assemble 
in warlike array, to encamp. A. hujsai ; P. hustm, a 
multitude, hove a different source. 

3. The consecrated wafer ; #vfuf ; L. hostia, a sacrifice. 
See HousBL. 

HosTAOB, s. one given in pledge for performance of 
conditions ; L. B. obstatio ; It. ostaggio ; F. oHage, 
otage, from L. obses. 

HoeTBL, HosTBLRY, s. an inn, a tavern, a place of 
grand entertainment ; F. hostel, hostelerie, hMei, from 
L. hospitalium. See Host. 

HosTLBR, s. one who attends horses at an inn. F. hos- 
telier is the master of a hostel, and supposed to be 
the same for the stable ; but G. hasst ; Swed. hest is a 
horse, and staUer, a stabler. 

Hot, a, ardent, fiery ; S. hai ; Swed. het ; Chald. Atl, 

Hotch-potch, s. a confused mixture of food boiled Uv 
gether; B huts pots ; F. hoche pot; Isl. hossa; T. 
hotsen ; B. hutsen ; F. hocher, to shake, to jumble. 

HoT-cocBXBS, s. hot fingers, a game with children ; F. 
tnain chaude ; G. knwcels seems to have been some- 
times pronounced without the a, and signified fingers; 
in the same way Swed. knota, a knot, is also written 
kota. See Gollb. 

Hotbl, s, a tavern, a place of grand entertainment. 
See HosTBL. 

HovB, raised, pret, of to Hbayb. 

HovBL, s. a shed, a mean hut ; G. hujle, dim. of kmfa ; 
Swed. hufwa ; S. Jiufe, a cover. See Hut. 

HovBR, v. n. to hang in the air like birds of prey, with- 
out advancing, to wander about ; M. G. hahun, to 
hold in counterpoise, hah ufar, what is suspended 
over ; T. hie ofer. 

Hough, s, the lower part of the thigh ; S. hoh. See 

Hound, #. a dog for chase ; G. Swed. D. S. T. hund ; B. 
hand ; W. huad ; Sans, ka ; »imf ; Arm. coun; L. cams; 
It. cane; F. chien. 

Hound, v. to pursue with dogs. See to Hunt. 

Hound -TRBB, s, the dog or cornel tree. 

HousB, s. an edifice, mansion, family; G. hus,frota hiu; 
S. hiw, a family ; Swed. and S. hus ; D. huus ; T. 
T. house ; B. huys. 

HousEL, HusTEL, s, the holy sacrament ; iwr^Tm ; G. 
husl; S. husel; Scot. ouzeL See Host. 

Houss, s, a skin thrown over the saddle to keep off 
dirt ; G. kaus ; T. hosz ; F. housse ; L. B. housia. 

HousT, s. a cough ; Swed. hosta ; B. hoest ; T. huste ; 
S. hweost. 

How, ad. in what manner, for what reason ; G. hn mege; 
S. hu ; T. wie ; B. Aoe. 

HowiTZBR, s. a small mortar for throwing shells, named 
after the inventor. See Hobit. 


H U R 

HowL^ s. the cry of a dog, a cry of horror^ a yell ; O. 
ganle; T. heule; D. and B. huil; Scotgoitf. See 

Hox« v. a, to hamstring. See Hough and Hock. 

Hoy, s, a coasting vessel, a hooker ; O. okga ; Swed. 

hukare ; B. hoeker ; F. hm : Q, aka, to carry. 
HuBUBj s. a tumult, uproar, riot ; W. kwbub ; I. vhuh : 

6. opa up, is to call out. See Hoop. 
Huckaback, #. a coarse kind of linen for tablecloths or 

towels; Hochebach, the place in Germany where it was 


HucKLB, s, a curvature, the joint of the hip ; dim. of 
6. and Swed. huka. See Hock and Hunch. 

HucKLEBACK, s, a hump-back ; T. hacker, a curve, a 

HuGKLE-BONB, 8. hip-bone. See Haunch. 

Huckster, #. a low trifling dealer ; properly the female 

of Hanker, 
Huddle, v. to jumble, to throw together in con^sion ; 

B. huiselen ; T. hotzen ; Isl. hossa. 
Hue, s, I . colour, die, complexion ; Swed. htf ; S. hiw, 

from hitvian, to form, give appearance, iwan, to show, 

to meet the eye. 
2. A general cry of indignation, a clamour against some 

disturber of the peace ; F. huie. See Hoot. 
Hue and Cby, s. an alarm, a call to pursue an offender ; 

from hue, perhaps from huant cry. 
Huff, s. a sudden swell of pride, a pet ; Swed. h^, 

pride, swelling. See to Heave. 
Hug, V, a, 1. to clasp in the arms ; S. hycgan signifies 

to press against, to strain convulsively ; but in wrest- 
ling, to hug is to force the joint of the hough. 
2. To think with satisfaction ; S. hogan, to meditate ; 

T. hugen, to rejoice, from G. hug, the mind. 
Huge, a, high, great, vast, enormous; B. hooge; Swed. 

hoeg, high, vast. 
Hugger Mugger, s. close mindedness, reserve, secrecy ; 

Swed. hug miug, from G. hugur, mind, humour, and 
mug, concealed. See Mugger. 

Huguenot, *. a protestant, a sectary ; F. from T. eidge- 

nasz ; ei, eid, an oath, and genosz ; G. naute ; Swed. 

note, genole, an associate^ 
H&KR, s, a cloak, a gown ; G. haukul ; T. hoecke ; B. 

huik ; F. huque ; A. huke. 
Hulk, s. the body of a ship, a large vessel to fit men of 

war with masts; G. hulg ; T. and Swed. hoik; S. 

hulc ; B. hulcke ; F. hulque ; It. hulca ; •>mm^^ See 

Hulk, v. a. to take out the bowels o^ a hare; G. and 

Swed. hoLka ; S. holian, to make hollow or empty. 
Hull, *. 1. the husk, outer tegument, the shell ; G. 

and B. hul, from G. hylia, hulga ; Swed. hjlja, to 

hele, to cover. See Shell. 
2. The body of a ship, the concavity ; G. holur ; S. and 

B. hoi 
Hull, v. 1. to take off the hull or husk. 
2. To hit the hull or body of a ship. 
Hum, s. 1. the noise of bees, abuzz, an indistinct sound, 

uncertain rumour ; G. and Swed. hum, 
2. A deception ; G. hum signifies a fictitious report ; 
but ham is a pretext, a concealed motive. See Sham. 
Hum, Humble bee, s, called also Bumble Bee from its 
buzzing ; Isl. humle ; Swed. humla ; D. and T. Aum- 
mel ; B. humble ; S. humbeL 

Humbles i. of a deer, the entrails; from T. kuamb : & 
uuamb; Scot wame, the belly. See Uxbum and 


Humbug, «. a deception* a falsehood ; It bugia, a He. 
See Hum and Bug. 

Hummum, s, a bath, a bathing house ; A. kmmmtm. 
Hump, #. 1. a protuberance, a lump ;^. homp ; O. and 
Swed. hump, a lump, a fragment. 

2. A detached piece of ground, a small field ; O. and 
Swed. hump ; T. Attmpe. See Hope and Tump. 

Hunch, s, a shove with the elbow or fist, a protube- 
rance ; the joints seem to have been generaUy im- 
plied in G. huka, which signified more particularly 
the hough and haunch, and apparently produced 
hunch as well as T. hdcker, a bump. See to Hukcb. 

Hunch, v. a. to shove or strike with the fist, knee or 
elbow ; from the noun ; in the same sense that Scot 
gnidge and nodge signify a blow with the knee or 

HuNCKB, 8. a covetous miserly person ; G. huinskur hat 
been supposed to be the same word ; but it means a 
pilferer ; Scot, hain, to save, to spare, to hoard, is 
from G. hasgna ; Swed. hJgna, to keep close. 

Hundred, s, I . ten times ten ; G. hund, hundra, hun^ 
drad, hundred; Swed. hundra; D. hundride ; S< 
hund, hundryd ; B. hondred; T. hunderi, G. hund 
signified originally ten, perhaps from haund, haunder, 
the hands or ten fingers ; and ra, rad, was a line, 
score, division, numeration. The Goths, besides the 
hundred often times ten, had one of ten times twelve, 
which we call the long hundred. 

2. A district, a division of country ; as containing so 
many hamlets, or in the sense of L. decuria, from its 
number of justices, or, as with the Goths, from being 
rated to furnish so many soldiers in war; G. and 
Swed. hundari ; S. hundred ; L. B. hundredum. 

Hunger, s. a want of food, an earnest desire ; G. 

hungr; Swed. hunger; T. S. hunger; B. hanger; 

M. G. hugrus. 
Hunt, v. a. to chase, pursue, seek af^; S. huntian. 

See to Hound. 
HuRD, s, a texture of sticks, a door, a case ; G. hurd; 

T. hurde ; B. horde. 
Hurdle, #. from Hurd ; a kind of gate made of laths, a 

wicker cradle, a basket ; S. hyrdel. 

Hurl, v. a. to throw as with a sling, to whirl ; G. 

huira, yra, hyra, to whirl, to throw with violence. 

See Whirl. 
Hurl, s. from the verb; a commotion, tumult, stir, 

HuRLT burly, s, tumult, confusion ; F. hurlu herlu ; 

Swed. huUer buUer; Sans, hurbvree, are used like our 


Hurray, s, a shout of encouragement ; T. hurri ; Tar- 
tar and Hind, hurra. 

Hurricane, s. a dreadful tempest; Sp. huracan; F; 
ouragan, from A. huruj ; F. orage, a storm. 

Hurry, v, to proceed hastily, to move impetuously ; 
G. hyra ; Swed. Ad D. hurra ; T. hurschen. 

Hurst, in the names of persons or places, signifies a 
forest ; T. hurst, horst ; apparently by the usual mu- 
tation of y into h, from Forest. 

Hurt, *. injury, harm, a wound, a shock ; S. hyrt; T. 
hurten ; b. hort ; F. heurt ; It urto ; G. yrta, 

6 ^ 

H U S 

H Y S 

HuRTLXBi&BYj s. a bilberry ; D. kiort botr. See Hart 


Husband^ i. master of a family, a married man, a fiurmer, 
an eoonomiat ; O. kushonde, from huU, a fimiily, and 
Ima, to inhabit, conduct ; S. huibanda ; D. and Swed. 
kusbotide; bonde, a conductor, dffnified generally a 
male ; kubonde was a bull, dufhonde, a male doye. 

Hush, inl- silence; O. thus; D. hys ; W. ust. See 

Husk, i. the int^piment of fruits, the refuse of grain ; 

O. huUack; Swed. huUa, hfUa ; B. kuUch, gdnUsch ; 

F. gouite. See Hull. 

Husky, a. 1. from the noun ; full of husks. 

2. Dry, hoarse ; S. hasig. See Hoabse. 

Hussar, s. a light*horseman ; P. and Tartar, uswar, ca« 
valry ; Sans, uswu, a horse. 

Hussy, s. 1. for Huswife or Housewife ; a frugal wo- 
man, a case containing needles and thread. 

2. A girl, a wench, a loose woman ; S, he is our pron. 
he, and keo, she ; se corresponds with L. is, and si 
with ea; whence S. hise, kysse, a lad; and by the 

same composition, keosig 
Scot Atsxte. 

I, a girl ; M. O. tsoi ; 

HusT, HusTLB, V. a. to shake together; B. hutsen, huU 
seUin; F. kocker; T. kotzen; lA, kossa. 

Hustings, #. o/. a council, a court, the place where the 
court is holden, the aulic forum; G. kus Iking; S. 
kusHnge, from kus, a house, and tking, a public affidr, 
a cause, L. res. 

Hut, #. a shed, a hovel ; O. kydd ; D. kyite / T. kuitie; 

S. kuiie; F. kutU. See Hidb. 
Hutch, s» a com measure, an ark for holding grain ; S. 

kueccaj F. kucke; G. and Swed. wacka, written 

wicke by Chaucer. See Wioh. 

Huzza, s, a shout of joy and triumph ; O. kudsa ; 
Swed. ketsa, kissa ; T. ketzen, were used in the chase 
to excite hounds ; iurm was used in the sense of call« 
ing out ; B. koesa seems to be adopted from our word. 

Hym, s. a house-di|g; f¥om G^kaim, a house, a dwell« 

ing. See Homb. 
Hybst, 1. a wood. See Hurst. 
Hyssop, s. an herb supposed to improve sight ; A. zqf; 

Heb. esqf, nob ; vmnrt ; L. kyssojms. 

I t 

I I 


• I 

I t 


( , 


I D L 

JIN Enfflish^ as a vowel^ has the sound long in a 
9 syllable terminated by e, aajire, thine, mite; other- 
wise it is shorty as Jin, thin, sin. Prefixed to e it 
makes a diphthong resembling «e/ so that field, yield, 
are pronounced feeld, yeeld. Subjoined to a or e it 
makes them long, as fail, neigh* The sound of t be- 
fore another t, or at me end of a word, is always ex- 
pressed by y, which is really the double t or i; of the 
Goths. In the Gothic dialects, as with the Greeks, i 
in the middle of words was a diminutive, particularly 
when substituted for a, e, or o; as stock, stick ; top, 
tip ; lop, lib ; nock, nick ; neb, nib ; jabber, libber : 
and in Scotland it has the same efiect as a termination, 
in lad, ladie; bairn, baimie; as well as with the 

I was used by the Gk>ths as an article like a ; and our 
the was written J, or y when a prefix. The Swedes 
and Danes say i morgen, the morrow, to-morrow. As 
a prep, it sifnified in, with, by, of which it seems to 
have been the root. The Goths said IfU, wiUi foal, 
Ikalf, with calf 

I, pron, personal; G. t, eij, eg, iag, ik ; S. i, ic ; T. ich; 
D. ieg ; iym, u»; h.egO', It. io; F,je; W. i, signify. 

ing the same, the self-same individual. I was used 
by the Goths and English instead of their ia, our yea, 
which have nearly the same formation, and was writ- 
ten y by Shakespear. The Arabs say y for me. 

IcB, s. water frozen, sugar that is concreted resemblinff 
ice; G. ise ; Swed. and S. is; T. eis; B.eyse; W. 
jaeth : P. yukk ; G.jok, signified also ice. 

Ich dibn, signifying in Teutonic / serve, was the motto 
of John, King of Bohemia, who was taken prisoner 
by a Prince of Wales. G. thy, a servant, is said to be 
from §w, htHtt, to perform, to do ; Isl. thiena. 

loiOLB^ 1. dripping water frozen into a spike of ice ; G. 
isiake, isiokla; Swed. iskal; S. is icel ; T. ichel, eis 
ichel; D. iis tap : G.jokla,jokul; P. yekhkull, icy top 
or hiU, Mount JEIeda. 

Idlb, id. 1. unemployed; G. idelig, from id, labour, sig- 
nified industrious; but with the negative prefix it 


would be oiddig, without work; G. dmll, however, is 
industrious^ usmd ; and odasU, careless, useless. 

2. Emp^, vain, frivolous, waste, fruitless ; S. idd ; T. 
itel; D. ydel; Swed. idd; G. eyde, audur ; D. oede; 
T. oede, void. 

Idol, s, an image worshipped as a god ; f>«A«» ; L. ido^ 
lum ; F. idole. 

Idtl, s, a small ode, a short eclogue; Mxkff, dim. of 

Ip, cofff. so be, supposing that, whether; G. ef; B,of; 

^'!U> gif* S"»«- ^* M. G. ft, t6e, so be. See lor 
Yba, and Bb. 

Iland, s. land surrounded by water; G. eyland; S. ea- 
land, from ea, water, and land. Generally written 
Island, as from Isle, which has a different origin. 

Ilb, «. 1. a walk in a church. See Aislb. 

2. A bud or eye of grain ; F. ceil, from L. oculus. 

Ilk, s. the same, the like ; G. Uik ; S. ilc, ealc, signify 
one like. See Each. 

Ill, s. injury, evil, misfortune, harm, wickedness ; G. 
and Swed. ill, contracted from yvel. See Evil. 

Illumb, \ V, a. to enlighten, adorn, to supply 

Illuminatb, V with light, to inform the mind ; F. i&i. 
Illuminb, I miner ; It illuminare, from L. lumen, 

Ixbrub, t;. a. to soak, to steep, to wet much ; L. tm- 

Imp, s. 1. an offspring, a puny devil ; some suppose 
fr^m L. impius, others from the verb ; perhaps ^^vik* 

2. From the verb ; a graft. 

Imp, V, a, to join, extend, waft ; G. imfa ; Swed. ympa ; 
S. impan ; T. impfen ; D. ympe ; W, impio. 

Impair, t;. a. to injure, make worse; P. rmfitVer, from 
L. pefor, 

Impbach, v. a, to accuse judicially ; L. impeto. See 

Implbmbnt, 1. what is employed, a utensil, tool, in- 
strumen . See to Employ. 

I N R 


Is, prep, within, not out ; O. in ; L. ifi / & ; Arm. en ; 

W. yn. 
Inch, s. a measure of lengthy the twelfth part of a foot ; 

S. inct ; h. uncia^ 
Inohipin, s, the lowest gut of a deer^ an entrail ; tn- 

skipan, internal form. 
Indbbd, ad. in fact, in reality, in truth. See Dbbd. 

Indbnt, o. a. to mark with inequalities like a row of 
teeth ; from L. dens. 

Indbntubb, s. a deed or covenant; from the verb; 
because the written document was cut asunder in a 
zigzag; each party keeping a portion to prove, by 
fitting them together, their identity. See Entail. 

Indigo, Indico, s. a plant brought from India, named 
anil, used in dying blue. 

Indult, Indultato, s. exemption, privilege; F. and 
It. from L. induigatus. 

Infantry, s. foot soldiery of an army ; F. infanterie ; 
It. infanteria. It fante, a footman, a messenger, is 
supposed to be from L. infans ; but the Gk)ths pre- 
tena that their fante, fantock, Jatock, signifying Uie 
lowest class of servants, came to denote a foot soldier, I 
because too mean and poor to be a horseman. 6. i 
fotner ; ^.fethner, an Jeikner, a foot soldier, corre- 
sponded with L. peditatus. 

Ino, 1. as a termination of participles, is G. ing, end; 
T. ing, ende ; S. ing ; L. ens. 

2. A diminutive termination, like It ini j I. yn ; £k. 
ung; Swed. jfNg; T. ing, properly young, is meta^ 
phorically little. It seems, however, to have been 
sometimes confounded with Ung. 

3. Annexed to names of places, is generally firom 6. 
ceng; Swed. eeng ; IsL enge; S. ing; Scot inch, a 
meadow. See WoNO. 

Inoannatign, s. deception, delusion ; from It inganno, 
to deceive ; 6. gan, deception. 

Ingot, s. a mass of metal, gold or silver uncoined ; Sp. 
ingoite, to which the F. article was prefixed, making 
lingoi : M. 6. giutan, ingiutan ; B. inf^en, signify 
to cast or found metal ; and Chaucer uses ingot as a 

Ink, s. coloured liquid to write with ; F. encre ; It. tn- 
chiostro, seem to be what Pliny describes as efMMMu- 
tum ; but T. tint, tinct, from L. tinctus, produced B. 

Inklb, s. a sort of linen tape or fillet ; B. lint, Untie, Xxgat. 

Inkling, s. a hint, intimation; supposed to be from 

hint; but 6. inga; S. ingan, sigmfy to enter upon, 

introduce, and Ting is smtdi, diminutive. See BfliGiN 

and Ling. 
Inn, s, a house to entertain travellers ; O. inne ; S. inn, 

from O. inna ; S. innan, to go in. 
Innocbnt, s. an idiot, a natural, a fool ; L. innocens- 

See SiLLT. 
Inroad, s. incursion, sudden invasion ; may signify a 

road into another territory ; but Tartar, Turk. Scot. 

raid, denotes a military enterprise, particularly of 


Intaglio, s, a stone or jewel with a figure engraved 
upon it See Taillb. 

Intbrlabd, v. a. to mix fat with lean, to diversify by 
mixture; F. entrelarder. 

Intbrlopb, v. n. to run between two parties, to intrude ; 
B. enierloopen. See Elopb. 

Into, prep, denoting entrance ; the contrary of Out of; 

5. into. 

Intozicatb, v. a. to inebriate; L. B. intoxico; It. intos^ 
sico, to poison, from v^^iC^f ; L. toxicum, venom. 

Intrigue, v. n. to form plots, carry on private designs ; 
F. intriguer ; L. intricor, 

Inveiglb, v. a. to seduce, allure; It invogUare, volere; 
L. velle. 

Invoice, s. a bill of particulars of goods sent, an ac- 
count of wares in general ; L. B. inviatio, from L. tn- 
viare, to send. See Envoy. 

Inure, v. a. to habituate, bring into use. See Ure. 

Inward, a. internal, domestic ; 6. inwart ; S. inweard. 
See In and Ward. 

Ipecacuanha, s, from Paquoquanha, the Brasilian name 
of an emetic root 

Irk, V. a. to give pain ; T. asrgeren, to vex ; G. arg ; S. 
earg; T. arg, erk, vexation. 

Iron, s. a metal, a chain or shackle of iron ; 6. tarn ; 
Swed. ia^m ; D. iern ; S. iren ; W. hiam ; Arm. hoam. 

le, third person singular of the v^b ,|o fi^.; M* G..<8. 

and B. is, connate with wl ; ,Xu ,««/•* T. .if/, from ^..# 

or e; w, iwhich beoan^.fe or ve in soqieiiQ. 4^lects, 

and in others se^ sejfn, ise; L..eMe- 
IsH, -a termination hv whidi nouns rbec^ime adjectives, 

as English, roguish, girlish ; 6. 4^,<ftn all dialects. 

Isinglass, s. 1. a kind of fish glue; T. husenblas; Swed. 
.husblas, firom huse, a sturgeon found in the Danube. 

2. A kind of talc used for windows ; ao named from its 
resembling fish glue. 

Island, s. properbr Iland ; but erroneously supposed to 
be from isk ; "L. insula^ which also signifies a place 
surrounded by water. See Ilakd. 

IsauB, V. to (jDome out, send out, proceed itpm, arise, 
terminate ; F. .issuer ; It. uscire, trom L. exeo. 

lT,pron. the neutral demonstrative in speaking of things; 

6. hit; S. it, hit ; B. het; L. id. 

Itoh,^. a disease attended with a desire of scratdiing, 
a teazing desire ; 6. ikt ; Isl. gicht ; Swed. giokt ; o. 
^giehta ; B.Jiochte ; T.^ucke ; Scot yuke. It denoted 
with Uie Goths any.fhsorder.of tj^e skin, including 
lepro[|y, imd afterwards also the gout But the origin 
of our .word is apparently from eat, in the same way 
that we use mange, from F. manger, to eat, to itch. 

IvoBY,;#. the tusk of an elephant; F. tvoire, from L. 

IvT, s. a plant ; S. Ifig ; T. ep^en, apparently firom 6. 
uppa, yffa, to cbnb up, as the B. name is dim op. 
Arm. eT/ SXif, signify entwining and ivy ; while F. 
lierre is from L.Ugare. 

► **. - «-»A 


J A C 

JOB I coKBONAMTj lus been adopted from the Latin, 
5 and has invariably the same sound with that 
of 6 in Giant When the Goths used J as a conso- 
nant> it had the sound of Y. In English it is some- 
times substituted to express it, thi, and di, for which 
the Teutons use Z ; and, like the French, we write 
journal, for Latin diumaL 

Jabbbr, t;. a. to talk unintelligibly ; Russ. gabar, gavar; 
B. gahheran ; Scot gabber, from gab, the mouth; 
Sans, and F.jeeb, is the tongue. See Gabblb. 

Jack, *. 1. used as a diminutive of John ; G. jog; M. 
G. jugg; 8. geoe; Scot Jock, from G. ug; I. og, 
young, meaning. Tike luiuvencus, a young male or lad ; 
O. E. yoke, a young girl. Bob and Pegg!f> » hoy and 
girl, had originally no affinity with Robert and Mar- 
garet. See John and Gill. 

2. A mechanical instrument ; G^ack, from ga, to go, to 
move ; D. gick ; lal. jack ; T.jack, gach; S. geoc, a 
quick motion. 

3. A coat of leather or mail ; S wed. jaka ; Y>,jakke ; B. 
jakkt, kajakke, skeke; T. jacke, schacke ; It giacco; 

V.jaque de maille : Isl. iktckia, from G. ski^a, to cover, 
to derend, was used in the sense of L. sagum. See 

4. Leather thickened by boiling, and used for flasks or 
water-proof boots; Sp. zaque; Syriac zac, zica, 

5. A young pike. See Haak and poor Jack. 

6. An ensign, a signal, a mark at bowls ; G. Hag ; T. 
zeige ; iSrm.jack; W.jaccfvn, from G. tia; T.zeigen, 
to show. See Tokbn. 

Jack-a-dandt, s. a silly conceited fellow. See Dan- 


Jack-adam 8, 1. a blockhead, a stupid fellow ; T. hans 
dumm, Jack a dunce. 

Jaokanapbs, s. an impertinent troublesome feUow, a 

monkey, an ape. 
Jaok-a«lbnt, s. a starved helpless fellow ; Jack of Lent. 

J A I 

Jaok-Kbtoh, i. a hangman, for Jack Hitch; or perhaps 
S. ceoct, that strangles. See to Chokb. 

Jaok-patoh, s. a paltry knave. See Patch. 

Jaok-puddiko, «. a merry andrew, a buffoon ; B. Jan 
potazie; T. hans wwrH, signifying a fellow witn a 
pudding or sausage. Durmg the Saturnalia it was 
usual to exhibit emblems of an obscene worship in- 
troduced from Egypt In Germany they were made 
of leather ; but tnose who continue to amuse the vul- 
gur, under that name, are no longer permitted to 
exhibit them. The Phallic dance is supposed to have 
been the origin of Greek comedy; B,jan; It zanm; 
L. sannio, are generally confounded with John. See 

Jaok-bauob, s. a conceited impudent fellow; saucy. 

Jaok-bpbat, s, a conceited fellow, a coxcomb. See 

Jack-boot, a large hunting boot See Jack. 

Jack-daw, s. a bird, formerly called cadaw. See 
Chough and Daw. 

Jackal, s. a kind oi wild dog; Turk, chekal; P. 

Jackbt, s. a short coat, a waistcoat ; dim. of Jack, a 
military coat ; F.jaquette. 

Jadb, v. a. to weary, tire, fatigue ; apparently frx>m O. 

fa, to go, to drudge, or S. getheoman ; gethowiade, 
acked about, done up, sutSued; G. thy, service; 
iw, to do. 

Jadb, s. 1. from the verb ; a horse or mare worn out by 
labour ; anciently yaid, yeoud ; Scot yad, 

2. An idle wench, a saucy girl y Scot, jute; ls\. jode, ap- 
parently the feminine ofjod; Swed. goste; I. gottain ; 
vif, a boy. 

3. For agate. See Jbt. 

Jaoo, s. a denticulation, a point, the head of an arrow ; 
G. iegga ; Swed. tagg ; Isl. taggar ; D. tagge ; T. 
zacke. See Tack, Tag, Dag andZiGZAG. 

Jail, s. a place of confinement ; F. geok ; Sp. jaula, a 
prison, a cage. See Gaol. 



JAXBSy^.ahouaeof office^ asink; h»B.jaciio; 

Jaiuup, s, a purgative root, fbiind at Xeiapa in S. 

Jam, v. o. to confine, wedge in ; 6. hama, kava ; Swed. 
hamma, gakamima ; T. gehaiin. 

Jam, s. 1. a conserve of fhiit, jelly; A. Jama. 

2. A child's firock ; P. jamu, a gown worn by the Ma* 
hometans in India. 

Jaxb, s: the upright post of a door; Sp-janUfa; F. 
Jamb; It gamba; T. gampe, oorrespondinff with 
HmfMrn; W. gpmmach, commack; Arm. camba ; I. 
gambeen, a limb, a leg. See Ham. 

Janolb, t;. It. to bicker, to snarl, to show the teeth in 
anger ; T. zankelen y B. Jangden ; F. Jangler : B. 
Jank ; T. zank, a grin, grimace, dispute, quarrel ; G. 
tan ; T. zan, zahn, a tooth. 

Janizary, s. a Turkish soldier ; P. and Turk. Jengi 
chert, new soldier. Jengi, tfenge, is our young or 
new ; and yenge doon, the new world, is the P. name 
for America. 

Jannock, s. a cake of oatmeal or barley baked before 
the fire. See Annock. 

Janty, a. gay, showy ; F. gentil, 

Januaby, s. the first month of the year ; from h, Janus, 
supposed to be 6. ton ; Trojan, tona, the sun. 

Japan, #. fine varnish, varnish work ; resembling what 
is made in the island of Japan. 

Jab, t;. n. to disagree, snarl, sound harshly, rage ; Isl. 
Jarga; Swed. Jdrga,kan^ga, to contend, to scold; sup- 
posed by some to have affinity with Jj.Jurgo or i^. 

Jab, s. I. from the verb ; harsh sound, discord, strife. 

2. To one side, oblique. See Ajab. 

3. An earthen or stone vessel ; It. ghiara, giarra, from 
L. glaria; Sp. Jarro; F. Jarre; A. ziarr. See 
Obay bbabd. 

Jabdes, s. a swelling on the hind leg of a horse ; F. 
Jardes, iroiajarret, the hough. See Oabtbr. 

Jabgon, s. gibberish, unintelligible talk ; F. Jargon ; 
Sp. gerigonza; It. zergp, gergo, gergone; peniaps 
from ym^vtt. 

Jab-Hawk. See Eyas. 

Jasmin, Jbssaminb, i. a very fragrant fiower ; P. and 
Hmd. Jatmun; Jj.Jasminum; F. Jasmin. 

Jaspbb, s. a beautiful dark green stone; A. and P. 
Jushulyasb; Heh.Jasaph; Ym^wtt; h.Jaspis. 

Javbl, s. a mean fellow, a hireling, a varlet ; Scot. Je^ 
vel, gavel: Q.fal, falur, venal, produced T.Jeil; B. 
veil, geveil, sale or hire ; T.feUe, veile doechter, a bar- 
lot, a hireling. 

Javbl, v. a. to bemire, to jable, to wet. See Dabble. 

Javelin, s. a kind of spear, a half-pike ; O. gqflack, 
JttvUin; F.Javelot; Sp.Javalin. See Gapp. 

Jaundice, s. a distemper of the liver, accompanied by a 
yellowness of the skin ; F. Jaunisse ; Jaune, Jaulne, 
yellow, from 6. gvl ; S. geolem ; It giallo. 

Jaunt, s. 1. an excursion, a short journey ; apparently 
from ancient Yend ; S. gait, to go. See to Wend. 

2. The felly of a wheel; F.Janie. 

Jaw, s. a bone inclosing the teeth, the chawbone ; P. 
Jamah; T.kau; F.Joue. See Cheek and Jole. 

Jaw, v. II. from the noon ; to talk saucily ; a vulgar ex-« 
presdon formed from the Jaw, like Gabble, fVom gab, 
the mouth. 

Jay, s. a bird called a hickholt ; F. geai ; L. B. gaja ; 
lUgazzuolo; Sp. grata; L. graculus. ■ 

Jazel, s. a precious stone of a blue colour ; from axul, 
blue. S^ AzuBE. 

Jealous, a. emulous, suspicious in love; F.Jaloux; It. 
gehso, from L. zelus, 

Jbab, s. an assemblage of tackle. See Oeeb. 

Jeat, s. a fossil of a fine black colour. See Jet. 

Jeeb, s. a scofi^, a jest ; O. gar ; B. scheer, correspond 
with L. *ctirra; out our word is perhaps It giuocare, 
from Jj.Jocus. 

Jelly, s. a coagulated fluid. See Gelly. 

Jenbtino apple, s. F. Janeton, from its being ripe at 
St Jean or midsummer. See John apple. 

Jennet, s. a small Spanish horse. See Oinnet. 

Jbopabd, t;. a. to put in danger ; fVom T. gefarde ; B. 
gevaard, gefahrde ; Scot. Jepart : G. Jiaur ; Swed. 
jara ; S.jeorh, fatality. 

Jebk, ^. 1. a rod, a switch; perhaps from the verb; 
but Scot gert, a switch, is T. gerte, for geriUhe, a 

2. From the verb ; a sudden spring, a shock, a blow, 

Jebk, v. a. 1. to strike with a quick sharp blow ; S. ge- 
rcecan, fVom rcecan, to reach, signified, like L. tango, 
to touch and to strike; Swed. ryck; D. rtfk ; S. re- 
cen, a jerk, a blow, any thing sudden. See Yebk. 

2. To define, examine, correct ; S. gerecan, from recan, 
to reckon. 

3. To accost, to address ; S. gereccean, from reccean, to 

Jebkbb, Jebgueb, s. a person who examines and checks 
accounts. See to Jebk. 

Jebkin, s. a short coat, a jacket ; B. Jurke, apparently 
for geroke. See Rocket and Fbock. 

Jebkin, Gebkin, s. a small hawk ; dim. ofger or gier. 
See Gebpalcon. 

Jebsey, s. fine wool combed by an instrument so called. 
The word was formerly gearnsey. See Yabn. 

Jebusalem, s. the city of refuse; Heb. Jaresaiam; 
'l^vm^i^, from A. and Heb. sMam, safety, salute. 

Jebusalem abtiohoke, s. the sunflower artichoke, 
from S. America ; It. girasole. 

Jess, s, the leather slip by which a hawk is held and 
tossed off into flight; It getto ; F.Jet, geckte, gectes, 
from h.Jacto. 

Jest, s. any thing ludicrous, a joke, a sarcasm ; Sp. 
and Port chiste ; It cioco, gioco, giuoco, fVom £. 

Jesus, s. the Redeemer ; Heb. Jeshu ; 'innti ; L. Jesus, 
the Saviour. 

Jet, t;. n. to shoot out, to jut forward, intrude, strut ; 
F.Jetter ; It gettare, from Jj.Jacto. 

Jet, s. 1. from the verb ; a spout or shoot of water. 

2. A black fossil ; ymyJU^i ; F.Jayet ; so named from a 
river in Lycia, where it was found. 

Jetson, s. goods thrown firom a shipwreck ; from Jet 
and G. sion ; D. seen, of the sea. See Flotson. 

J o u 

J U.N 

Jewel, #. a fBto, a luone of fondnoii ; F. Jcgfou, infu 
ellej It gtoielio; B. jumeif, from L. ytirfMifit. eee 

Jbws' barp, s. a very simple muiiad infitrument^ com- 
mon throughout Aaia^ and smpoaed to be brought 
into Europe by the Jews. It is called by the troths 
the mouth harp. 

Jibber^ v. it. to talk unintelligibly ; dim. of Jabbbr. 

Jio^ s. a light dance; It giga, from Q^.gigia; T. gejge, 
a violin. 

JiouMBOB^ s. a trinket, a knickknack. See Oio and 

Jilt, 9. a woman who deceives a man in love; O.giUa; 
T. gellen, to seduce. See to Gull. 

JiNOLE, V. to clink, to ocNrespond in sound. See 

Job, v. 1. to strike, to drive in ; £. chap, like 8c6t 

chap, chope, was used in this sense, as well as to cut 

witii a blow. 

2. To exdiange, buy and sell, transfer, turn over. See 
Chop, an exchange. 

Job, s. from the verb; 1. a bargain, a business Under- 
taken for selfish ends. 

2. A stroke of work, a blow, a stab. * 

Jobbbrnowl, s. a blockhead, a numskull ; 6. geip ; T. 
gauf, goffe ; 'B.jobhe, nonsense, and nol for noddle, 
the h^ul. 

Jockey, «. who rides or deals in horses ; John Hostler 
seems to have been a name generally ffiven to one 
who had the charge of stables ; and JacKie or jockey, 
a lad who gave the horses exercise, signified after- 
wards a dealer in 'them. See Jack. 

JoG, Joggle, v. a, to push, to shake. See Shog. 

John, s, a man's name ; Heb. Johanna ; L. Johannes, is 
our scriptural name ; but Sans, and P. Juwan corre- 

rnd with h.juvenis, signifying a young man. See 

John dort, s, a fish. See Dorse. 

John apple, s, an apple ripe at St John's day. See 

JpiST, s. a beam or rafter ; from L. junctus, 

Jole, Jowl, s. the cheek, the face ; 6. kial ; S. cecl ; 
Scot, chol; Arm. javeeUe. See Jaw. 

JoLLT, a. cheerful, social, plump, fat ; It. gUUivo ; L. 
gaudialis, jovialis, 

JoLLT BOAT, s, a yawl ; D. and Swed^juUe; Phrygian, 
ivXf ; L. gaulus. See Yawl. 

Jolt, s. a violent shock; Y.joide, See Jostle. 

Jolthead, s, a dolthead ; B.jool, dool, dull. 

Jonquil, Jonquille, s, a species of daffodil ; F* Jon^ 
quille ; It. gionco gigUo ; L,. Junci lilium, 

JoRDEN, JuRBEN, s. a chamberpot ; W. dvr dyn, pro- 
perly llexier a zurdyn ; Arm. dourden, human water ; 
O. Y,jar, urine. See Der. 

Jostle, v. a. to push or run against ; frequentative of 


Jot, *. a point, a tittle ; tina ; M. G. gota ; S. iota. See 

Journal, *. a diary, a daily paper; ¥. journal; It 

giornale ; L. dinrnalis. 

Joomut, t. wluft btlQfl||p to a dqr, Mmi hf laadAr 
one or mate days ; F^joumi ; H dimmu. 

J0U8T, o. to run in the tilt, to attack with tlw \tmtt at 
f uU mee4, to ihixdu L. B. iitkattimre ; T. d\%9imm^ 
from X. hatia, whidi{NBodiioed L. AJctfto y F.jmf ; 
T.joit,juttch ; It gmtra, a blunt qpaar naed at tUs 

Jo^LBR, ^. a name Ibr a lioimd ; 6. gawEsr / F. grihe*^ 
ler. See Howl. 

Jot, 9. gladness, enfhation, jftetture ; Y.jom y It gidm ; 
Romance, gomg, from \j. gaudium. 

JuBiLBB, s. I. a shout «f eKultatioii, joy; Li.JmS3um, 
from Heb. Jehovah eli ; A. and P. Aiah Alak, is tihte 
war cry olr appeal to Ood ; «;uai. 

3. A festival of rcgoidng at certain prescribed periods; 
L.ju6ikeu9, from Heb.joU^ remission of debts. 

Jug, s. a drinking vessel with a gibbous belly; & 
ceac; T. kauch ; miSmk ; L. B. caucus, cyaihus ; Scot 

Jug, v. a, to stew, to cook with spices; P. Jucka; Pol. 

Juggle, v, n. to play tricks by slight of lumd; T.gauek, 
magic, yin, produced gaucklen ; B. guigelen, goche* 
len, to enchant, and iuso to fool in the sense of our 
Gkiwk ; but F. jongler ; It giuocolare, from h.jocus, 
to play mountebanK tricks, apparently produced our 

Juggler, s, from the verb ; one who juggles, a player 
of tricks, a cheat; It giocolere; F. jongleur; T. 
gauckeler; Swed. gycklare ; B. guycheler. 

JuiOE, s. the sap of plants and fruits, the fluid in ani- 
mal bodies; Sans, joos; ¥, jus ; S.jugo; It suceo; 
L. succujf. 

Juke, v, n, to perch, roost, settle; L. jugor ; F. 

Juke, s. the neck of any bird ; h.jugum, 

JuLAP, JuLBP, s. a liquid form of medicine; P. 
gulab, from gul, a rose, and a6, water ; L. B. ju^ 

JvuAET, 1. an animal absurdly supposed to be produced 
from a male ass and a cow ; Y.jumart, ftixak A. h u m 
mar, a red ass, which is held in disrepute as dege* 

Jumble, v. a. to mix confusedly ; B. schommelen, warn' 
melen, memmelen ; Scot, warnble, from Isl. wamla, to 
move about, to stir round. 

Jump, t;. a. 1. to leap, skip, jolt; Swed. gumpa ; T. 
and B. gumpen ; M. 6. jupan : O. skun^a, to skip ; 
Isl. and Swed. gump, the hip. 

2. To join, to tally, to fit ; 6. ymfa ; Swed. yn^ ; S. 
ymhjon. See Gimp and to Imp. 

Jump, s. 1. from the verb ; a leap, a bound. 

2. A pair of stays; formerly jubandgippo; V.jupe; 
T. and B.juppe; It. giuboa ; A,joobu. See Juppon. 

Jump, ad, from the verb ; properly, fitly, nicely. 

JuNCATE, s, a cheesecake, delicacies made - of cream ; 
L. B,juncaie was a rush basket, in which cheesecakes, 
curds and fruits were brought to Rome from the 
country, and called gioy?ca/a ; Y.jonche^, 

Junk, s. a kind of ship used in the East ; supposed to 
be Chinese yong, the sea, and shtten, a boat; P. and 
Malay,' chong. 

J U R 

Junk, «. an old rope ; It gkmco; F.jomche; h.juncus, 
apparently fWim being made of rashes in former 

JuMTO> s. a cabal, a faction, a party; It. junto; L* 

JuproN, s. a 8h<nrt close coat, a petticoat ; F. jupoH' 
See Jump. 

JupiTXB, 8. L. ; P. deu jmedar; Sans, dewa paiara; 
Jury, x. a set of men sw<Nm to declare the truth on such 


evidence as shall be given before them; F. j'urei, 
from L.juro. 

Just mast, f. a temporary mast ; F. jouri, temporary, 

dejcmr en jour, or from Lujuvare. 
Just, f. a mock fight on horseback. See Joust. 
JusTLB, V. a. to push, drive against, shock ; from Joust. 

Jut, Jutty, v. n. to shoot out, to project; F.jetUr; 
It gettare, from L.Jacto ; but lA.juta,uta ; S. %Han, 
to put forth, extend, are from O. uta. See Out and 


E E £ 

KBBLOMOBD to the Greek as well as to the €K>thic 
alphabet; and has before all the vowels one in- 
varialole sound; as Kaw, Ken, Kill. In our pre- 
sent pronunciation K is silent before N; we say, 
nee, nife, nob, for knee, knife, knob. K is some- 
times substituted for O hard in words derived from 
the Gothic ; and the Saxons, like ourselves, frequent- 
ly use the Latin C in its stead; as Cling, Cloth, 
Kale, f. a potherb, a kind of cabbage, a soup made 
with greens ; G. kal ; P. kal ; Scot kail ; W. canl ; 
Arm. caul. See Colb. 

Kali, «. a marine plant, soda, barilla; A. kali. See 

>Kam, o. crooked, awry, bent; P. khanU; Arm. and 

W. camm ; I. earn ; Idm cam, like zig zag, is merely 

a repetition of the word. See Cambbb. 

Kaw, s. a bird called a daw ; T. kaw ; B. kaauw. See 

Kaw, v. a. from the noun ; to cry like a daw. 
Katlb, Kbalb, Kittlb, s. a nine pin ; Swed. kwgla ; 

D. kegk; T. kegel; F. qMU. 

Kbck, o. ft. to heave the stomach ; T. kecken ; B. htch^ 
en, a different pronunciation o( Cough, signified also 
to spit or spue. 

Kbcks, Kbcksby, s, hemlock, dried stalks of plants. 
See Kbx. 

Kbckv, Kbxy, a. resembling kex. 

Kbdoe, v. a. to drag, to pull; B. getoogen. See to 

Kedobr, s, from the verb ; a towing anchor. 

Kbdlack, s, the herb called mercury, but sometimes 
charlock ; S. cedeleleak. 

eye, bad luck. See to Pbbp. 
Keel, s, the lowest timber of a ship ; G. kiol ; Swed 
kdh T^.kkel; T. keol ; S. cmk; B. Ate/; F. quiUt. 

Kbblhalb, iti. fi. to draw under the keel. See to 

K £ R 

Kbblsom, «. the wood next the keel. 

Kbbm, a. sharp, eager, severe ; G. tone ; S. kene ; B. 
koen ; Swed. kan ; T. kuhn, 

Kbbp, v. a to preserve, protect, maintain, retain, hold ; 
S. cepan, apparently for gehaben, from have, to hold. 

Keo, s. a small vessel, a cag ; Swed. kagge ; S. ceac ; L. 

Kbll, s. 1. pottage. See Kalb. 

2. The omentum. See Caul. 

Kblp, «. a salt extracted from kali or other sea weed. 

Kbltbb, 9. provision, preparation, outfit ; T. keUer for 
gehttUer, hekalier, maintenance. 

Ken, v. a. to know, to perceive ; G. kenna ; Swed. 
kantna; T. kennen; S. cennan ; B. kennen ; M. G. 
kunnan. See to Know. 

Kbnnbl, «. 1. a house for dogs ; F. chenil ; It canile, 
from L. cams. 

2. The water course of a street; T. kenel; F. chenal; 
See Channel. 

Kbnnel, v. from the noun ; to be housed miserably, to 
lie like a dog. 

Kbrohibf, f . a part of head dress, written coverchief 
by Chaucer ; F. couvre chef. 

Kbbf, s. the crevice made by the passing of a saw. See 

to Cabvb. 
Kbrl, s. a man, a boor ; G. karl; T. kerl. See Churl. 
Kbrmes, s. a drug, a worm found on the dwarf ilex, 

supposed formerly to be a grain, and used for dying ; 

P. kermez, from kertn, a worm. See Crimson. 

Kern, «. 1. an Irish foot soldier, a boor; I. ceam, con- 
tracted from ceatham ; W. cadam ; Arm. cadiron ; 
Scot caterane. 

2. A hand mill ; G. kuem ; Swed. quam ; D. qucnrn ; 
T. quern. 

Kern, v. 1. to form into grains as com, to granulate ; 

Isl. kiema ; T. kemen. See Corn. 
2. To use salt in kern or unbroken. See to Corn. 

Kbbnbl, s. the edible substance of fruit within a shell, 


E I L 

a glandular node in the neck ; S. cymd; Isl. hieme ; 
F. cemeau. See to Kxrn. 
Kebnxl wort, s. an herb called scrofularia. See Wax 


Kbrsby, f . a kind of woollen cloth ; Swed. kersing ; B. 

karsaye; T. kerschey ; It. carisea; Sp. cariza ; F. 

Kestrel, s. ha. flaggon, a flask. See Costrbl. 

2. A kind of hawk ; L. celer crepitula ; F. cresserelle, 
crecerelle, crecelU ; Sp. cemicah appears to be from 
cemo, to hover like the motion of shifting, from L. 
cemo. See Castrbl. 

Kbtcb, s, 1. a decked boat, a kind of ship ; D. kagskib; 
F. caicke, quaiche, caique ; B. kcuis ; Swed. kof^ : B. 
kits appears to be English ; 6. kuggr is a kind of 

2. A hangman. See Jack Ketch. 

Kettle, «. a kitchen vessel to boil in ; O. kctil, a copper 
boiler ; M. G. katila; Swed. kettel; B. ketel; S. cez^ 
el; T. kessel, kettel; L. catiUum, dim. o£ catinum, 

Kex, Kecks, s, hemlock, anv plant with a hollow stalk 
of that kind ; W. cecys ; F. eigne ; L. cicuta. 

Key, s. 1. an instrument to open a lock ; S. €ega; It 

ckiave; F. clef; L. clavis. 
2. A wharf, a landing place ; G. kui ; Swed. kya ; T. kay; 

B. kaai; F. quai. 
Keys, s. pL flowers or fruit, such as the cowslip or ash 

pods, which hang like bunches of keys ; T. schlussel, 

a key, is also applied to them. 
Khan, s. a chief, a lord or prince ; Tartar kahan ; P. Xro- 

Kibe, s. a chilblain, a chap in the heel ; B. keep MeL 

Kick, r. a, to strike with the foot; T. kaucken; Sp. 
caucear ; L. ccdcare. 

Kickshaw, ^. 1. a gay sight, a novelty, a trifling exhi- 
bition ; B. kykschouw ; Scot kick. 

2. A something, a fantastical dish. See Quelqub Chose. 

Kid, s, the young of the goat ; G. and D. kid ; A. gide ; 
W. gitten ; L. hasdus. See Goat. 

Kidder, «. a huckster, an engrosser; G. and Swed. 
kyta ; T. kauten, cuyden, to deal. 

Kidnap, r. a. to steal children, to decoy ; T. and B. 
kind, a child, and nab. 

Kidney, *. 1. a gland in the reins ; G. kuid, the belly, 
and nare ; D. nyre ; T. nier ; S. narr, the reins. 

2. Breed, race, alliance ; fcr. kuidun ; Swed. quiden ; S. 
cwithen, the womb ; which, like F. ventre, signifies a 

Kilderkin, Kidderkin, s. a small barrel, the fourth 
part of a hogshead. Chalder and Chauder, from L. 
quattwr, signified four, as in Chaldron ; and in the 
same way firkin is the fourth of a barrel. 

Kill, in the name of places, is generally from Cell, L. 
cella ; I. cyl, a convent, a monastery ; but sometimes 
from Isl. kyl; B. kill ; D. keil; Scot, kyle, a creek or 

Kill, v. a. to deprive of life ; Isl. ktvella, auelia ; S. 
cuellan, to stifle, to quell, signified to aeprive of 
breath, to occasion death; but G. hel; Swed. fuel, 
ihal; D. hiel; Sans, kcd ; I. cial, was death, the 
tomb. G. kilia, to hurt, to injure, may have been 
adopted by the Irish, who distinguish between killed, 
hurt, and killed, dead. 

Killow, s. a black mineral substance. 


I Kiln, s. a stove for drying or burning ; S. cyln, cylene; 
W. cylyn ; Swed. Mlna, from Coal ; L. cidina, an 
oven, a fire place. 

KiMBO, a, crooked, arched, bent ; It ghembo ; uMf&wii. 
See Kak and Cambeb. 

Kin, s. kindred, relationship, the same general class : 
P. kun; G. kyn; Swed. kun, kyn; S. cynn ; I. dne ; 
ytfik ; from G. kinna ; S. cennan ; ytmst, seems to 
have been used as a dim. termination. 

Kind, s. generation, race, nature, species, class ; Swed. 
kynd; S. cynd. 

Kind, a, benevolent, indulgent, tender ; supposed to be 
from Kind, generation, species, as Gentle, from G^s; 
but G. ynde ; Swed. ynde, gynde ; T. gunadig, gnadig, 
signify gracious, benevolent, from G. unna ; Swea. 
gynna ; S. geunnan, to indulge, concede. 

Kindle, s. 1. to set on fire, inflame; G. kynda el, 
tinnda elld; S. cyndelan; W. cynne : L. cendo and G. 
kynda seem to be cognate. 

2. To engender, to bring forth as rabbits. See Kin. 

Kindred, s. relationship, affinity, class ; G. kyndrad ; 
rad, line, order. See Kind. 

KiNE, 8, cows ; S. cttita, plural of cu, a cow. 

Kino, s. a monarch, chief of the people ; G. kong, kun^ 
nung; Swed. kung; S. cyng, cymng ; D. conge ; T. 
koening; B. kaning. The origin of the word has 
been sought for in P. kahan, khan; W. cun, a chief; 
in keen, eager, active, severe ; in hun, chun, a hun- 
dred, because supposed to be chosen by so many can- 
tons. No notice seems to have been taken of G. and 
Swed. gun ; P. Jung, the people, the army, battle, as 
the etymon. The term is now disused except in eon' 
faUm, a military standard. It appears to be merely a 
difierent pronunciation of G. kun, kyn ; S. cynn, the 
tribe, the nation, and cyne, royal. Observe also that 
G. thiod, the people, produced thiodan, a king ; drot, 
the people, drotlin, a dread lord, a sovereign ; and in 
the same way, G. gunan,' gunfan, was a king or chief 
of the people. Among the Lombards gunninge signi- 
fied the royal line. Jungez kahan, Gengit khan, means 
the warrior prince. 

Kingdom, s. the dominion of a king ; G. kongdom ; S. 
cynedom. See Don. 

Kingfisher, s. a bird; F. aucyon pecheur ; L. alcyon 

Kirk, s. the church of Scotland ; kv^mumf, belonging to 
the Lord; G. kvrk; D. kirke ; Slav, cerkien; T. 
kirche ; Scot kirk. See Church. 

KiRTLE, s. a gown, an upper garment ; G. kyrlel ; 
Swed. kiortel ; S. cyrtel ; P. koorte. 

Kiss, v. a. to salute with the lips ; G. kyssa ; D. kyste ; 
T. kussen ; S. cossan ; B. kussen ; Heb. kushan ; P. 
kusitum ; xv»t »vo-»t ; W. cusan. See Buss. 

Kit, ^. 1. a small cask, a pail, a large bottle; M. G. 
kitte ; B. kit ; S. citte. 

2. A small fiddle, contracted from P. kitar. See Cith- 

Kitchen, s. a room used for cookery ; L. coquina ; It. 
cucina ; F. cuisine ; T. kuche. 

Kite, s. a bird of prey, a paper bird ; S. cyte, guth ha^ 
foe ; W. cud. 

Kith, a. known, acquainted, part of the verb to Ken; 
M. G. kyth ; S. cuth, cythe. 

Kitten, *. 1. a child ; dim. of Kid, See Kidnap and 


K N I 

K N U 

S. A Toung cat ; T. kastgin, dim. <^ Cat. 
KnrB»#. a large tub; F. euvti T. k^fe; S. cj/fe; W. 
c0MtMi. See Ck)OP. 

KifiGK> «. a small sharp noise, a glibNiae of the tongue ; 
dim. of Clack. 

JKnai^ t;. a. to bite with noise. See Knap. 

Knack, 9. 1. from the verb to Know; knowledge, arti- 
fice, ingenuity, contrivance. 

2.. A sharp quick noise; D. knage; T. knacke; Swed. 

knake; tmtmjffi* 
Kmao, s. a hard knot in wood^ a knob, an antler or point 

of a horn ; Isl. knuk ; Swed. kno ; D. kiuui, htag. 

See Snagk 

Knap, s, fleedness of cloth produced by fulling; S. 
knappa. See Nap. 

Knap, v. to bite, snap, break with noise; O. gnya; 
Swed. ktuBppa ; B. knappen ; S* gnt^ppan, gm^an. 
See to Gnaw. 

Knapsack, s. a soldier's bag, originally a provision sack. 
See to Knap. J^^^^/^^y^c^A 

KNABi, 1. a knot in wood. See Knob. 

Knave, s. a petty rascal; O. gnape; Swed. and T. 
knape ; S. cnapa, a court page, an armour bearer, and 
as such possessing a decree of rank ; but like Thane, 
a king's servant, and Thane, a common servant, it was 
used in a twofold sense. Minister, although now a 
title of eminence, signified originally an attendant, a 
waiter at table, a bond servant. Knave and Knight 
had nearly the same meaning ; G. knasbbeija ; Swed. 
kndbqja and kna^a, knaska signified to bend the knee, 
to obey. Thus T. knabt knapp, denoted an abject fel- 
low, a pimp, a rascal. A card with the picture of a 
soldier, which we call the knave, is in German, knecfU, 
or underling, and in French valet; Scot jack, which is 
G. skalk, a servant See Knight . 

Knbao, v. a, to mix dough with the fist; G knudd, 
from knya ; S. cnadan ; Swed. knada ; B. kneeden ; 
T. kneten, from G. kno, the fist. See Nbaf. 

Kneb, «. the joint between the leg and thigh ; G. Swed. 
and D. kna ; T. knie ; B. knet ; S. cnexm ; P. zanu ; 
y«fv ; L. genu ; F. genou. 

Knbll, f. the bell rung at a funeral; Swed. knall, 

£idU, from G. gity, Jbiy, murmur ; S. cnyll; W. cnU; 
. noUiy a bell. 

Knbw, pret, of the verb to Know. 

Knick, X. a sharp sound ; D. knick, dim. of Knack. 

Knick knack, f . a contrivance, a gewgaw ; a jingle on 
Knack, artifice. 

Knifb, s, an instrument to cut with ; G. knifa ; Swed. 

ibit^,' D. kneo; S. cnif ; T. gnippe, km^ ; F. canif: 
»mL, to carve. 

Kniqht, s. an inferior title of honour between a squire 
and a baronet ; D. kneet ; Swed. kneckt ;. T. knecht ; 
S. cnigfU ; I. gniackt ; F. naquet ; F. nw^ium, a boy, a 
servant, a soldier, an armour b^er. In the latter 
sense it became a title of honour, although derived 
from G. kntka ; Swed. knecta, to submit, knuckle, 
obey. Whence T. knecht, a labourer, a stable boy. 
See Knavb. 

Knit, v. to make stocking work, to knot, contract, join ; 
G. knitta ; Swed. knyta ; S. cnytan ; D. knytte. See 

Knob, s. a protuberance, a globe, a head, a button 
Swed. knubh ; T. knob, kn&^e ; B. knob ; W. cnub. 

Knock, r. to hit, strike, clash; G. and Swed. gnya, 
knacka ; S. cnudan ; W. cnoccio. 

Knoll, s, a rising ground, a hillock ; Swed. knot, knula ; 

T. knoU; S. cnol; W. cnoll; Scot. knon>. See Knob 

and Noll. 
Knoll, s, to ring or sound as a bell. See Knbll. 

Knop, «. a tufled top, a knob ; Swed. knapp ; D. knap ; 
S. cnasp. See Knap and Knob. 

Knot,«. a complication, a cluster, a hard knob in wood, 
a difiiculty ; G. knutt ; 3 wed. knut ; D. knude ; S. 
knotia ; T. knoie ; B. knot ; L. nodus. 

Know, v. a, 1. to understand, recognise; y^iat; G. kun- 
na ; Swed. kcenna; S. cnauan; Arm. gnau ; L. nos- 
CO, novi. 

2. To converse with another sex, to possess, enjoy ; G. 
na ; Swed. na, to approach, attain, have power over ; 
G. kuenna nawist, carnal knowledge of a woman ; but 
the word being anciently written gn^, it possibly may 
be connected with S. cnauan; G. kunna, to under 
stand, and also to have power. 

Knub, Knubblb, V, a. 1. to beat with the fist or 

knuckles ; from G. kno. See Nbaf. 
2. To cudgel ; Swed. knubba ; T. knuppelen, from Swed. 

knubb ; T. knuipel ; B. knuppel, a cudgel. 

Knucklb, ^. 1. a joint of the fingers; D. knokkel ; H. 
knockle ; S. cnucle ; T. knuchel : It nocolo, 

2. From Knbb ; the knee joint of veal ; G. knuka ; D. 
knoge ; T. knoche ; W. cnuch, a joint. 

Knucklb, v. n. from the noun ; to bend the knee, sub- 
mit, obey. 

Knub, #. a knot in wood ; G. knutr ; D. and T. knor. 
See Knot. 

Knubl, s. a small knot in wood ; Swed. knorl, dim. of 




LIS a liquid consonant which preserves the same 
sound in English. It is always doubled at the end 
of a monosyllable ; as fall^ stilly well ; except after a 
diphthongs as Ml, steal, nail : But In terminating a 
word of more syllables, it is written single ; as chan- 
nel, tendril, cabal. L, when preceding e final, is 
sounded faintly afler it ; as bible, title, cable. In se- 
veral of the Gothic dialects, particularly in Saxon, at 
the beginning of words, when strongly aspirated, it 
became hi, sounding like the Welsh 11 in the same si- 
tuation. There is a disposition in most languages to 
suppress 1 in the middle of words, or pronounce it as 
a vowel. The French have fauve, maudit, for ful- 
VU8, maledictus ; the Italians fiamma, chiaro, piano, 
for flamraa, clarus, planus; and in English, balk 
walk, talk, are pronounced bauk, wauk, tauk ; while 
the Belgians write oud for old, and hout for holt. 
The French sometimes change it into r, as orme for 
ulmus, titre for titulus. Latin puera, on the contrary, 
became puella, agerus, agellus ; and the Gkyths used 
fior as well as fiol to express the number four ; but 
the Portuguese almost confound the two letters, for 
they write branco for bianco, and milagre for mi- 

L is used to denote a pound sterling ; from L. Ubra ; F. 
Uvre ; in the same way that S. is a shilling, and D. 
L. denarium, a penny. 

La, ini, an expression of assent corresponding with So, 
So indeed ; of surprise, O dear ! and also an excla- 
mation to excite attention. See Lo. 

La, La, ad. so so ; S. la la, 

Labsl, s, a narrow strip of writing fixed to any thing, 

a tape or riband ; F. latnbel, lambeau ; Swed. lapp ; 

T. uippe. See Lap. 
Lac, s, a kind of varnish, a wax formed by the coccus 

lacca ; Sans, and Hind, lakh ; A. look ; F. laqut, 

'See Lake. 
Lacb, s, a string, a fine thread curiously wrought, a 

texture of gold, silver, or tinsel, a gin, a snare ; F. 

\acty lacet ; Sp. lazo ; It laecio, from L. laqueus. 


Lacb, v. a. 1. to furnish with lace, to fasten with a 

2. To beat with a lace or cord. See Lash. 

Lacbd mutton, s. a whore ; an attempt to pun on L. 

Lack, s. want, need ; Swed. lack ; D. lake ; T. laecke ; 

B.laak; W. Uwg. 

Lack, v. n. to suffer want ; 6. lacka, laka ; Isl. Icm ; 
Swed. lacka ; S. lecaUy to diminish, deprive of means, 
leave destitute. 

Lackbr, s, a kind of varnish, made from turmeric, re- 
sembling lac. 

Laokby, 8* a footboy ; Swed. lack^ ; D. lack^ ; B. 
lakkey ; F. laquais ; It. lache. Swed. lacka; T. 
lacken, to run, are supposed to be from Leg ; but G. 
lega, laka, signified to hire. See Loon. 

Lad, s. a boy, a youth, stripling ; M. O. laud, lauth ; S. 
leode^ a rustic, are apparently from leod, the people ; 
but T. laed, laet, led, ledig ; Swed. ledig, single, un- 
married, are supposed to be from O. lausa, lata, leUa ; 
S. letan, lesan ; T. lassen, to loose, free, manumit ; 
and our Lads and Lasses are invariably understood to 
be young unmarried persons. T. laten, lassen ; L. B. 
latx, Ixdi, lassi, lazzi, tatones, were freed servants, not 
engaged either to a feudal lord or in marriage ; and O. 
Uetingi, leisinehi, corresponded with XvHf, Xurt, from 
Xvm, to free. See Lass. 

Laddbr, s. a frame made of stqps ; S. hlasdder, kedra ; 
T. letter ; B. ladder, from 6. Idd, led, a way, and 
ra ; Swed. ra, rod ; Scot, rung, a range, a step. 

Lade, s, a conduit, a watercourse; Q.liduwag; 8. lade; 
T. lei^de. See Lodb. 

Ladb, v. a, h from, the noun ; to throw out water ; S. 

2. To freight, to burden ; S. Uadan. See Load. 

Ladlb, s. a large spoon, a small bucket ; S. hlcedle, from 

the verb. 
Ladbonb, f. a thief; It and Sp. ladrone; L. latro. 

Ladt, s, a title of respect, a woman of rank ; from 6» 
Iqf; S. leqf, hkef, eminent, exalted, and dui, diga, a 



female; 6. lafda; Isl. lofde; S. hUtfdiga, hlafdig, 
hlafdia. See Xiord and Daughter. 

Laoy^ applied to any noun^ alludes to the holy virgin ; 
as Lady day. Lady's slipper. Lady cow or chafer. 

Lao, a. coming behind, slow, sluggish. See Slug. 

Lag, V, n. to move tardily, to stay behind ; M. G. iat- 
gan, laggan ; S. latigan. See Latb. 

Lag, «. the lowest class, the fag end, he who comes last. 

Laid, pret and part, pass, of the verb to Lay ; G. lagd. 

Lair, s. a dwelling, a residence, the couch of a boar or 
wild beast, a shelter for cattle ; G. ligr ; B. legger ; 
Swed. Icsger ; T. lager ; D. /e/er. See Leaguer. 

Laird, 9. a possessor of land or manor ; the Scot, pro- 
nunciation of Lord in its G. sense. 

Lake, s. a large inland water, a plash ; hanMM ; L. lacus; 
F. lac ; S. lac, lagu ; It. lago : G. aa, ach ; S. each ; 
L. aqua, water. See Lough. 

Lake, s a middle colour between ultramarine and ver- 
milion ; Sans, lakhee* See Lac. 

Lam, v. a, to beat, bang, strike; G. laga urn, to lay 
about, to beat ; M. G. liggtvan. See Blow. 

Lamb, s, a young sheep ; G. Swed. S. lamb ; T. and B. 
lamm; D. lam. 

Lamb's lettuce, s, a species o£ valerian, corn salad ; 
Sp. lampsa, lampana, from L. lapsana. 

Lamb's wool, s. a name given to beer flavoured with 
fruit ; S. lempe ol, soil ale. 

Lame, a. crippled, imperfect, weak ; G. lam ; Swed. 
htm, lam ; 8. lam ; B. lam ; P. leng ; whence Timur 
leng, lame Timur, Tamerlane. 

Lamentine, s. a kind of fish. See Manatee. 

Lammas, s. the first of August, St Peter's day, when 
offerings were made to the church; S. hlaf masse, 
hlammesse ; G. and Swed. lama signified a contribu- 
tion ; L. Iqf, a residue. See Gule. 

Lamp, s. a light made of oil or spirits ; Syr. lampid; 
XafATTtii ; L. lampas : G. liom ; S. leoma, flame. 

Lampass, s. a lump of diseased flesh in the roof of a 
horse's mouth, wnich rises above the teeth ; F. lam^ 
passe, lampas, a tongue, and also a swelling of that 
appearance, from L. lambo. 

Lampoon, s. personal slander; L. B. lamba, from L. 
lamho, signified the tongue, and, like lingua, calumny : 
F. lamnon was a drunken song ; Swed tdp is slander, 
Idpgela, a fine for defamation. See to Lap. 

Lamprey, s, a kind of eel ; F. lamproie, from L. ktm-^ 

Lance, s, a long spear, a lancet ; L. lancea ; Arm. lance; 

F. lance ; It. lancia ; Isl. Swed. B. lans ; A^;^. G. 

langskiept, long-shaft, was also a spear. 
Lance, v, a, from the noun ; to pierce, to cut open, to 

bleed with a lancet ; F. lancer. 

Lancepesade, s, an assistant corporal; F. lance pes- 
sade, anS'pesade, from T. lans spiizer. See Lans 


Lanch, V, a, to cast as a lance, to dart forward, to shoot 
a vessel from the stocks into the water ; F. elancer. 

Land, s, 1. earth, ground, a country, a region ; G. land 
in all dialects. 

2. A castle, a house, a feudal possession ; G. Ian ; Swed. 
Ian ; Scot land, 

3. Urine, lie ; S. hlandy hlond, from leak, loh, water. 
See Lunt and Lie. 

Landgbavi^ s. a German title. See Obevx. 

Landlady, s, the mistress of an inn. See Landlord. 
Landloper, s, a landsman, a clodhopper, a name given 

by sailors to a person who lives on shore ; G. land^ 

laupr ; B. landlooper. See to Elope. 

Landlord, s. 1. the lord of a manor, the owner of land. 
2. From Land, a house ; the master of an inn ; Swed. 

landwdrd and huswdrd are synonimous. 
Landscape, s, a prospect of a country, the shape of the 

land ; G. landskapa ; B. landschape. 

Lane, s, a narrow way through fields, an alley ; Swed. 
lana ; B. laan, laen ; Scot, loan, signifying, appa- 
rently, at first a passage for cattle from the fields to 
the stable. 

Laneret, s, the male of the lanner hawk. 

Laniard, s, a small cord for fastening the shrouds and 
stays in a ship ; F. laniere, supposed to have been ori- 
ginally of hair or wool, fi-om L. lana. 

Lank, a. slender, languid, meagre ; S. hlanc, Icenig ; 
B. lenk, slenk. See Lean. 

Lanner, s, the female of the laneret, which is a small 
hawk for quails or other birds averse to rise on the 
wing; L. B. lannarius ; F. lanier, supposed to be 
from L. laniena ; or from lana, because its feathers 
have a woolly appearance. 

Lans corporal, s, a soldier acting for a corporal ; G. 
Icens, of accommodation or loan, was applied also to a 
temporary service in the church ; G. Usns prcester. 
Corporals formerly carried a pike, called spitz by the 
Gotns ; whence T. lans spitzer corrupted into It /an- 
cia spezzada ; F. lanspe^ade or anspesade. 

Lansquenet, ^. 1. a country fellow, a militia man ; F. 
from T. lands knecht ; but sometimes used for lanse 
knechi, one armed with a lance. See Knioht. 

2. A game at cards among the peasantry of Tyrol. 

Lant, v. to urine as a horse, to stale. See Land. 

Lantern, a. long, thin, lank ; from lean or lank. 

Lap, s, a fold, flap, strip, a garment that covers the 
thighs; G. T. D. B. lap; Isl. laf; S. Iwppa ; Swed. 

Lap, «. fl. 1. from the noun ; to become double, to wrap 

2. To lick up; Xaifltf ; L. lamho, F. lamper, lapcr 
Arm. lapa, to use the tongue ; but Isl. lepia ; Swed. 
Idppja ; D. lobe; S. lappian, seem to be from lip. 

Lapis lazuli, s. blue marble. See Azure. 

Larboard, s. the left hand side of a ship ; bakhord is 
the word used in the G. dialects, which, pronounced 
Babord, in French, seems to have been understood as 
basbord, the low bord, and hence B. laager ; T. lerk, 
the left and the lower side. See Starboard. 

Larceny, *. a petty theft ; F. lar<^n ; L. lairocinium. 
See Ladrone. 

Laroess, *. a bounty, gift, a present ; F. largesse ; L. 

Lark, *. a small singing bird ; S. Iqferce, larverk; B. 
leufvrik, larck ; T. lercke ; D. lerke ; Swed. tirka; 
Scot lavrock. Isl. lava is also a lark, apparently from 
lofa; S. hUfian, to rise; and cerwack is the early 


Larum, *. alarm, a piece of clockwork to rouse one from 
sleep at a certain hour; Swed. and D. larm ; T. 
Ictrm, apparently from G. luidr, lur; Swed. lur, a 
loud sound, a trumpet ; O. F. loure. See Alarm. 

Lascar, s. a term for an Indian sailor; A. askar, al 
askar; Hind, lascar, pr(^rly a gunner. 

L A U 

L E A 

La6h^ s, 1. the thong of a whip^ a cord^ a scourge^ a 

satire ; L. laqueus ; It. lacdo ; F, lacs. See Lace. 
2. A tie^ a bindings a knot; It. lascio ; F. leste; B. 

lasch ; L. ligatio. 
Lass, s. a girl, a young unmarried woman ; O. loihskit, 

a girl ; Swed. Idska j S. leas, hee, single. See Lab. 
Last, a, hindmost, utmost^ latest ; T. letzl ; S. last ; B. 

laast ; XtXHt, 
Last, v. a, to continue, endure, to be late in procedure ; 

M. O. latjan ; S. lastan. 
Last, s. 1. the mould on which shoes are formed ; G. 

and T. leUt ; Swed. last ; 8. lasU, from M. G. last, 

the foot. 

2. A load, a weight, a di^ measure ; G. lads, ladst, last ; 
Swed. last ; T. last ; S. hUsst ; F. lest, leth ; Sp. las- 
tre. See Load. 

3. The latest, the end ; T. letzt. See Late. 
Lastery, s. tinge, hue, a red colour ; G. litur ; Swed. 

let, colour ; Isl. Ixta, to colour ; Scot. Ulster , a dyer. 

Latch, s, a moveable catch for a door, a lock ; G. las ; 
Swed. las ; B. las. 

Latch, v. a,l, from the noun ; to fasten with a latch. 

2. To smear, to anoint ; from L. litus. See Lech. 

Latches, Laskets, s, lines in a ship to brace the bon- 
nets to the courses. See Lash. 

Latchet, s. a fastening, a shoe-string ; It. leagaccia ; F. 
lacet. See Lace. 

Late, a. 1. contrary to early, tardy, slow, long delayed, 
far in the day, night or year ; G. lat ; Swed. later ; 
S. laty last ; B. laet. 

2. Latest in any place, office, or character. See Last. 

3. Deceased, defunct ; S. lete : G. lata, to die. 

Lath, j. 1. a long thin piece of wood ; L. lata ; F. late; 
S. latta ; T. latte ; B. lat ; W. Uaih, 

2. The portion of country subject to a particular court. 
S. lath is a congregation ; but S. Xeih, apparently 
contracted from G. lagthing, lathing, a judicial convo- 

Lathe, s. a machine for turning by a pole or lath. 

Latheb, s, the froth of soap and water; G. laudr ; 

Swed. loder ; S. lather : laver was anciently used in 

the same sense ; F. laveure, from L. lavare, 
Latten, s. iron tinned over, brass ; A. latun ; Isl. laa^ 

tun ; B. latoen : It. ottone is a composition of copper, 

zinc and calamine. 

Latter, a. the last of two, modern ; for later, the com- 
parative of Late. 

Lattice, s. a window of lath or grate-work ; F. laitis. 
See Lath. 

Laveer, v. a. to change the direction frequently in a 
course. See to Veer. 

Layer, s, 1. a. sea plant, a species of alga ; L. laver, 
2. A washing vessel ; F. lavair, from L. lavare, 
Lauoh, v. to make that noise which sudden mirth ex- 
cites ; G. hkHa ; Swed. le ; S. hlahen ; T. and B. la- 
chen ; Scot. lach. G. hkea signified originally to re- 
joice. See Glee, Glad, Blithe, Bliss. 
Laughter, s, the act of laughing ; G. hlatur ; D. latter, 

Layish, a. profuse, prodigal, wasteful ; from Lave, L. 

Launce, s, a sea term when the pump sucks; G. luens; 
Swed. Oms ; D. Ions, lens, exhausted. 

Launch^ s. a ship's boat, a pinnace; Sp. and Port 
lancha. See Lanch. 

Laundress, s, a woman who washes, irons or gets up 
linen; It lavandera; F. lavandiere, from L. lavo. 

Layolta, s, an old Italian dance ; F. la voUe, from L. 
volutatio. See Waltz. 

Law, s. statute, decree, edict ; G. la, lag, log ; Swed' 
lag ; D. hm ; what is laid down, a statute, pact, cor- 
responding with T. gesetz, our Assize and Set ; but 
F. tot is from L. lex, G. bilaga, however, produced 

F. hel, beau, legal; so that beau pere is literaUy 

Lawn, Lawnd, s, open, smooth ground between woods; 
Scot, land, supposed by some to be Isl. and Swed. 
lund, a grove ; but L. B. landa signified an unculti- 
vated spot, and like F. lande; It, landa, appears to be 

G. landeida, bare or waste land. 

Lax, s, a salmon, properly when ascending rivers; 
Swed. and S. lax ; T. lachs ; B. lass ; It. laccia, from 
G. leika ; Swed. Uka ; S. lacan ; T. laichan, to spawn, 
to brim. 

Lay, V, a, to deposite, place, apply, impute, put down^ 
allav, calm ; G. lofga, leggia, la ; Swed. laga, Idgga ; 
^* ^gg^ i S* lecgan, legan, hgian ; T. legen. 

Lay, pret, of the verb to Lie. 

Lay, s, 1. from the Yerb ; what is laid down, a deposit, 
a wager. 

2. A bed, a row, a stratum. See Layer. 

3. Ground laid down in grass or left for pasture ; S. leag, 

4. A song ; G. liod; S, lioth, lejj T. Ued, letch; B. Ued; 
Scot leid ; F, lay ; It lai ; W. llais; I, laoidh : Q, Uo, 
hliod ; A. luh, luhja ; Sans, lue, the voice. Scandi- 
navian authors suppose that there was formerly a G. 
verb loa, to sound, which produced our words Loud, 
Lamm, Lay, and also Lug, the organ of perceiving 
sound, the ear. 

Lay, a, not clerical, belonging to the laity or people ; F. 
lai ; XMitt^f ; L. laicus, from Xttlf, 

Layer, s. a bed^ a stratum ; from Lay^ to place ; Swed. 
lager ; T. lager ; S. leger. 

Laystall, s, a dunghill, from lay, to place, and stall, a 

Lazar, s, a leper ; A. and P. al azar, sick, afflicted with 
sores, Lazarus. 

Lazy, a. unwilling to work, sluggish ; G. losk ; Swed. 
loski, lase ; T. lassig ; B. losigh, luyje, apparently 
from G. leisa, to loose, relax ; or sometimes n^om laia ; 
M. G. latjan; Swed. latja, to be slow, sluggish. See 
Loose and Late. 

Le, a G. diminutive termination, apparently for LiUe ; 
Swed. UUe contracted from little, G. bamillo, a little 
child ; S. meoule, a little maid. 

Lea, Lee, Layland, s, land belonging to different pro- 
prietors, lying in contiguous ridges without being in- 
closed ; L. B. lee, from L. latus, latitudo. 

Lea, s, unploughed land, meadow; S. ley; T. lee ; Scot. 
lea. See Lay. 

Lead, s, I. a soft heavy metal; G. lad; Ishlod; D. lode; 
-S. lofd ; T. lot ; B. loot. See Load. 

2. Guidance, direction; G. leid; Swed. led; S. latle, a 
way, from the verb. See Lode. 

Lead, v, to guide, conduct, entice; G. leida; Swed. 

leda ; S. Ueaan ; D. lede ; B. leiden ; T, leUen, 
Leaf, s, the foliage of a tree or plant, the petal of a 

flower, the folding part of a table, a part of a book 

consisting of two pages ; G. latif; Swed. U(f; D. lev ; 




Lbaoub, f. 1. a distance of nearly three Enfflish miles; 
L. B. leuga, leuca; It lega; F. Ueue. The origin (^ 
the word is doubtful. O. rast ; Russ. wrest, signify a 
league, or literally a plaoe of rest ; and ^tt, to rest, 
may have produced league. S. Iwg, from 6. laga, to 
lay, is also a place, a station, onresponding with F. 

2. A combination, confederacy, alliance ; F. Ugue, from 
L. ligo, 

LiAOUBB, f. 1. a confederate, an ally ; from Lbaoub. 

2. A military position, a camp, a siege ; Swed. lager ; T. 
lager ; D. It^, from O. laga, to lay. See 8ibob. 

Lbak, «. a fissure which lets in and out water, a dripp- 
ing ; G. lack; Swed. lake ; S. hlece ; D. lask; B. lek; 
It. lecca, from lag, lak, water. See Lakb. 

Lban, v. fi. to incline, rest against; D. lasne; Swed. Idna; 
S. Unian, Uingian ; T. Uinen ; B. Untn, lehnen, leunen, 
from 6. liggio, ligan, to lie, recline. 

Lban, a. meagre, weak, frail ; S. lane : G. lin ; Swed. 
len ; T. Ixn, Img, correspond with L. lenis, and are 
supposed to be from G. hlasna ; Swed. leena, to dis- 
sowe; L. macer, dissolved, melted away, produced 
our word meagre. 

Lbap, s. a jump, abound; G. laup; Swed. lopp; S. 
hleap ; B. loop • T. lauf. 

Lbap, v. to jumpi bound, rush, run ; G. leipa ; Swed. 
Upa ; S. hUapan ; B. loopen ; T. lauffen, 

Leap-Ybar, s. bissextile, every fourth year, when Fe- 
bruary has an additional day, from Lbap, to exceed. 
See £lbvbn. 

Lbarn, v. to get knowledge, to improve; G. and Swed- 
kera ; D. Uere S. leomtan, lasran ; T. lemen. 

Lbas, Lbsowbs, s. pasture land ; S. lasswe ; L. B. leiua, 
cognate with our Lea, to which was added ; G. ixiU ; 
S. cts, feed, pasture ; whence S. lassian, to graze. 

Lease, v, a. 1. to let out by lease ; G. lea, Ha, leysa^ 
lata ; D. leye ; S. lasta ; T. lassen ; F. laisser, to cede> 
permit See to Let. 

2. To glean ; G. lesan ; S. lisan ; T. lesen ; B. lesen ; Ai{*>, 
to collect. See to Glean. 

Lease, s, 1. from the verb : a deed of tenure. 

2. Falsehood, treachery ; G. Ix, leis ; T. Ids ; S. leas, 
leasunge ; whence Lese Majesty, rather than from L. 

Leash, s, 1. a thong, a cord, a tie ; L. Ugatio ; F. liasse, 
lesse, laisse ; It. lascio ; Scot, letch. See Lash. 

2. A sportsman's term for three, which require a leash 
or tie to keep them together ; but brace signified a 
clasp or two. 

Leasing, s. falsehood> deceit, treachery ; G. lesung, from 

Least, a. smallest ; G. litest, litset ; S. last, the superla- 
tive of lit ; S. lyt, small, little, corresponding with 

Lb AST, a, loose of texture, flimsy, slight; S.^eas, deficient, 

loose, seems to have been confounded with L. laxus ; 

F. lasche, lache. See Slbasy. 
Lbatheb, s. the dressed hide of an animal ; G. l^derj 

Swed. Idder ; S. leiher ; D. lasdur ; B. leder, leer ; T. 

leder, loner ; L. lora : G. lid is a cover. See Hide. 

Leave, s. permission, consent, liberty; G. Uifij Swed. 

Idf; D. toy; S. hfe, leaf; T. lauh, from GAia j Swed. 

lea, to concede, grant 
Leave, v a. to forsake, quit, depart, relinquish, suffer 

to remain, concede, bequeath; G. le^a; Swed. Ufma; 

S. hrfan ; xUwm, 
Lbavbn, f . dough fermented, yeast for raising bread ; 

F. levain, from L. levo, 
Lbch, Lbtch, v. a. to smear over, anoint; framh.liius ; 

but sometimes confounded with F. Ucher, to lick. 

Lbchbb, s. a whoremaster ; T. lecker corrennrnded wiUi 
L. Ugurius, a lover of dainties, and signined also a li- 
bidinous person ; B. lack ; Arm. He, lust, lewdness, 
are from O. Uika, Icega, See Lax, a spawning fish 
and LiOKBRisH. 

Lbj>ob, «. to lay, place, lodge, deposit ; G. leggia: M. G. 
laggan ; S. lecgan, legian. 

Lbdoe, s. from the verb ; a layer or stratum, a ridge, 

shelf, moulding or coping. 
Lbdoer, s. a book that lies on a merchant's counter. 

See Lbobr. 
Lbb, s. 1. pasture ground. See Lba. 

2. Dreg, sediment ; F. lie; Arm. li; Port /la; L. Uquia, 
rM^Ua. See Lbbs. 

3. The side opposite to the wind ; G. ly; Isl. hlej Swed. 
Id; D. las; S, hleo; B. ly ; T. lee ; Isl. hlifa, to cover, 
to shelter. Lee shore, denotes that the wind blows 
on a vessel from the sea towards the land. 

Lbbch, Lbaoh, s, a medical man> a surgeon ; M. G. lek, 
leikeis ; T. leek ; S. kec, lece ; G. and Swed. loskare, 
Ixknare; Sclav, likoer, apparently from G. laka, to 
diminish, and called in L. B. tninutor, a blood-letter ; 
S. lecan, to diminish, make small ; Iwc^nger, the lit- 
tle fiiiger. See to Lack. 

Lbbch, s. a kind of small water serpent, a blood-sucker ; 
S. Icece, lyce, from its use in benefiting health, by 
drawing blood. 

Lebk, s. a potherb ; G. lauk ; Swed. Idk ; D. lasg ; S. 
leac ; T.iauch; B.loock; Heb. leach, signiAdng an 
herb generally, as Hemlock, Charlock, Garlick. 

Lber, v. n. to look obliquely or insidiously ; Isl. hlera ; 
Swed. lura ; T. luren, 

Lbbs, s. dregs, sediment ; jd. of Lee ; Sp. lias ; but in 
VorUiumberland, Lays, Laggs, are used in this sense, 
from Lay, to deposit. 

Leese, v. to lose, an old word, from G. liusa ; B. liezen ; 
Swed. lisa. 

Leet, Coubt-lebt, *. a manorial court The origin 
of the word is disputed ; but, G. lia ; S. lihan, pro- 
duced T. lechen, lehen, to invest with feudal authority ; 
of which lecht, leht, is the third person of the present 

Leeward, s. the direction to which the wind blows; B- 
lytvard. See Lee. 

Left, pret, and part, of the verb to Leave. 

Left, a. that is opposite to the right ; x^ui ; L. lava, is 
the lefl hand; but B. lefts; T. links, seem to be cog- 
nate with Ai/r*, and linquo, our verb to leave or set 
apart ; what is left for unclean purposes. In the East, 
to touch food, or salute with the left hand, is an abo- 
mination. The Goths and Danes call it vanster, ven- 
ster, defective, oflensive, sinister. 

Leo, s, the limb between the knee and the foot ; G. legg ; 
Swed. Ueg ; M. G. lithgus ; It lacca : G. litha, signi- 
fies to bend. See Limb. 

Legacy, s. a bequest ; L. B. legatio, from L. lego. 

Legend, s. an inscription on coins or medals, a memo- 
randum, an increoible story ; L. B. legenda, from L. 



XfBOBR^ s, whait remvni in * place ; b9 a l^er amba^ 
fmd(ir, a resident, a book placed in a merchant's coant- 
ing house ; T. kger ; B. Ugger, fi*om 6. Uggia ; S. 
lecgan ; T. legen, 

LsoBRDEMAiN^ s. slight of hand ; O. F. legier de main ; 
It leggiero de mono. 

Lbibubb, s. convenience of time, freedom from busi- 
ness; F. hUir, from L. oiiar; but Swed. lua; D. Use, 
loose, unemployed, free, are used in the same sense. 

Lbjcan, Lbvbman, s. a gallant, a mistress, a sweetheart ; 

S. Lewemon, a loved person ; from Lieve and Man, a 

person, male or female. 
Lemon, s. an acid fruit, a citron ; Sans, limu ; A. It Sp. 

Port. F. T. limm. 
Lbno, V, to grant, let out to use ; G. and Swed. lama ; 

S. ifznan ,* T. Uhen ; B. leenen ; M. G. leihwan. See 


Lbnoth, s, full extent ; T. langheit, longhood. 

Lbnt. pret, and p. pass, of to Leno. 

Lent, s, forty days of abstinence in spring ; S. leneten, 
lenel fast, lantg tid; B. lent; T. lentz, glent. G. 
hlana ; Swed. lena, to mitiffate, to dissolve, denoted 
spring, and the season of Tent or lean tide, which 
corresponds with F. terns maigre. See Lban. 

Lbod, in the names of persons or places signifies the 
people ; G. li^t ; Swed. lyde ; T. leiU, Uut ; S. leod. 

Leopard, s. a spotted beast of prey ; P. pars ; L. par^ 
dus, to which Plinv prefixed, leo, a lion. The Latins 
supposed it to be the female panther. 

Lbre, *. learning, doctrine, a lesson ; G. leer ; Swed. 

idr ; S. la^e ; B. leer. See Lore. 
Lerry, s» from Lbre ; a lesson, a rebuke. 
Lesowes, s, pasture land. See Leas. 

Less, as a termination, signifies void, empty; G. laus; 
Swed. I6s ; B. hos ; S. leas: G. endeiaus, endless; 
M. G. lauscuithrans, empty guts, from G. leisa, lata ; 
S. Usan, letan, to loose, free, dismiss. 

Less, a. smaUer, in a lower degree ; S. las, contracted 
from G. litser, the comparative degree of G. lit; Swed. 
lite ; S. lyt, little. 

Lebses, s* the dung of beasts left on the ground, leav- 
ings ; F. laiss^eSf from G. lata ; T. lassen ; F. laisser, 
to leave, let go. 

Lest, conj. that not, for fear that ; S. les the ; S. loes, les, 
our less, corresponded with L. minus ; and L. quo mt- 
nus ; F. d moins que, is our lest that See Unless. 

Let, v. to permit, leave, relinquish, hire out; G. lia, leta; 

Swed. lata ; S. ketan ; B. laaten; T. lassen; F. laisser: 

G. blodlaia, to let blood. 
Let, a diminutive termination, as Hamlet, Cutlet, Pul- 

lety firom G. it/. See Little. 

Lbt, Lbtt,«. a hindrance, impediment ; from the verb ; 

apparently cognate with Late, as hinder, to impede, 

is nam Hind. 
Lbt, o. a. to hinder, to impede ; O. letta ; S. lettan ; B. 

Lbttbb, s. a written message, an alphabetical character, 

a printing type ; L. Utera ; It. lettera ; F. lettre : G. 

letur was used nearly in the same sense, firom lesa, to 

say, to read ; whence Scot leii, speech. 

Levant, s. the East, the Mediterranean coast; F. levant, 

the sunrising, from L. levo. 
Lbvbb, «• a morning visit, a meeting at court, a lady's 

toilet ; F. lever, the time of rising, firom L. leva. 

LbvbIi, f. a state of equality, a plain, an inttniment 
used in building; O. F. level; S. uefid; L. UbeUa, ctim. 
of libra. 

Lever, s. a mechanical power, a balance ; F. levier ; 
L. levator. 

Leveret, s, a young hare; It lepretta; F. Uevret, fVom 
L. lepus. 

Levy, s. the act of raising men and money for the pub- 
lic service ; F. lev^e, from L. levo* 

Lbwd, a. 1. popular, vulgar, lay, not noble or clerical ; 

S. lewd, from leod; G. fyt, lyd, the people. 
2. Lustful, libidinous, obscene ; G. Uegt ; hross akegt, 

equa prurit: L, libidus ; W. Uawd, have the same 

meaning. . See Lecher. 

Let, as a termination in the names of places generally 
S. lega, a place, a field ; but sometimes a burial ground, 
from G. kij ; Swed. lege. See Lea and Low. 

Liable, a, subject to ; O. F. liable, from Uer ; L. ligare, 
to bind, oblige. 

LiARD, a. roan, hoary, gray; F. Hard; It. leardo; Scot. 
liart ; L. B. liardus, a roan horse, from G. lios, white, 
and rad, red. 

Lib, v. a. to cut off*, to geld ; G. leipa ; T. luppen ; B. 
luhhen ; Scot. lib. See Glib, Lub and Lop. 

Libel, s. 1. a defamatory publication, a lampoon ; L. 
Uhella famosa ; F. Hbelle. 

2. A declaration or charge in writing against a person 
exhibited in court ; L. liheUus. 

LiCH, s, a corpse, a carcass ; G. lijk : Swed. lik ; S. lice; 
T. leiche ; P. lash. See Flesh. 

Lick, y. a. L to take up with the tongue, to lap ; W^iv ; 
L. lingo* M. G. laigwan ; D, licke; S. liccan ; B. Uc^ 
ken ; T. lecken ; F. lecher ; It leccare : P. luhja ; Heb. 
lahac ; L. lingua, the tongue. 

2. To beat, to strike, to wound ; G. leggia ; M. G. ligg^ 
wan, hliggman ; S. lecgan. See Lam and Blow. 

Lickerish, Lickbrous, a. greedy, tempting the appe- 
tite, luxurious, lecherous ; S. Ucera ; T. lecier ; Swed. 
lecker; It leccardo; F. lichard. See Lechbb. 

Licorice, s. a sweet root ; L. B. liquiritia ; It. ligoritia ; 

Lid, s. a cover, membrane of the eye ; Q. Ud; Swed. 
led ; T. Ued ; 8. hlid. 

Lie, s. water impregnated with soap or alkali for wash- 
ing ; G. and T. /^tf^ ; B. ho^; S. leah; Swed. htt; 
Sdav. lug ; L. lixivium ; It Uscia ; F. lessive. 

Lib, s. a falsehoods fiction, deception ; G. fy^ ; Swed. 
logn ; D. lasgn ; T. liege ; S. Itga : G. Ub, fraud. 

Lie, v. n. 1. to tell a lie; G. linga; B. Uegen; T. /ti- 
gen; S. Ugan. 

2. To rest, remain, recline, consist ; G. Uggia ; Swed. 
Ugga ; S. Ugan; T. Uegen; B. leggen. 

Lief, ad. willingly ; B. Uef. See Lieve. 

LiEOE, s. a lord, a sovereign, a subject, feudal con- 
nexion or obligation ; F. liege ; It ligio ; L. B. ligius, 
from L. ligo, to bind. 

LiEOBR, s. a resident ambassador. See Lbobr. 

Lieu, s. a place, station, stead ; L. locus ; G. lage ; S. 
lege,loh; F.lieu; Arm. leu; W.Ue. 

LiBVE, a. loving, willing, afiectionate; B. lieve, from 

leeven, to love. 
Lieutenant, *. a second in rank, a deputy, one who 

acts for another; F. lieutenant; It hcolenente; L. 

locum tenens. 

L I M 


LiBUTBNANOT^ s. the office of a lieutenant; Lieutenant- 
ship is a barbarous word. 

Life, s. animated existence, the state of being alive, the 
human body ; G. lif, lib ; M. G. Unboi, supposed to be 
cognate with }<txt^ ; Swed. Uf; 8. lyf; D. liv ; T. 
Uhtn ; B. leoen. See to Live and Body. 

Lift, v. L to heave, raise up, elevate, exalt ; G. ^/a, 
anciently Wa, from uf^ up ; S. hlifian ; Swed. l^a ; 
D. kefle ; T. lijlen ; L. levo ; F. Uver, 

2. To steal; ii.yXif\m \ L. clepo: M. G. hlifttis, theft, 

from hlifian ; G. hlifa ; Swed. lifa, to cover, conceal, 

Lift, «. 1. a roof, a cover, a cloud, the sky ; supposed to 

be from Lifl, the air ; but G. lobl, loft ; Swed. Iqfi ; 

S. lyfiy may be from G. hlifa ; Swed. lifa, to cover. 

2. The air, wind, breath ; Swed. luji ; S. l^fft ; T. 
lujfi ; B. lucht ; Scot, lift : G. lugu, air. See Luff, 
Lungs and Lights. 

3. The act of lifting, an effort. See to Lift. 

Light, s. the medium of sight, a luminous body, bright- 
ness ; M. G. luihad ; S. lihii leoki ; T. licht ; Hind. 
" loch ; Xv^foi ; L. lux ; Arm. leweich ; W. llrvych ; I. 
loichead. See Low. 

Light, a. 1. bright, clear, luminous ; S. liht, 

2. Active, nimble, airy, trifling, not heavy; G. lett; 
Swed. let, Idtt ; S. liht ; T. leicht ; B. leiht ; L. levis. 

Light, «. 1. to descend, meet with, hit upon ; G. ligta ; 
T. leigten ; S. Uhlan, to descend : Isi. liota ; Swed. 
Ijuta, to fall upon, seem to be from Vol, chance. 

2. To ignite, kindle, direct by a light. See Low. 

Lighter, f. a kind of large boat used to lighten ships ; 
Swed. liktare ; F. alleger. 

Lights, s. the lungs, the organs of respiration; Isl. 
Ijjkta, to inhale air, to breathe, to smell ; Swed. lucht ; 
D. lugle, breath, apparently cognate wiUi Lift, the air. 
See Lungs. 

Like, a, resembling, even, equal, smooth, agreeable, 
pleasing; G. lyk ; Swed. like; B. lyk ; T. lich ; S. 
lie, signify, in the first two dialects particularly, si- 
milar, equal, pleasing, just, good, proper, fitting ; G. 
e, ein ; Swed. en, one, simple, similar, may have pro- 
duced eika and alika, corresponding with uk», nrom 
uxat. See Liking. 

Like, v. to approve, find agreeable, to be pleased with ; 
G. and Swed. Uka ; M. G. leikan ; S. licean ; B. (y- 
ken ; Isl. Uka, to prove, make good. 

Likely, a. well favoured, good looking, probable. 
Liking, s. a state of probation, a trial, inclination, good 
condition, plumpness. 

LiLACH, *. a flowering shrub ; F. lilas ; Sp. Ula, from 
P. and Sans, leelal, for neel lal, blue red. 

Limb, s. a member of the body, a branch ; G. lima, 
plur. limber ; Swed. lem ; S. lim : G. litha, to bend; 
lith, a joint or limb. 

Limb, s. an edge, a border ; L. limbus. 

Limber, a. from Limb ; flexible, easily bent, pliant. 

Limbo, s. a word used by the Romish church to denote 
a place where the souls of some persons, particularly 
unchristened children, are supposed to be confined 
until the day of judgment ; It. limbo; L. B. limbus, 
from limes. 

Lime, s. 1. calx of stone; G. Um ; Swed. Ujm ; T. 
leim ; S. lime ; L. limus. 

2. The line or linden tree. See Linden. 

3. A small lemon ; Sans, lemoo ; Hind, limu ; F. lime ; 
Sp. lima. 

LiMMBR, «. L a large kind of hound ; F. Under; L. B. 
levinarius, from L. lepus and venare. Chaucer used 
the term for a bloodhound. 

2. A scoundrel, a deceiver, a whore ; G. lannadr, from 
las, fraud ; Scot Ummer, a strumpet. 

LiBfN, V. a. to colour, to paint, to take a likeness ; L. 
lumino; F. enUiminer. 

Limp, a. limber, vapid, pliant, weak; S. lempe; T. 

Limp, v. n. to walk lame, to halt; S. lempan. See 

Limpet, s. a sea shell; T^nrkt ; L. lepas ; F. lepas. 

LiN, V, n. to desist, cease, leave off; Isl. and Swed. 
Unna ; S. alinnan, bUnnan, apparently from G. Ua, 
letna ; S. latan, to relinquish. 

Linchpin, s. iron pin of an axletree ; G. luns ; Swed. 
lunia; D. lunds ; B. tins; S. lynis ; Scot lint, an 
axle, a roller. 

Linden, s. the lime tree; Swed. D. S. lind ; T. Unde, 
from G. Unda, to bind. The inner bark was used f(V 
thread or cordage called Bast, which also signified to 
bind. The shade of this tree is said to have been an- 
ciently preferred for the seat of rule and justice. 

Line, s, a slender string, a cord extended, extension in 
length, a limit, a verse, a rule, order, jpedigree, pro- 
geny, the 12th of an inch ; L. linea ; F. Une. 

Line, v. a. 1. to form in line. 

2. To cover the inside, to place inwardly ; Isl. and Swed. 

Unna, from G. inni; Swed. inne, the interior; IsL 

linnung, the lining of a robe. 

Lineage, *. from line, progeny, race, pedigree; F. 

Linen, s. cloth made of flax or hemp ; S. linen, from A 
lain ; xifcf ; L. Unum ; G. lin ; T. lein, flax. 

Ling, a diminutive termination formed by joining our 
two diminutives le and ing. 

Ling, s, 1. heath, brake; G. Ung ; D. lyns ; B. leng; 
Swed. Ijung, from Ijunga, to flame. See Low. 

2. Salted haak, poor Jack ; Swed. langa ; B. leng. 
See Lean. 

LiNGAM, s, the phallus ; Sans. Ung, the emblem of Ma- 

Linger, v, to remain, to hesitate; from Isl. leingi ; S. 

Ung, See Long and Loctnge. 
Linger, Linget, s, the ling or heath finch. 
LiNGET, s, a small mass of metal. See Ingot. 

Lingo, s, language, speech^ tongue ; Port, lingoa, from 

L. Ungua, 
Lining, s, the inner covering; Isl. linung. See to 


Link, j. 1. a thing connected, part of a chain ; G. lyck ; 
Isl. lasnk; Swed. lank; D. Uenke; T. gelenk. See 

2. A torch of pitch ; G. lugn, lunt ; Xv^^f. See Lunt. 

Linn, s. a pool, a torrent ; G. lind ; Isl. lin ; S. hlynna ; 
Scot, lyn. 

Linnet, a small singing bird ; L. Unaria ; F. linot ; S. 
Unetwige, from its feeding on flax seed. 

Linstock, s. a staff or stick with a match at the end, to 
fire cannon. See Lunt. 

Lint, s, flaxen substance, linen scraped ; S. linet; Scot. 
lint ; L. linteum. 

Lintel, *. the headpiece of a door frame ; F. lintial ; 
L. limeniaUs: 


L O A 

L O I 

LiONy s. a fierce animal ; Heb. lani ; L. leo ; >jmf ; It. 

lefme s F.lion; laLleon; Swed. leion; T.idwe; W. 

Lip, s. the outer part of the mouth, the edge of a wound 

or aperture ; P. lub, lib ; Hind, lub ; D. lahe ; 8. 

lippt ; Swed. T, B. /ip ; L. labia ; F. li^e, 

LiRicoNFANCY, *. lily of the valley ; L. liriconallis. 
Jjisp, V. n. to speak imperfectly ; Swed. lespa ; D. las^ 

pe ; B. lespen ; T. Vispen ; S. wlispen. 
List, «. 1. a roll, a catalogue ; G. lest, list, from lesa, to 

speak, to read ; Af|<$ ; D. lisle ; F. lisie, and common 

to all European languages. 

2. The border of a web, a strip of cloth, a fillet ; L. B. 
lista ; Sp. and It. lisla ; F. lice, lisiere ; Swed. list ; 
B. lisse; L. licium. 

3. A place for athletic exercise ; It. lizza ; F. lice ; Sp. 
liza, a field of battle, a plain or smooth place, arena ; 
Sp. Uxar, alizar, to make smooth or even, from L. 

4. Desire, anxiety, eagerness ; G. lyst ; Swed. list ; S. 
lyst. See Lust. 

List, v. 1. to desire, to choose ; G. lysta ; S. lystan, cor- 
responding with AhVat. 

2. To enter on a list or roll, to engage soldiers. 

3. To give attention, to hearken. See Listen. 
Listen, «. to hearken, give attention ; S. hlistan ; D. 

lyste : G. hlaust ; W. dust, the ear ; «Av*>, to hear. 

Lit, pret, of the verb to Light. 

Lithe, Lithesome, a, flexible, limber, pliant, smooth ; 

G. and S. lith ; T. lit, lide ; M. G. lithus, from G. /i- 

da, litha, to bend. 
Litter, *. 1. a sedan, a bed of straw for animals, things 

strewed about ; L. lectica ; F. litiere* 

2. The young of one litter or bed. 

Little, a. diminutive, small, not much ; G. litill ; S. 
lytel ; B. luttel, contracted sometimes into G. and 
Swed. lille: from G. litt ; Swed. lite; S. lyt; Sans. 

fes, small, few. G. lit, litser, litst, little, lesser^ least, 
corresponding with *i>itir\m, ixtiovm, ixtij^ifc^. 

Live, v, n, to be in life, to exist, remain ; G. liva, liba ; 
S. lijian, libban; Swed. lefwa; D. leve ; B. levefi ; 
T. leben, supposed by some to be cognate with G. lifa, 
to remain, to endure, to be left ; but G. lia, to grant, 
to give, may have been prefixed to fitia ; L. vivo. See 

Livelong, a. tedious, durable, lasting out; Scot, lee 
langj from G. lifa ; S'wed. lefwa ; B. blyven, to re- 
main, continue. 

Liver, s, one of the entrails; Isl. lifer ; Swed. lefrver ; 
D. lever ; T. Uber ; S. lifer ; Sir*^. 

Livery, s. 1. the act of giving or taking possession ; F. 
livree, from L. libera. 

2. The freemen of London, a dress for servants of dis- 
tinguished persons. 

LiVRE, *. a French pound, about tenpence sterling. 
From L. libra. 

Lizard, s. a kind of legged serpent; F. lezardj L. /o- 

L. L. D. a doctor of laws ; L. legis legum doctor. 

Lo, interj. see, behold ; S. h, la ; T. lo, la, the impera- 
tive of the verb to look, was used to call attention^ 
corresponding with Hind, loo ; P. loong. 

Loach, i. a fish called groundling ; F. loche ; L. lotus, 
{rata frequenting streams. 

Load, s. 1. weight, burden, freight, lading; G. and 
Swed. lada; S. hlad; T. laden; Hind, lad; I. lade; 
W. llrvith. 

2. A measure of grain. See Last. 

3. The leading vein in a mine. See Loos. 
LoAosMAN, s. a pilot See Lode. 

Loadstar, s. the north star, a guide for mariners. See 

Loadstone, s. the magnet, a compass to steer by. See 

Loaf, s. a mass of bread ; G. lef, keif, klaif; Isl. leif; 
Swed. lef, lof; M. G. hlaibs ; T. laib ; S. hlaf; L. 
B. leiba : G. fUef; Swed. lempa, a mass of dough, ap- 
parently from G. Iqfa, lopta ; S. hlifian, to raise up, 
corresponding with L. levo, which produced our word 
leaven. Some however suppose it to be cognate with 
our Lop, Lopper, to concrete. G. and Swed. bulla 
signified a round loaf; and hence F. boulanger, a 

Loam, s. a fat tenacious earth ; S. kuim ; T. leim ; L. 

Loan, s. any thing lent ; G. Ian ; Swed. Idn ; S. hlam, 
mutual accommodation or security, a feudal tenure, a 
pledge ; from G. lea, lia ; Swed. lega, to transfer, in- 
terchange. See Bail. 

Loathe, v. a. to abhor, dislike, detest ; G. liota ; Swed. 
Ujda ; T. leidan ; B. lyden ; S. latkian. 

LoB, s. a sluggard, an earthworm. B. lug, loom ; Swed. 
l&m : Isl. kloma, to slow. 

Lobby, s. an opening before a room, an arbour, a shed ; 
T. laube ; S. leqfe, foliage, a shade. See Leaf. 

Lobster, s. a well known shellfish ; S. lopuster, from 
loppe, a locust, a grasshopper, literally a leaper ; Port. 
locusta ; L. locusta marina. ^ 

LocH, s. a lake, and, in Scotland, an arm of the sea. 
See Lake and Louoh. 

Lock, s. a fastening for a door, a clasp, a link, catch, 
buckle, ring, ringlet ; Sans, uluq ; G. lok ; Swed. 

Lock, v. to fasten by a lock, to clasp, grapple ; G. and 

Swed. luka ; S. lucan. 

LocKRAM, s. a kind of coarse linen ; L. laxum granum. 

See Grogram. 
LoDB, ^. 1. a way, direction, course; G. lod, kid; D. 

lood ; T. lade ; S. lade. See to Lead. 
2. For Lade ; a conduit. 

Lodge, v. to place, reside, inhabit ; F. loger, from L. 

locare, which corresponds with S. logian; M. G. tog- 

gan, to lay, to place. 
Loft, s. what is high or elevated, the upper floor of a 

building ; G. Iqff; Swed. Ufi ; B. luij. See to Lift. 

Lofty, a. high, sublime, elevated, haughty, proud; 
from the noun. 

Loo, s. 1. a knot, a link, a computation ; Isl. G. lik, 
lock, a knot, a link ; D. lokke ; Swed. lycka, logg, and 
thence logga, to estimate. 

2. A piece of wood, a block, a blockhead ; G. log, lag, 
what is laid or placed, like Post from L. positus, pro- 
duced B. logge, heavy, lumpish. See to Lay. 

LooLiNE, s. a line with knots fastened to a piece of 
board for measuring a ship's way ; Swed. logglina ; 
D. lokkelin ; F. ligne de loch. 

Logwood, s. a wood used in dyeing ; from Lago or La- 
guna, a town on the bay of Campeachy. 

Loin, s. the back of an animal ; L. lumbus ; It longia ; 
F^hnge; W.lUvyn; Hind, lung ; 8. lend. 




LoiTEBi V. n. to linger^ to idle awAy time ; B. leuleren, 
from O. lalur ; Swed. laier ; T. laiier, tardiness. See 

LoLL^ V. I . to lean idly upon^ rest against ; B. luylieen, 
from luif, lazy^ and Ugen, to lie ; luylak, a sluggard. 

2. To hane out the tongue; T. loeUen; B. lulUn, to 
suck wim the tongue. 

Lone, a. private, solitary, single. 

LoNO, a. having length, slow, tedious; G. long; S. 
long ; L. hngus ; F. long ; It. longo. 

Long, ad, in length, continuation, proximation, con- 
junction, side by side ; G. lang ; T. lange ; whence 
T. langen ; S. gelangen, to belong. See Along. 

Long, v. n. to think the time long, to desire earnestly ; 
Swed. langa; S. langian. 

Loo, s, a game at cards introduced at the palace of Loo, 

Looby, s, an awkward sofl fellow, a clown ; Isl. luhhe ; 
B. lobbes, a low idle fellow ; W. llabe, a clown. 

LooF, u. to bring near the wind ; B. loeven ; Swed. Iqf; 

B. loef; F, l^, aiUqf, See Luff. 
LooF, s, the hand, the palm ; Hind, lup ; G. Iqf; M. G. 

Iqf a ; Swed. Iqf we, anciently k^, (abbe, loge, luca ; 

Scot, luff; W. llan> ; I. lamk. See Glove. 
Look, s, sight, appearance, air of the face ; G. aug ; T. 

lug ; S. loc ; Arm. lug ; W. llygad, lug ; L. lux ; 

Sans, loch ; Hind, luk, the eye. 
Look, v, from the noun ; to see, view, examine, watch, 

appear ; S. locian, alucan ; B. lonken ; T. lugen ; P. 

loong ; Hind, loo ; Xm, 

Loom, «. 1. a weaver's frame, a member, an article ; G. 
lorn ; S. knna, cognate with Limb. 

2. A sea fowl ; Swed. lorn ; D. turn, loom ; F. lumme, 
from Isl. hloma, to be stupid or torpid. 

Loom, v, a, to exhibit a distant view, to appear like a 
ship far ofi* at sea ; Isl. lionia ; S. lioman, from G. 
Ihm ; A. lam, sheen, glimpse ; geleoma, to gleam. 

LooN, J. 1. a country servant, a hireling; G. launur; 
Swed. loner ; S. lun, lean ; Scot, loun, from G. laun ; 
T. hhn, <wages, hire. G. legohion was a hired house 
servant, a lackey ; from lega, hire. 

2. A scoundrel, a skulker, a filcher ; G. launur ; Swed. 
/<Jn. See Publoin. 

3. Humour, disposition; G. lun; Swed. luna; D,lune; 
T. laune. 

Loop, s, I, a, window, a hole in a tower to look through; 
G. luff, lugg, glugg. See Look. 

2. A loop knot, a running knot, a noose, a small ring ; 
G. laup ; B. hop, running. 

Loophole, s, an opening to run through, a hole to look 

through. See Loop and Hole. 
LooBD, a, heavy, stupid, sluggish; Q, latur, laur ; B. 

loerd, luyart ; T. herd, loerman; Sp. lerdo; F. hurd; 

Arm. hurt, heavy, stupid, sluggish. The quartan 

ague was formerly called the hurd or lurdane. 

Looby, s, a beautiful species of small parrot ; Malay, 
noory ; Sp. hro. 

Loose, a, unbound, detached, lax, free, wanton, wild ; 
G. laus; Swed. Ids; T. hs ; S. leas'; B. hs ; D. 
loes ; Xwiii but sometimes confounded with L. Uucus; 
F. lache. 

Loose, v, to unbind, relax, set free; G. leisa ; M. G. 
Inusjan ; S. lysan, lesan ; Swed. I6sa, corresponding 
with Xvtf, Xvrm, 

Lop, v. a. to cut oC amputate; 6. Idpa ; Swed. lupa ; 

S. hpa, to leap, denoted also k sudden manner of cut- 
tmg, " leipa berk af triam," to lop the bark from 
trees ; G. Ua, however, was a falchion. See Lib. 

Lop, s. I . what is lopped from trees ; T. lup, 

2. A flea, a leaper ; Swed. loppa ; S. loppe. See Lob- 


Lop, LoPPBB, V, «. to run together, to coagulate, to 
concrete, to clot ; G. laupa ; Swed. Idpa, to rim toge- 
ther; whence Isl. hlaup ; J}, lube; T. luip ; B. feoie, 
curds ; and Runnet is from Run, to coagulate. See 

LoBD, s, a title applied to the Almighty and to a noble- 
man ; S. hlaford, hueord, apparently from G. Iqfa ; 
S. hlifian, Iqfian, to elevate, exalt, extol, and G. vard; 
S. ward, weorth, dignity, honour, estimation. S. feo/*, 
a lorc^ seems to have been confounded with lufian, 
leqfiam, to love, to be faithful. S. scip hlaford was the 
master or chief of a ship. G. lavard ; Isl. laward, 
however, had a different origin as supposed ; G. la, 
lad, signified land, and vard, a possessor or warden ; 
which produced our Lord of a manor, and Scot. 
laird, a land-owner. F. leude, a seigniory, was a cor- 
ruption of Allodium, See Lady. 

Lobdane, s, a worthless stupid person; F. lourdin ; 
Scot, lurdane. See LooBo. 

LoBusHiP, s, title of a nobleman, a domain, a manor. 
See Ship, quality. 

Lobe, s, 1. doctrine, learning, a lesson ; G. lasr ; Swed. 
lara ; S. tor. See Lbbe. 

2. Loss, distress; Swed. hra; S. lore; B. loor. See 


Lobel, s, a sluggish dull fellow, a losel. See Loobd. 
Lobimeb, Lorineb, s, a bridle cutter ; F. lormier, from 

L. lorum, 
LoBioT, s, a yellow bird ; F. loriot, from L. auraius ; 

L. B. galgulus. 
LoBN, a. deserted, forsaken, lost. See Lobe^ Lose 

and FoBLOBN. 
Lose, v, to suffer loss, to miss, to fail ; M. G. Uusan ; 

S. leosan, losian ; D. lijse ; Swed. lisa ; Q, lora. See 

Losel, s, a dull sluggish fellow; from hose or hzy. 

See Lobel. 
Lot, *. chance, fortune, portion, quota ; G. lul; Swed. 

Idtt ; S. hlot ; T. loos ; B. and F. lot ; Arm. loot : It. 

lotto, a game of chance. See to Light. 
LoTE, Lotos, s, a kind of tree ; L. htus. 

Loud, a, noisy, sounding ; G. and S. lud ; D. lyd ; 
Swed. Uud; T. hut : G. hlyda, to hear. 

LovEAGE, s, water parsley ; F. leveshe ; B. lavas ; L. B. 
levisticum, ligustica. 

Love, s. 1. the passion between the sexes, courtship, af- 
fection ; G. hub, love ; S. luva ; Swed. luif; T. hdfe ; 
B. lief; P. loob ; Hind, lou ; L. lube, libido, 

2. At play, counting nothing in the game; S. laua, 
lafe, void, destitute. 

3. A kind of mourning ribb<«i ; from being worn by 
widows, as S. lafe, void, desolate, signifies a widow, 
a relict. See to Lbavb. 

Love applb, «. a tomata ; L. solannm pomum amoris. 

Lough, s, a lake, a body of water ; G. laug; Swed. U^; 
T. luch ; S. lagu, luh ; W. llwch, Isl. lauga, loga ; S. 
lygece, a river ; and the original meaning of the word 
seems to be water. See Lake. 


L Y 

Louis d'or, a F. gold coin^ value twenty shillings ster- 
ling, with the head of Louis. 

Lounge^ v. w. to idle, to linger ; Swed. lunsa, lunka ; T. 
luntchen, lungeren, 

LouB, 17. «. to frown, to appear dark or gloomy, supposed 
to be Swed. lura ; B, looren ; T. Lauren, to looK insi- 
diously ; but there seems to have been a L. verb, luro, 
as luror is discolour. See Lurid. 

Louse, s, a small body animal ; G. and Swed. lus, luus ; 
T. laus ; B. luys ; S. lus ; Arm. huese ; W. Uau, 

Lout, s, a clown, a serf ; D. lowi, subjected^ enthralled ; 
T. lotie ; B. loei, a clown. 

Lout, v. n. to stoop, to bow awkwardly, to submit^ 
bend, obey ; G. and Swed. luta ; S. hluian, 

\i/ovfi a. near the surface, deep, abject, poor^ mean^ 
cheap ; G. Swed. T. B. lag ; S. legh ; D. law. See 
to Lay. 

Low, t;. to bellow like an ox ; S. hlorvan ; B. loeyen. See 
to Lay. 

Low, s. flame, light, blaze ; M. G. lauh ; G. log; Swed. 
laga ; D. lue ; T. loh ; B. laei/e ; A. lukub ; oans. luo, 
lookh, of which Light, Link, Lunt, Loom, Blow, 
Blight, Blaze, Blast, Blink, Flame, Flash, Flare, 
Glow, Gloss, Glass, Glaze, Glare, Glance, Gleam, 
Glimpse, Glisten, seem to be cognates. The loge or 
loke of the Goths, Sans. Lookh, was the God of flame. 

Low, LoB, 1. in the names of places, signifies a bury- 
ing ground^ a barrow or smooth sloping mound ; G. 
hlaiuy hlef; 8. hlarv, lone ; Scot, law, 

2. A station, a residence, a farm ;D,lo€; S. log, loh ; B. 
loo. See Latr. 

3. A grove; G. 16; Sclav, log ; T. lo, loh; B. loo; L. 

Lower, r. 1. to lessen, bring low. 

2. To frown, to appear dark or gloomy. See Lour. 
Loyal, a, faithful to the sovereign, submissive to the 

law, legal ; F. loyal; Sp. leal; It. leale, from F. lot; 

It and Sp. le ; L. lex. 
Lozenge, s, a figure in heraldry, a medicinal cake of 

that form, a rhomb, from A«(^f «nd ymm, 
LuB, V, a, to geld, emasculate ; B. luhhen. See to Lib. 
Lubbard, Lubber, s, a stout lazy fellow ; B. luyaard, 

Luck, s, chance, accident, fortune ; G. lucka ; Swed. 

lycka ; D. lykke ; B. luk ; T. gluch ; A*;^ii, ><iyx,% ; Sans. 

ta, lik. 
Lupp, s, the air, the wind ; G. lugu ; Swed. loge, luft ; 

B. lorf, logt, lucht ; D. luft ; S. lyft. See Loop and 

Lug, V, to drag, pull with violence ; Swed. lugga ; D. 

luge ; S. Ueccan, luggian, geluggian. See to Pluck. 
Lug, s. 1. a small fish, a kind of worm ; B. log ; D. loey; 

Scot lug, 
2. The ear ; Scot, lug. See to Listen. 

4. From the verb; a pull. 

Luggage, s. any cumbrous package, from lug, to draw, 
or perhaps for loadage. 

Lukewarm, a, moderately warm, indifferent, wanting 
zeal ; S. wUbc ; B. loauwig ; T. law ; Scot lew ; D. 
lunk; perhaps breathwarm. See Lungs and Lights. 

Lull, v, a, to compose to sleep, allure ; Swed. luUa ; D. 
lulle ; L. laUo : It caniar laua, to sing lullaby. 

Lumber, s, gross unassorted stuff, useless furniture ; T. 
lump ; B. lomp, any thing ugly or tattered, a rag, a 
good for nothing fellow. 

Lump, s, a small mass, the whole piece ; B. lomp, klomp; 
D. and Swed. klump, are apparently cognate with our 
Lopper, from Swea. Idpa, concrete. See Loap. 

Lunch, Luncheon, s, a piece, a morsel ; B. lutje. See 


Lungs, s, the organs of respiration ; Swed. lunga ; D. 
lunge ; T. lunge ; S. lungen ; B. long : G. lugu, air. 
See Lights. 

Lunt, s,\.b, match cord to fire great guns ; Swed. T. 

and B. lunt. See Low. 
2. Urine, lie; Swed. luL See Land and Lant. 

Lupine, *. a kind of pulse with a variety of flowers ; A. 
louhye ; L. lupina ;F, lupin. 

Lurch, s, a forlorn state or condition ; B. loor ; T. lo- 
ertsch, a losing throw at dice. See Lore. 

Lurch, v, to shift, play wily tricks, act insidiously ; B. 
loeren. See to Lurk. 

Lurcher, s, from the verb ; a poacher, a kind of dog. 

Lube, s, an enticement, a bait ; the figure of a bird to 

entice hawks; Swed. and T, luder ; B. loore ; T. 

leurre; It lodro ; Sp. lura, flesh. F. appas, a charm^ 

a bait, was from L. pasco. See Bait. 

Lurid, a. gloomy, dismal ; L. luridus. 

Lurk, v. n, to lie in wait, to watch, act insidiously ; 
Swed. lura ; T. lauem ; Scot lure. See to Lurch. 

Luscious, a, immoderately sweet ; supposed to be from 
yXvKvs ; A. luzeez, is used precisely like our word. 

Lush, a, having a deep colour ; It liscio signifies co- 
lour ; but properly smoothing of the skin. G. litsk is 
coloured. See Lasteby. 

LusK, a, slothful ; G. losk. See Lazy. 

Lust, s, carnal desire, unlawful or exorbitant inclina- 
tion ; G. lost ; Swed. lust ; T. and S. lust, from G. ust, 
ast, love. 

Lusty, a. hearty, jovial, jolly, of ^ood cheer, vigorous ; 
G. lostog; Swea. B. and T. lusttg. 

Lute, s, a stringed musical instrument ; A. alaud ; Sp. ' 
laud; T. lut, 

Ly, 1. as a termination in the names of places, is Lea 
or Lee, a field, a pasture ; or S. leag ; L. B. lega, a place. 

2. A termination by which a substantive becomes an ad- 
jective, is contracted fr^m like ; as beastly for beast 
like, manly for manlike ; G. thalik corresponds with 
m>ipui ; L. taUsj the like, such. 



MHA8 in EnffHsh an unvaried sound by the com- 
pression of the lips, as mine, tame, camp ; and it 
is never mute. In tne Celtic dialects^ M, B, F, V, 
were subject to general intermutations. The Goths 
also substituted M for V frequently ; and thus the 
Latin verus and merus appear to have been originally 
the same word. M, or Me, appears to have had nearlv 
the same formation^ meaning and use, in Gothic, witn 
the prefixes be, ve and ge, to denote adaptation or 
intensity. Thus ^m eat we have meat and bait, food ; 
the Gothic auk, eyk, increase, our eke, seems in this 
way to have produced our much and mickle ; and the 
€k>thic inna, to enter, served to form the word mine, 
a subterraneous entrance, mien, a mouth, a counte- 
nance, and mint, money. Malt was from ealoth, ale. 
Mab, s. a name given to the Queen of the Fairies ; Heb. 
W. and Arm. mab, a child or any small animal ; I. 
baeib, badhbh, maeib, a fairy. G. vif, veib, a woman, 
may have been pronounced meib, by the usual muta- 
tion of V into m ; and alf veib, a female elf, was a 

Mao> s. a son ; G. maug ; T. mag, mac : S. mag ; I. mac ; 
W. maccfoy ; Malabar magun, a son, a male child ; G. 
may, maga, a daughter, a maid ; masg, a relation. G. 
fnagt, was also an embryo ; whence S. moegth, a pro- 
geny, race, tribe. The Medes, S. mathas, masgethas, 
Uie Maiiiaci of Germany and England, appear to have 
had their names from this extensive root See Man. 

Macaroni, «. 1. a kind of pastry ; ^Mtyn^M, a bakery ; 
It. maccarone; Heb. mahha ; Arm. macha, dough, 

2. An affected illiterate person, who speaks a vulgar dia- 
lect, such as was used by Mertino Cocca, in a bur- 
lesque poem on pastry called Macaronia, 

Macaroon, s. F. macanm, a kind of biscuit made of 
flour, almonds^ eggs and butter. See Macaroni. 

Macaw, s. the name of a species of cockatoon, and also 
of n tree brought to the West Indies from Macao. 

Macs, «. 1 . a heavy blunt weapon, a dub of metal, borne 
before magiitrales aa an ensign of authority. MiU^ ; 


L. massa: Sp. maza; It mazza; F. moisue; S. mace. 
See Staff. 

2. The inner rind that covers the nutmeg ; Sans, and 
P. bazh s L. mads ; F. macis ; It mads. 

Macerate, v. a. to steep, to soak, infuse, make lean ; 
L. macero. 

Machine^ *. an engine, coach, vehicle ; fmz»f^ ; L. ma. 
china ;¥. machine. 

Mackarbl, or Mackerel, «. 1. a sea fish flaked with 
different colours ; L. macularia, from macula, a spot ; 
F. maquereau ; T. mackarelL 

2. A bawd ; F. maquerelle, from L. moechor, to commit 

Mackarel-oale, s. a brisk wind during which mackarel 
are readily taken ; a term with fishermen. 

Macrocosm, e. the world, the universe ; F. macrocoMme, 
from ^MUB^ and nlntH- 

Mactation, s. the killing of beasts for sacrifice ; L. mac* 
iatio, from fUx^ and $vm. 

Macula, Maoulation, s. spot, stain, pollution ; L. ma- 
cula : G. mal; T. mahl, makl, a speck, a stain, appears 
to be the original word. 

Mad, s. a worm; G. madka, maakaj D. madike ; B. 
made; T. made; M. G. matha. This name, as well 
as moth, seems to be formed from G. meida, to divide, 
cut, and signifies an insect It was applied to an 
earthworm, and to a mite. 

Mad, a. disordered in mind, enraged, furious ; M. G. 
mod ; S. maad, gemaad, *ngry, enraged, confounded 
with G. oeds S. vod. See Wood. 

Madam, s. an address paid to a gentlewoman, a title; F. 
madame; It madonna, from £. mea domina. 

Madcaf, 9. a wild thoughtless person, from mad, and 
cap, the head. See Caf. 

Madder, «. a plant much used in dying ; Arm. madre ; 
T.maddar; S.maddre; B. meed, meadow red. See 


Made, pret. and part, of the verb to Make ; it is con- 
tracteli from tnaked. 



M A L 

Madbfy^ Madxdatb, v. a. to wet, to moisten ; L. ma- 

Madgb-howlet, s. the white owl ; Sp. maido ; T. mitz, 
miats ; It mtcto, a cat; Scot, mtmi ; F. machette, firom 
its mewing cry, called also the cat owl. 

Maorioal, s, a kind of pastoral song; F. madrigal; It 
mandriaU, from f/uifi^ ; L. mandra, a stall for cattle, 
a fold ; to which gal, a song, has been added to form 
our word. See Oal. 

Maebe, a. famous, renowned, celebrated, noble ; Sans. 
maha ; P. mih ; Chald. mar ; G. wi«r, mcsr ; T. mere; 
S. mer, masre ; Swed. masr ; W. maur ; I. mor, great 
It formed a part of many celebrated names, such as 
Chlodomer, Marcomer, Merovicus, The Gk>thic masr ; 
S. mar, may sometimes be formed from asdra, asra ; S. 
are, honour ; whence alasdra, honourable, worshipful. 
See Aldebhan. 

Maffle, V, It. to stammer, stutter, hesitate ; F. moufler, 
from moue, the mouth. See Muffle. 

Magazine, s. a storehouse, armory, repository; A. 

makhzan ; F. magazin* 

Mage, s, a magician, one of the Magi ; P. majus, mugh ; 
fuiyf, L. magus, a follower of Zoroaster, a worshipper 
of fire. See MiTBE. 

Maggot, s. a small worm, grub, embryo, fancy ; O. 
madka, maaka ; Swed. math ; D. madike ; B. maai ; 
S. mogihe; W. mageod ; Scot matvk; O. E. mough, a 
worm. The B. Immorm, and F. ver coquin, are both 
used metaphorically, like maggot with us, to denote 
whim or caprice. See Moth and Mad. 

Magi, s. pL wise men, Persian philosophers. See Mage. 

Magistbate, s. one vested with public authority ; L. 
magistratus; It magistrato; F. magisirat. 

Magnesia, s, a white powder, very gentle purgative. 
MmyvnTM, the name of the country where it was 

Magnet, s. a stone that attracts iron, iron ore, steel ; 
futynllmf ; L. magnet, from Magnesia, where it was first 

Magnify, v. to make great, extol, praise ; L. magnijico.^ 

Magpie, s. a black and white bird, easily taught to pro- 
nounce words ; met a talkative person ; L. maculosa 
pica. It was formerly magat pie ; L. maculaia pica. 

Mahomet, a man's name ; A. Muhammad, the praised. 

Maid, s. a virgin, a female servant ; Sans, moogdha ; P. 
made, madeen ; Heb. amaih; G. mau, masy, masr, 
meijd; S. mai, mxBgd ; B. m(ggd,'meia; T, magd, a 
daughter, the feminine of mac or mag, a son. From 
the same root we have Meg, Madge, Margery, Molly, 
women's names. Maiden, like lady, signified the 
holy virgin, when forming the names of plants and 

Maidenhead, Maidenhood, s. virginity, from maid, 
and head or hood, state, condition. 

Maidmarian, s. a name given originally to a female 
who represented the Queen of May, perhaps a cor- 
ruption of F. Mai reine ; but it now signifies a man 
dressed like a woman, who plays tri^s at morris 
dances, and may be ^^i» ; L. monon, a buffoon. 

Majesty, s, grandeur, dignity, power, sovereignty^ 

elevation, a royal title ; L. majestas, from (4^^ms, great. 
Mail, s. I. armour, properly of iron network; L. mo- 

cula; F. maiUe; It magUa, corresponding with G. 

mal ; T. mahl; Swed. malja, a division, a link. See 

2. A letter-bag; B. maal; T. malhe; F. male; Sp. 

mala, perhaps from fuXyki, or-G. male, a knapsack. 
See Wallet and Budget. 

Maim, s. a privation of some essential part, lameness, a 
hurt, a defect ; G. mai, from maitan, to mutilate, and 
vam, defect, may have been used to form our word. 
Arm. mehaina ; L maidham, have the same significa- 
tion ; G. vam was also pronounced mam, whicA in O. 

F. was maimis. 

Main, a, 1. great, chief, principal; F. magne ; L. mag* 
nus ; ftkymt. 

2. Powerful, mighty, forcible; G. megin; S. mage, me* 
gende, from G. meiga, to have power, to be able. See 
May and Might. 

Main, s, 1. the gross, the chief part, sum total. Seethe 

2. Power, might, strength, force, continuity, the ocean> 
the continent; G. megn, magn, manne; S. megncf 
magn ; T. megin : G. megin land, the main land ; me- 
gin see, the ocean. 

3. The chief point on which a game or match depends. 
The player at hazard names the main or point against 
the cnances. 

4. A channel, duct or conduit ; from Swed. mana ; T. 
menen ; F. mener, to conduct, lead. 

Mainpebnablb, o. bailable; foTmainprenable,froim Main- 

Mainpbizb, s. a deliverance on bail; F. main prise, 
from L. manu prehensio. It means the delivery of a 
person arrested int« the hands of a friend, who is se- 
curity for his reappearance when required for tria). 

Maintain, v. to support, uphold, keep ; F. maintenir ; 
It mantenare ; Sp. maniener, from L. manu tenere, 

Majob, a. greater, elder, senior, chief; L. major. See 


Majob, s. a senior officer in the army, a term in logic 
signifying the chief proposition ; rrom the adjective. 

Maize, s. Indian wheat The name by which it is 
known to the natives of Brazil and Cuba, whence it 
was brought into Europe. 

Make, s. form, structure, disposition ; from the verb. 

Make, v. to form, create, produce, conduce, force; 
Swed. maka ; T. machen ; S. macian ; B. maken, firom 

G. meiga, to have power or efficiency. 

Make, s. a companion, husband, vtrife, a fellow, a second 
in command; G. make; Swed. make; S. maca, ge- 
maca : D. mage, from G. mag, a relation, a connexion. 
See Mate. 

Mal or Male, as a prefix, signifies evil ; L. nude ; F. 

Mal, in forming the names of towns, signifies a con- 
vention of the people for judiciary or other purposes ; 
as Maldon, MaHng, Melton; G. mal, mel ; Swed. 
m&l, a regular &xed time or place ; W. mael, a market. 
See Meal. 

Malady, s. a disease, distemper, sickness ; F. maladie, 
from L. male. See Bale. 

Malapbbt, a. saucy, impudent; probably from mal 
and pert. 

Malaxate, v. a. to knead to softness ; ftaxd^m 

Male, a. of the sex that begets young ; L. masculus ; 

F. mask, mdle. 
Male, s. a he, the he of any species. See the adjective. 
Malkin, Maulkin, s. a mop, a scarecrow; G. moU, 

moal; S.mal; Swed. mull; B. mul, cinders, ashes. 

Malkin, perhaps from mal quen, a cinder wench. 



Mall> v. a. to beat, to strike with a mall ; from the 

Mall, s* 1. a wooden hammer ; L. malleus ; F. mail. 

2. A level ground for playing bat and ball. See Pall 

3. A public walk or promenade ; G. mal ; Swed. mhl, 
a limit, a place set apart or inclosed, the boundary of 
a town. 

Mallabd, #. the male of the wild duck ; F. malart, 

from male. 
Malleable, a. extensible by hammering; F. malleable, 

from L. malleus, a hammer. 
Mallet^ *. a little hammer, diminutive of mall. 
Mallows, s. an herb ; (m>mx?i ; L. malva. 

Malmsey, s, a kind of sweet wine ; from the Greek, 
now Turkish, island Malvasia ; It malvaisia. The 
name is given to other sweet wines. 

Malt, s. barley prepared for brewing ; Swed. malt ; S. 
mealt ; T. maltz ; B. moui ; S. aleotk, from Ale. 

Malt horse, s. a term of reproach, a mean fellow. L. 
muiUus was corrupted into F. mouU ; W. mMt, cas- 
trated, from which we have our word mutton ; and 
horse, consistently with the other terms used, at the 
same time, by Shakespear, might have been pro- 
nounced broadly without the aspirate. O. £. moyli, 
a gelding. 

Mam, Mamma, s, a fond word for mother ; A. mam ; 
Heb. mam ; P. mama ; fitififut ; L. mamma. 

Mammet, s. a puppet, a dressed-up figure ; Arm. and 
W. mab, maetk, a nursling. See Moppet and Mab. 

Mammoc, s. a shapeless piece ; Sp. machemiga, a frag- 
ment, from mackar ; It maccare, to pound or mash. 

Man, s. a human being, male of the human species, one 
arrived at manhood, an individual ; Sans, manus ; G. 
man ; S. man / Arm. man, a person, a human being, 
male or female ; G. man ; Swed. man ; S. mon ; T. 
mann ; B. man ; M. G. manna ; I. mo, a male person. 
G. madr, magdr ; S. mteth, mag, had the same signi- 
ficatioD ; and all seem to be derived from G. maga, to 
acquire, beget, effect; S. mahn ; D. maa; bwed. 
forma, power, ability, efficiency ; Chald. hou, G. ho, 
is the masculine pronoun, our He, which, prefixed to 
ma or mo, may have formed the L. homo. Our may, 
might, main, make, mac, maid, are all cognates ; and 
G. manne, magn, strength, was the S. and Isl. mun, 
mund, efficiency; which also signified the hand, in 
the same way that L. manus implied power and ma- 
nagement. The L. munio, to fortify, appears to have 
had the same origin ; and our Man of War is an armed 
machine, which is also of the feminine gender. 'a»«^ 
and vir denote efficiency. In German and Scot it ap- 
pears, however, to have signified also a person, as 
tormed from the G. an, one. Man sagt, one says, it 
is said ; F. on dit. 

Man, v. a. 1 . to furnish with men. 
2. To fortify or strengthen ; from the noun. 
Manage, v. a. to conduct, govern, train ; M. G. manu^ 
gan; S. mangian, signify to conduct business, to ne- 

fodate, to enter into details. But our word is from 
I. manu agere ; F. menager ; Sp. manejar ; It. ma* 
neggiare, to handle, to take in hand. 
Manatee, s. a fish called the sea cow ; Sp. manaio ; 
L. B. manalus, from its having fins like hands. See 
Manation, s. distillation, a gentU How ; L. mano, to 

Manche, s. a sleeve ; L. manica j F. manche. 
Manchet, s. a small loaf of fine bread ; F. michet, from 

L. mtca. 
Manchineel, *. a tree in the West Indies which bears 

a poisonous fruit ; 1^ manzanilla, the little apple. 
Mancipate, v. a. to bind, tie, enslave ; L. mancipo. 
Mandamus, s. a kind of writ ; L. we give orders. 
Mandarin, *. a name given by the Portuguese to a Chi- 
nese commander or magistrate ; from L. mandare. 
Mandate, s. a command, order, charge, commission ; 

L. mandatum. 
Mandible, s. the jaw ; L. mandibula. 
Mandilion, *. a loose coat; F. mandille; It. mandig- 

Hone, diminutive of Mantle. 
Mandbake, s. a somniferous plant; /M«y}^«yo^*?. It 

was used by the Goths in exorcism, and thence named 

alrun. See Aboynt. 
Manduc ATE, V. a. to chew, to eat ; L. manduco. 

Mane, s. the hair on a horse's neck ; G. masn ; Swed. 
mahn ; D. man ; T. mahne ; B. maen ; W. mwng ; I. 
mong. It appears to be derived from G. men, a chain, 
clasp or collar, which, like f^tfuLxfn, may have ob- 
tained its name from resembling the moon. G. mcen 
signified also the vertebrae of the back. 

Manes, s. ghosts, shades ; L. manes. 

Mangcorn, Munocorn, s. com of several kinds mixed ; 
G. mainga ; Swed. maenga ; S. mangian, to mix. See 

Mange, s. the scab or itch in cattle ; L. B. mentigo ; F, 
mangeaison, itching, from L. mando ; F. manger ; It. 
mangiare, to eat. Itch seems also to be derived from 

Manger, s. a trough to feed horses ; F. mangeoir, from 
L. mando ; F. manger ; It. mangiare, to eat 

Mangle, v. a. I, to press, to smooth linen ; from the 

2. To mutilate, to lacerate; G. manga j B. man ken ; 
T. mangen, mangeln ; Swed. mangla, to divide, lace- 
rate; Swed. kotmanglar, a retail butcher. 

Mangle, «. 1. a machine to smooth linen ; G. manga ; 
T. mang; Swed. mangel; W. mangul; L. B. mango, 
nale; fuiyyetfv, originally a powerful warlike ma- 
chine, but now signifjong a calander or wooden 

Mango, s. an Indian pickle ; Coromandel, mcenga ; Ma- 
labar, mana ; Java, manga ; perhaps from Sp. and 
Port, manzana, an apple. This, like other fruit, does 
not retain its flavour when pickled. 

Mangosteen, s. a delicious fruit called mangas tangas 
at Java, and mangastan by the Malays. See Mango. 

Maniac, s. a person raging mad ; fMfU, madness, fury, 

from fuif, the moon. 
Manifest, a. plain, evident ; L. manifestus^ from ^n 

and ^W«v, to remain clear. 
Maniglionb, s. handles in gunnery ; It. manigUoni, from 

L. manica:. 
Manille, s. a bracelet ; F. manille ; It. maniglia, from 

L. manica. G. men signified a chain or collar. See 

Manioc, s. an American root, called by the Brasilians 

mandioca. See Tapioca, CAsaAVA and Yucca. 

Maniple, s. a handful ; L. manipuhis. 

Manna, s. a sweet drug ; Arab, mann ; Heb. manna, 
prepared bread. It is found on a apc^cies of tamarisk. 


M A ft 

Manner^ s. method^ mode, custom, habit, sort, kind : 
It. tnaniera ; F. maniere ; Sp. manera : F. mener ; 
Sp. manwra, menear, to have in hand, to conduct, 
from L. manus. 

Manoeuvre, v. to manage, to conduct with skill ; F. 
mancsuvrer; L. manu operar, 

Manob or Manour, s. the residence of a lord, over 
which he holds jurisdictions ; F. manoir ; L. B. fita- 
nerium, from L. maneo. 

Manse, s, a parsonage house ; L. mansio. 

Manslaughter, s. the act of killing a man with- 
out previous malice ; G. van ; Sweo. wan j S. van ; 
Scotch^ mank, signify properly deficiency ; but seem 
to have produced G. nuen ; Swed. men ; S. fnan, evil. 

' G. vankalt is applied to any injury or lameness hap- 
pening to cattle through the carelessness of those who 
had charge of them. Our word, however, may be 
the simple expression for homicide without malice 

Mantel, s. a cloak, blind or mask, a board to cover 
part of the fire-place. See Mantle. 

Mantle, s. a kind of cloak; G. mattul; S. masntU; 
Swed. mantel; T. mantel; L. B. manteUum ; Arm. 
and W. mantell ; P. mandyas ; (utfivn. 

Mantle, v. 1. to cover, cloak; from the noun. 

2. To spread the wings as a hawk in pleasure^ to revel, 
to expand luxuriantly ; a word taken from falconry ; 
Sp. mantones, manteles, denotes the feathers of a 
hawk's wings ; It. manto, mantello, the coat of a horse, 
or plumage of a bird. 

Mantua, *. 1. a woman's gown ; F. manteau ; Sp. 

manto, a mantle. 
2. A silk made at Mantua. 

Manual, a. performed by the hand ; L. manualis ; F. 

Manubial, s, taken as spoils in war ; L. manuhialis, 

Manube^ v. a. to dung, to enrich ; but properly to cul- 
tivate ; F. manoeuvrer, from L. manu operor, to labour 
or practise with skill. It signifies improvement of 
land in general. 

^ Many, a. several, numerous, divers ; G. mang, meing ; 
Swed. mang ; T. manage, manch; D. mange, and 
written in Saxcm with very numerous variations. 
The root is G. ma, much, and cenig, some or any ; 
and hence also F. maint ; Romance and W. mank, 
with the same signification. The G. and S. manga, 
mangen, to mix^ are derived from mang, many. 

Map, s. a delineation of a country ; L. mappa, a table- 
cloth, and thence a table of contents, an index. The 
word is now common to all European languages for a 
geographical picture. 

Maple> s. a tree called the sycamore maple ; S. mapel, 
mapul, contracted from masboll. See Mazer. 

Mab, v. a. to foil, defeat, derange; Sp. marrar ; It. 
smarrire, are derived from B. marren; 8. merran, 
myrran, amirreh, to deviate, turn away, hinder. The 
root seems to be G. ra, right, straight, which, with 
the negative prefix, becomes ura, wry, wrong : yrra, 
Swed. irra ; T. irren ; L. erro, to err, to go wrong, 
to hinder. 

Mabels, s. a fine hard stone, a little ball made of that 
stone; F. marbre, from L. marmor; ftd^jfut^. 

Mabcasbits, s. a bright fossil, mundic; Sp. marque^ 
sUo; F. marcassUe. The defences of Uie wild boar 
are called marques in venery ; fVom which, in matu- 
rity, the animal is called marcassin in Frendi ; 8. 

tneares smn : and this fossil has its name from resemb- 
ling a boar's tusk. 

Mabcescbnt, a, fading, withering ; L. marcescens, 

Mabch, s. 1. the third month ; L. Martius ; F. Mars ; 
T. Mertz, and common to all European languages. 
''A^f&Tlf, the ploughing season, from ti(iif ; G. aria ; S. 
iBnan ; L. aro, to plough, seems to have had M pre- 
fixed in forming this name. 

2. The limit of a field or country; P. marz ; G. mark ; 
T. march; F. marche ; W. mars, a boundary, of* 
which L. margo is cognate ; whence our ancient Mer^ 
da. See Mebe. 

3. A militarv movement, a regular solemn gait, a jour- 
ney of soldiers ; P. marz ; G. mark ; Swed. merk ; 
T. mark ; 8. mearc ; F. marche ; W. mars, a degree, 
measure, boundary; G. markga, to go regularly; 
merkga ; I. meirghafn, to follow a standard or signal. 
See Mabk. 

Marchioness, s. the wife of a marquis; It. marchesa. 
See Marquis. 

March-pane, s. a kind of sweet' bread ; T. marzipan ; 
F. mtisse pain, corrupted from L. massa panis. 

Marcid, a, withered, lean, clung, pining ; L. marcidus. 

Mabb, s. an oppression in sleep, called the night-mare 
or incubus; G. mcer ; Swed. mara; J}, mare; T. 
fnare, a nymph or female elf, was a phantom supposed 
to inhabit the air and excite the fancy. Tnus S. 
windu mar, the wind-mare, was echo. 

Mare, s. the female of a horse; Chald. meri; G. mer ; 
S. m0sre: D. mtEr ; B. merrie, have the same signifi- 
cation with our word; but G. mare; T. mar; Arm. 
march ; W. march ; I. marc, mean a horse. 

Maresohal, s. the chief of an army. The etymology of 
our m€Bre, great, or of mare, a horse, prefixed to G. 
skalk, a superintendant, signified either chief of the 
household, or master of the horse ; D. marskalk ; T. 
marschalk; Swed. marskalk; It marescalco; F. ma^ 
rechal: in the two last languages, the name is applied 
both to a field-marshal and a farrier. 

Maroarite, s. a pearl, a daisy ; P. marouaryd; S. tne- 
regrot ; fm^ym^irm ; L. B. margarita, sea grain. 

Margrave, s. a German title ; T. margrqf, warden of 
the marches. See March and Reeve or Greve. 

Marine, a. belonging to the sea; L. marisius; F. 

Marish, s, a bog, a fen ; G. mmr, moisture ; 8. merse; 
B. maersche ; T. marsch; F. marais. See Marsh 

Mabish, a. boggy, swampy ; for moorish. 

Mabk, s. a token, sign, assignation, impression, proof, 
standard, the sum of 13s. 4d., a foreign weight* of 
eight ounces; G. mark; Swed. mqrk ; S. mearce; 
T. mark; B. mercke ; D. marke ; Arm. marc; W. 
marc ; I. marg ; F. marque ; It marea. See Mbre. 

Mabket, s. from mark, an assignation ; a marked place 
or time fbr sale or purchase ; 6. markad ; Swed. 
markuad ; S. market ; D. market ; T. markt ; L. mer^ 
catus; F. marche ; It mercato. 

Mabl, s. a kind of fat clay for manure. Marg or fner- 
eel, in this sense, is common to all the Gothic dia- 
lects; L. marga ; W. marl; I. maria; F. marl and 
mam. Marrow and smear are from the same root. 

Mablinb, s. small cords of hemp dipped in pitch, used 
for fastening the sails to the ropes; B. marling; J>. 



mer linger ; F. merlin; Sp. merlin, perhaps from G. 
mtor, slender^ and line ; or moer, grease. See Smbar. 
Marmalade^ *. a conserve of quinces; P. marmdo ; 
Port, marmelo, a quince; Port marmelada; Sp. mer^ 
tnelada ; L. melimelum, quinces boiled up with sugar 
and spices ; but the name is given by us to a conserve 
of bitter oranges. 

Marmoset^ s, a small animal resembling a monkey ; 
Arm. mormausa, the sleeping mouse ; F. marmouse : 
it sleeps during the cold season. See Marmott. 

Marmott^ s. L. B. mura montis ; L. mus alpina; Sp. 
marmota ; F. marmott. See Marmoset. 

Marque^ s. a license of reprisals at sea ; from mark, a 

Marquee^ s. an officer's tent ; A. marqud, a couch or 

Marquetry, s. inlaid work in wood ; F. marqueterie, 
marked, variegated. 

Marquis, s, a title next below a duke ; F. marquis ; It. 

marchese ; L. B. marchio; from marches, theoorders. 

See Margrave. 
Marriage, s. the act of joining man and woman for 

life ; L. B. maritati, maritagium ; F. marriage j. It, 

maritaggio, from L. marito. 

Marrow, «. 1. an oily substance in bones, the quintes- 
sence ; Heb. mar a, beria ; I si. moer ; W. mer, ' fat ; 
Swed. fnarg ; T. marck ; S. meretve ; D. marw, grease. 
See Smear. 

2. A mate, an associate ; 6. magur. See Make. 

Mars, s. iron, the God of War, and a planet named after 
him. 'Ans signified iron and war, to which the La- 
tins prefixed M in forming this name. Armenian, 
ares, virility, energy. 

Marsh, *. a bog or fen. In forming the names of places 
it is written sometimes mars and mas. See Morass. 

Marshal, *. the chief officer at arms, one who regu- 
lates rank ; O. F. marsccUe. See Mareschal. 

Mart, *. 1. a place of public traffic; contracted from 

2. A letter of reprisal ; corrupted from markt, signed. 
See Marque. 

Marten, j. 1. a species of swallow; F. martinet or mar^ 
telet, the St Martin or March bird. 

2. A large kind of weasel; Swed. mard; S. mearth; 
la. marles ; F. marte, martre, apparently G. morud, 
dark brown. 

Martial, a. warlike, military, like iron ; L. martialis. 
See Mars. 

Martinet, Martlet, s. a species of swallow. See 

Martinoal, s, a strap used to curb a horse. Sp. fnar^ 
tingala; F. martingale, from G. mar, a horse, and 
thn»eing ; S. thwang ; T. trving, twingle, a constraint, 
stricture, pinch. See Mare and Thong. 

Martyr, s. one who suffers death for the sake of reli- 
gion or truth, a sacrifice ; f^{lv^, a witness. 

Marvel, *. a wonder ; F. merveiUe ; L. mirahulum, from 
miro, to admire. 

Mary, s. a woman's name ; A and Chald. mara, a wo- 
man ; G. masr, a maid. 

Mas, a periodical termination, appears to have been 
contracted from G. Swed. T. S. mal, mals, the time 
fixed for i>aying wages, rent or other contribution. 
It afterwards became confounded with mass, a reli- 
gious ceremony ; whence Lammas, Martinmas. 

Masculine, a. male, virile, like a man ; L. masculus ; F. 

Mash, ^. 1. a mixture, a drench for a horse; /M|<f ; L* 

mistio; S. miscung ; T. mischung; D.mask; Swed. 

mcesk, a mixture of grain or malt, either for brewing 

or medicine. 

2. Maceration, bruising, kneading; Arm. macha ; F. 
macher, to break with the teeth ; Sp. machacar, ma- 

jar, to pound in a mortar, from L. macero. 

3. The space between the threads of a net. See Mesh. 

Mask, s. a disguise, a subterfiige, a festive entertain- 
ment where people are disguised ; Sp. mascara ; It 
mascara ; F. masque, from A maskh, transforming, 
changing; maskhara, a person disguised, a player, a 

Maslin, s. a mixture ; from Mash. See also Miscel- 

Mason, s. a builder, particularly in stone. Mnx^^H, 
l^ix^> produced L. B. machio, machionis, a house- 
builder ; F. macon. Mexico is said to have been so 
named, by Spanish sailors, from having stone houses. 
See Free Mason. 

Mass, s. 1. the Romish service ; G. messa ; L. B. messa ; 
Sp. misa, and common to all Christian languages. See 

2. A lump of dough, something bulky or solid ; f^i^x ; 
L. massa ; F. masse. See Mace. 

Massacre, v. a. to butcher indiscriminately, to slaugh- 
ter ; F. massacrer, from L. mactus and sacrare. T. 
metzger is a butcher, from G. meita, meissa, to cut. 

]\Iassicot, s. calcined ceruss; It. massa cotta, baked 
dough ; F, massicot. 

Mast, s. 1. the upright post in a ship which supports 
the sail ; G. maest tras, the biggest tree ; Swed. mas- 
trae, mast ; D. mast ; B. mast ; S. mcest ; T. mast ; 
F. mast, mat, maestre ; Sp. mastil. See Most. 

2. T. mast ; S. mceste; Arm. mess ; W. mess ; I. masSy 
the fruit of glandiferous plants. The word is formed, 
like meat, from G. eta ; T. essen ; L. edo, to eat. 

Master, s. the chief of any place or thing ; G. maestur, 
meistur, mestur, from mcest ; S. nuest, greatest, chief. 
T. meister ; Swed. masstare ; B. meester ; D. master ; 
W. meister ; I. maisder ; It mastro ; F. maistre. L. 
magister is cognate in sense and formation with our 
word, being derived from ^<of, greatest, most. 

Masticate, v. a. to chew ; fUrtjci. 

Mastich, s. a gum, and the plant producing it, a ce- 
ment; fMtrix^; L. nmstiche; It. masttco; F. mastic. 

Mastiff, s. a large dog; F. mestif; Scot, mastiche, 
from G. maest, greatest, and tceve ; T. tiffe, a dog. 
F. matin, mastin, is also contracted from G. waesf 
hund, the great dog. See Tike. 

Mastlin, Messlin, s. mixed corn. See Maslin. 

Mat, s. a texture of sedge, rushes, straw or cords ; L., 
matta; S. meatta; T. matte; D. matte; W. matt; I. 
mat a; F. natte; apparently from G. meit, meis, in- 
terwoven, reticulated; maitan, to intersect. See 

Matachin, s. a buffoon dance ; It. matachino ; Sp. ma- 
tachin ; It. matte, a fool. See to Mate. 

Matadore, s. a slayer, a murderer, the name of a chief 
card at the game of hombre; Sp. matador. See 
Mate, to kill. 

Match, s. 1. a splinter that catches fire, the wick of a 
candle ; f*Un( ; L. muxa ; It. miccia ; F. meche, dried 
fungus used for tinder. 

M A U 

2. A pair, a marriage,an exertion between two equal par- 
ties, a mateage ; G. magdsk. See Mate and Makk. 

Mate, *. a companion, fellow, husband, wife, partner in 
command, a second; G. masgd, maegt ; B. moat ; Isl. 
mat, are from G. nugga, a connection, a relation. 

Mate, v. a. 1. to match ; from the noun. 

2. To confound, astonish, confuse, overcome ; P. mat, 
confused, astonished, is used at the game of chess, 
when the piece called the shah or king is unable to 
move ; and it resembles Sans, mat, mud, drunk. G. 
masda ; Isl. maat ; Swed. moed, matt; T. mat; Sp. 
mate; F. mat, are also used like the P. word, 
though they signify languid, fatigued, exhausted; 
but Sp. matar, to kill, from A. mata, dead, is a word 
common among the Malay and South Sea islanders ; 
and F. mat, applied to colour, is a dead colour. 

I^Iatebial, a, corporeal, essential, important, momen- 
tous ; L. materialis ; It. materiale ; F . materiel. See 

Matebials, s, pL constituent parts, substances. 

Maternal, a. motherly, kind, fond ; L. matemalis ; F. 

Mat.felon, s. an herb called by botanists centaurea »t- 
gra ; W. madefelon, from S. masth veilon, meadow violet 

Math, s. a mowing, a meadow ; S. masth. See Mead. 

Mathematics, s, pL the science of numbers and magni- 
tude ; f$»hf*t$Tuui ; L. mathematicus, a man of learn- 
ing, from fuihfMt, discipline. 

Mathes, s, camomile ; S. ma^ethe. We give the name 
now to the adonis autumnalts. See Mayweed. 

Mathmullen, s. the herb verbascum ; from math, a 
meadow, and muUen. 

Mathon, s. a meadow crop ; from Math. 

Matin, a. morning ; F. matin ; L. matutinum, from furet 
ttf^ifai, aurora. 

Matins, *. pL morning prayers ; from Matin. 

Matrass, s. a chemical glass vessel ; F. matras, from 
being Shaped like an ancient javelin ; L. matara, and 
therefore called a bolt head. 

Matrice, s. the womb, a mould to cast in ; L. matrix, 
from maier, a mother. 

Matron, s. a married woman, a mother ; L. matrona, 

MATRoes, s, an artillery soldier ; from L. matara, a kind 

of javelin. See Matrass. 
Matter, s. 1. body, substance, dimension, business ; G. 

mattur, strength, substance, might ; L. materia ; W. 

mater; It. materia ; F. matiere. 

2. Pus, sordes, corruption ; F. matiere ; It. materia ; W. 
madra ; I. maihair, appear to originate in the fore- 
going et3naion; but tney may be confounded with 
maturation for suppuration, or perhaps formed from 
G. eitur ; S. aster, venom. See Atter. 

Mattook, s. a pickaxe, a kind of hoe ; S. mattuc ; W. 

matog, from G. matt, strength, might, and Aoga, a hoe. 
Mattress, s, a kind of quilt to lie on ; L. matta rasa ; It. 

mairazzo ; F. materas, matelas ; W. mattras, a smooth 

Mature, a. ripe, digested ; L. maturus ; It maturo. 

Maudlin tanst, s, an herb employed as a vermifuge. 

See Mad, a worm, and Tansy. 
Maudlino, a, half drunk ; from muddle, to drink. See 

Mb AD. 
Mauobb, prep, in defiance or spite of; F. malgre, from 

L. maia gratia. 
Maul, c. a heavy wooden hammer. See Mall. 
Maunp^ s^ a baaket ; Arm. man; W. mancd; F.mamii; 

M £ A 

T. maun ; S. mand; B. mand, a basket, a measure for 

train; possibly from G. annat, rustic contribution, 
ee Annates and Han ape r. 

Maunder, v. o. to grumble, mouth, murmur ; from G. 
mund ; T. mund, the mouth. See MuNS. 

Maunday Thursday, s. the Thursday next before Eas- 
ter ; L. mandati, dies mandati ; Sp. jueves de mandato. 
On that day the King of France was wont to wash the 
feet of some poor men, in obedience to the mandate 
that we should love one another. A kind of gift on 
that occasion was called a Maunday. 

Mausoleum, s. a pompous funeral monument Coptic 

mhau is a monument, and solsel, to ornament; A. 

mazal for mazdr, a tomb ; L. mausoleum, is supposed 

to be the tomb of Mausoleus, 
Mauthur, s. a maid; S. nuEth; M. G. mcsthur ; B. 

modur, a different pronunciation of maid. 
Mavis, s. a kind of thrush ; F. mauvis, from L. maculosa 

avis, the speckled bird, called also in F. grive, gray 

bird ; It malviscio, from L. viscus. 
Maw, s. the stomach, particularly of animals ; P. magh* 

deh ; G. maga ; S. maga ; Swed. mage ; T. magen ; 

B. meghe; D, mawe. 

Mawkish, a. squeamish, sickish at the stomach; G. 

magve ; D. mawe, nausea ; from Maw and Woe. 
Mawmish, a. 1. foolish, lumpish, deformed. See Mome* 
2. Nauseous ; from maw, the stomach ; wawmish. 

Maxim, s. a general principle, a leading truth, an axiom ; 
L. maximum ; F. maxime, the greatest or chief. 

May, aux. verb ; pret, might ; G. ma, from meiga, to 
have power ; Swed. ma ; S. mage ; T. moge. 

May, s. the fifth month, the gay season ; L. maius, ac- 
cording to Ovid, had its name from being dedicated 
to the majores or ancestors of the Romans. But as 
used among the Goths and Celts, it is probably G. 
mah, power, vigour, from meiga, to have power, de- 
noting the month when vegetation was most active. 
T. 97?^^ signifies the opening buds of plants. 

Mayor, s, the chief magistrate ; L. major ; F. maire ; 
Arm. maer ; W. maer ; I. moor. See Maere. 

Mayweed, s, wild camomile ; S. maiwe. See Mathes. 

Mazard, s, the jaw ; L. maxillaris ; F. machoire, the jaw. 

Maze, s. a labyrinth, perplexity ; perhaps from L. meo 
and sinuo ; S. mase, a whirlpool ; but more probably 
from the verb. 

To Maze, v, to confound, confuse, astoniish. It was for- 
merly written mate; which see. BxxtB.missen is used 
to denote fluctuation, error, perplexity. See to Miss. 

Mazer, s. a drinking cup; G. mausur; Swed. masar ; 
B. maeser; T. maser ; Scot maser; W. masarn, the 
birch or maple tree, and a cup made thereof. This 
kind of cup was called maser ool, and the tree mas 
boiler, which was corrupted into mapuL See Maple. 

Me, pron. the oblique case of I ; G. meyoT mik ; T. mich ; 
D. mij; Sans, me ; Hind, mugh; ft,l; L. me; Arm. 
me ; W. mi ; I. me. The P. am and mera have the 
same signification with me, and men is mine. 

Meacock, s, a timid or uxorious man ; G. m^gia, to humi- 
liate; Swed. mek, siUy; D. mi^g, submissive. See Meek 
and Gawk. 

Mead, s. I. a kind of wine ; Sans, mud; A. and Heb. 
moodum; fiiiv; G. miod; Swed. mioed; D. miod; S. 
medo; B. meeie ; T. meth; W. medd ; I. meadh; 
Russ. miodh; Polish mod; Dalmatian mead; hydro- 
mel, or any fermented liquor. The Sans, word seems 
to be fonned from wmq, honey. See Mbthbolin. 




The 6. honigtagr, honey tears^ was the drink of the 

Gods^ which may have been the nectar of the Ghreeks. 

See Meathe. 
2. A meadow ; S. nuBd, moBth ; T. mtid; what is mowed. 
Meadow^ s. a field of natural grass kept for catting ; 

S. masdfve, from T. mad; S. meathe, mowed. See 

Math and Mow. 
Mbaobr^ a. lean ; G. megur, miar ; T. mager ; Swed. 

mager ; S. mager ; B. mager ; L. macer ; . F. maigre ; 

It. magro. 
Meak> s. a hook for cutting peas ; Isl. maa, to mow, to 

reap, and hask, a hook. 

MEAii, s, 1. corn fiour ; S. mela, maslafve; Swed. mjoel ; 
B. meel ; D. meel; T. mehl; Arm. mal, from G. mat, 
a division ; mala, to reduce into small particles ; L. 
molo ; W. iiia/», to grind ; P. maliden. 

2. A regular repast; G. mo// Swed. m&l; S. 97ur/, 9im/y 
T. mat ; B. maa/^ a division of time or space^ a parti- 
cular period, the regular hour of eating. 

Mean, s. a medium, any thing used in order to produce 
some end ; P. miyanu y G. midan ; T. mitten ; ftio-^v ; 
L. medium ; Sp. mediano ; F. moyen. It signifies 
something brought between to effect the purpose; 
and G. medal, the middle, is also a mean. 

Mean, a. 1. middle, middling, indifferent^ ordinary ; 
from the noun. 

2. Low, vulgar, plebeian, common, vile; S. mcene; T. 
mein, gemein, from the same root with meng, the 
crowd, populace, multitude. See Many. 

Mean, v. a. to intend, design ; A. muune ; Hind, mana ; 
finvva; Arm. menna, to signify, indicate; but our 
word more probably is G. minna ; Swed. minna ; S. 
mcsnan : T. meinen; B. meenen; D. meene, to have 
in mind ; from G. inna, to intend. 

Mease, s, a quantity, particularly of herrings, signify- 
ing 500 ; T. mase, maass ; I. maois ; T. miot ; S. 
meie ; B. maat ; L. modius. See to Mete and Mea- 

Measles, s. an eruptive disease ; T. masel ; B. maze^ 
len; D. meisling ; Arm. mezell ; F. mezel, leprosv. 
T. mase ; L. wmculosus, signify spotted ; but G.missli, 
mislitur, discolour, may be the etymon. 

Measure, s. a dimension, proportion, standard of quan- 
tity, a mean, an expedient, cadence in verse, time in 
music, degree, limit ; H. mesurah ; h. mensura ; F. 
mesure; It. misura; W. mesur, medur; Arm. musur; T. 
mase ; I. meas. L. modus is a mean, manner, medium, 
and a measure, corresponding with the F. W. and 
our own word. It. mesura is also mediocrity. See 
Mean and Mete. 

Meat, s, food, flesh to be eaten ; G. mat ; Swed. mat ; 
D. mad ; 8. mete ; Arm. and W. maeth ; from G. ata, 
etia, to eat. See Bait. 

Meathe, s. drink, beverage. See Mead. 

Mechanic, s. an artificer; ^;^«y<»af; L. mechanicus ; 
It. meccanico. 

Medal, *. a * piece struck on some extraordinary occa- 
sion, an ancient coin; T. medel ; It. medaglia ; F. 
medaiUe ; L. B. metallia ; W. mail It seems to have 
the same root with our mite, a piece of money, and 
meed, a reward. 

Meddle, ©. n. to interpose ; G. medal, the middle or 
medium, produced D. meddele ; Swed. meddela ; B. 
middelen, to use a mean or interference, corresponding 
with the verb to mediate. 

MsDiATs, V. to intoroedt^ inlerpote; L. B. medio, to 

place in the middle, from L. medium. See Mxdxa« 
Mediation, s. intercession ; L. mediator. See Mbdiatx. 

Medical, a. medicinal ; L. medicabUis. See Medicine. 

Medicine, s. a remedy, physic ; L. medicina ; F. mede- 

ctne ; L. medear, to heal, is from medium, a mean ; 

and M. G. mu/ga ; Swed. medd ; T. mt<<W, signify a 

mean, middle, remedy and medicine. 
Medin, s. a measure ; ftS^fH ; L« medimnus. 
Meditate, v, a. to muse, plan, contrive, contemplate ; 

L. medito ; F. mediter. 
Medium, s, a mean, middle state or place ; L. medium. 

Medlar, s, the name of a species of hawthorn and its 
fruit ; S. masd, from being used to make mead, a kind 
of liquor; fito^iXn, 

Medley, s. a mixture, miscellany ; G. medal ; Swed. 
medel, among, mingled ; confounded with L. B. mism 
cello, mistello ; F. melser, m^ler, meteler, from fuy9wt ; 
L. misceo, to mix. See Mell. 

Medulla, s, pith, marrow, the heart of a plant; /mmA^; 
L. medulla. 

Meed, s, reward, gifl, recompense; G. met, metur, 
mceti ; S med ; T. myde, value, consideration, estima- 
tion, reward ; I. miadh, honour ; pr5«f , wages, com- 

Meek, a. soft, gentle, placid, submissive; F, mekka ; 
G. miuk ; Swed. miuk ; D. myge, submissive, humble, 
sofl, mild. 

Meer, s. a lak^, a boundary. See Mere. 

Meet, v, to encounter, to come face to face, to join ; 
G. mota; Swed. mota ; S. metan ; B. moetan ; T. 
moten ; D. moede, to assemble, to come together from 
opposite directions, to encounter, oppose. 

Meet, a. fit, proper, suitable ; G. moeti ; Swed. matt ; 
S. made, in measure, in estimation, proper, regular, 
estimable. See Mete. 

Meorin, s, a disorder in the head ; «/i*<«^«fiW ; F. mt- 

Meine, V, to mingle, to mix ; fu^im ; S. mengen. See 

Me INT, s. family, retinue, servants ; F. mesgnie, from 
L. mansio, a dwelling. See Mesne. 

Melancholy, s. a kind of insanity, a gloomy temper; 
/ma«v, black, and x*^K ^^® > L* melancholia ; F. me- 

Meliorate, v. a. to improve, better ; from L. melior, 

Mell, v. a, to mix, mingle. Chaucer uses ume//; Swed. 
imeUan, in this sense, meaning among, from G. media, 
the middle, contracted into mille ; Swed. mella ; but 
our word seems to partake of F. meter, meselr, from 
L. misceo ; L. B. miscello, to mix. See Medley. 

Melliferous, a. producing honey ; from f*ixt; h.mel. 

Mellow, a. 1. soft, full, ripe, mature ; fivtx4uf ; L. me- 
dullosus ; F. moelleux, F. mol, from L. mollis, is also 
used in the sense of mellow ; Swed. mj'&ll, 

2. Drunk. See Muddle. 

Melody, s. music, harmony of sound ; fuXtfittt, element 
of song ; L. melodia ; F. melodic. 

Melon, s. a fruit and plant ; ^amt ; L. mtdum ; F. 

Melt, v. to make or become liquid ; G. melta ; Swed. 

melta ; S. mdtan ; ftJdin, See Skslt. 

Member, s, a limb, a clause, a person beloDging to a 
society ; L. memhrmn ; F. m e mor e j 

Mbiouuni, #. • kind of "Ireb-or skin to cov^ tome 

M £ Br 


parts of the body^ a pliable texture of fibres ; L. 

Mbmoib, s, a record, a short account of any transao- 
tion ; L. memoria ; F. memoire, recollection, memory. 

Men, s. plural of Man. 

Mbnacb, #. a threat ; L. minatio ; F. menace. 

Menage, s, a collection of animals; F. mesnage, me* 

nage ; Arm. me^ita, a dwelling, the live stoos: of a 

farm ; from L. mansio. 

Mend, v. to repair, grow better]; L. emendo, from menda, 
a fault. 

Mendacity, s, falsehood, lying ; L. mendacium. 
Mbndicatb, v. a. to solicit charity ; L. mendico. 
MbniaIi, a. servile, mean, low« domestic ; from Mbint. 
Mbnologt, #. a register of months; from ftim, the 
moon, and ^Wt, speech. 

Mensal, a. belonging to the table ; from L. mensa, a 

Menstbual, a, monthly, every month ; L. menstrualis. 
Menbubable, a, measurable ; L. mensura, measure. 

Ment, a termination first used by Latin authors about 
the beginning of our era, and generally adopted in It. 
F. and Sp. It has been supposed to be L. mens, men" 
its ; and in sentiment, judgment, that sense might 
seem natural : but excrementum and sepirnentum can- 
not in any way imply mind. Our etymon is L. ens, 
entis, being ; to which m was prefixed to avoid the 
hiatus which would be produced by the junction of 
two vowels. 

Mbntai«, a. intellectual, of the mind ; from L. mens, 
mentis, the mind. 

Mention, s, a recollection, a recital, memorandum ; L. 
mentio; F. mention. 

Mephites, s. noxious exhalations; L. mephitis, from 

Mebacious, a. neat, strong, pure, clear; L. meracus, 

from merus, 
Mebcat, s. a market, trade, commerce ; L. B. mercatus. 

See Mabket. 
Mbbcenabt, *. one retained for pay ; L. mercenarius ; 

F. merdnaire. 
Mbbcbb, s. a dealer in silks and stuffs ; L. merx ; F. 

mercier; It. merciaro. 
Mebchant, s. a person who trades ; L. mercator ; It. 

mercanter ; F. marchand, from the same root with 

Mebcuby, s. the messenger of the gods ; met. spright- 

liness, quicksilver. 

Mebov, s. clemency, compassion, unwillingness to pu- 
nish ; L. misericordia ; F. merci. 

Me BE, a. simple, pure, neat, true, very ; L. merus. 

Mebe, Mebb, Meb, in the beginning, middle or ends 
of words, signifies I. a lake or river, from G. masr, 
water ; S. mere ; T. mer ; B. meet, a lake. 

2. A boundary or limit ; from G. mer a, nuer ; S. masra ; 
Swed. maere, from G. ra, a row, a line. See March. 

Mebetricious, a. alluring, whorish ; L. meretricius. 

Mebit, Mbbitobioubness, s. desert, claim, right ; L. 

meritum, a reward, a recompense ; F. merit. 
Mbblin, s. a kind of hawk ; L. B. merillus ; T. mer^ 

ling ; F. emerillon ; It. smeriglion, the female musket 

hawk, supposed to be from L. merula : but Isl. 

maer and maes are applied to denote a small bird or 

sparrow. See Titmousb. 

Mbblino, s. a kind of fish ; L. merula ; F. merlan. 

Mebmaid, s. a &bulous sea-woman; from G. mar; L. 
mare, the sea, and maid. 

Mbbbt, a. 1. laughing, gay, jovial ; T. mere, mer, jo- 
cund, sensual, wanton; S. myreg; I. mearh. The 
origin is obscure ; but S. mcsre, great, celebrated, pro- 
duced mersian, to celebrate, to rejoice ; mersung, 
gladness, mirth, fame, celebrity. The Saxons appli^ 
this word in the sense of gay, pleasing ; and Eden 
was called the merry garden. See Mjebe. 

2. Great, brave, celebrated, gallant See Mjere. 

Merry andrew, s. a buffoon, a droll ; from merry and 
G. ganier ; Swed. gante ; D. ganier ; Scot, gend, a 
mocker or jester. 

Mebbythouoht, s. a forked bone of a fowl ; from 

merry, great, chief, and G. tkot, a couple or transom ; 

L. clavicula. 
Mebsion, s, the act of plunging in water ; L. mersio, 
Meseems, v. imperf. It seems to me. 
Mesh, s. the space between the threads of a net; G. 

meis ; D. maske ; S. max j T. maschen ; B. maesch ; 

W. masg, from G. midla, meida, meisa, to divide. See 


Mesne, or Mesn, the tenure of one who holds a manor 
from a superior, and has tenants of his own ; F. mesg' 
nie, from X. mansio. See Meiny. 

Mesfrise, s. contempt; perhaps for misprise, if not 
from miss and L. specio, to behold amiss, to despise. 

Mess, *. 1. a dish, food, or society eating together; P. 

meza ; G. mesa ; S. mese ; F. mess ; L. mensa, a table, 

a dish. M. G. mats ; T. mas ; Sclav, meszo ; Russ. 

masso; Sp. mueso, food, were derived, like meat, from 

eat : S. metsian, to feed. 
2. A mash, a mixture; met. a confusion, perplexity. 

See Mash. 
Message, s. advice sent, an errand; L. missus; F. 

Messiah, s. the Christ ; A. Mesiah ; Heb. Messia, the 

Messieurs, *. my sirs ; F. plural of Monsieur. 
Messuage, s. a house or tenement ; L. B. messuagium, 

from L. mansio. 
Met, pret. and part, of the verb to Meet. 
Metal, s. minerals, such as gold, silver^ and iron; 

Heb. metil; ^mAA^v; L. metallum; It. metallo; F. 

metaille ; W. metel. The four principal ores seem to 

have derived their names, among Uie Gk)ths, from 

their different colours. Gold, guU, yellow; silver, 

lios, liover, white, synonymous with &^yv^^f ; blije or 

hley, lead, from Has, blue, livid ; iron, G. iarn, from 

iar, black: G. hlacka; Swed. blaek, also signified 

iron fetters ; but perhaps from belaga, hlacka, to lay 

up, to confine. See Black hole. 
Mete, v. to measure ; Heb. middah ; fUl^ ; L. metior ; 

G. masta ; Swed. masta ; S. nuBthian ; B. meeten ; T. 

messen. The Gothic word signifies also to estimate. 
Metheglin, s. honey and water mixed ; ftih yXvxiif, 

sweet drink. See Mead. 
Methinks, v. imperf. It appears to me. See to 

Method, s. order, way, manner ; ^0)^ ; L. methodus ; 

F. metkode. 
Mbtbb, s. measure, verse; fMr^«»; L. metrum. See 

Mettle, #. courage, sprightliness ; T. mutkwille, mut- 

M I L 

M I N 

will; B. moedmll, animation^ fVowardness^ from G. 
mod ; T. muih, the mind. See Moody. 

Mew, j. 1. a coop, a cage; but properly a receptacle 
for hawks changing their feathers, and a place for 
changing carriages, horses and whatever belonged to 
the chase. L. B. muta ; It. muta ; F. mwe, from L. 
muto. See Mub. 

2. A sea fowl ; S. rtuBto ; T. mowe ; B. meeuw ; W. 
mefv ; F. mouelle, from its cry. See to Mew. 

Mew, V, to cry like a pat ; Isl. miaua ; D. matve ; T. 
mauen ; W. metvian ; F. miauler. 

MicHE, V. n. to be idle, hid, concealed ; S. mwctan, to 
neglect, to be careless, mithan, to skulk: but the 
word appears to be T. mauchen, to conceal. See 

MiCKLE, a. much, great ; G. mickel ; Swed. mickel ; S. 
micel. See Much. 

Mid, Middle, Midst, a. between, among, the half; 
Sans, muddh ; G. mid; Swed. mid ; S. midd; L. me^ 
dius; fMT^t 

Middle ages, s, the decline of the Roman empire ; be- 
ginning widi the fourth, and ending with the thir- 
teenth century. 

Midge, s. a gnat, a fly; P. mije ; Sans, mukkhee; 
fiv7»; \j. musca ; D, mi/g ; S.mvge; B.mug; Swed. 
mi^gg ; T. mucke ; F. mouche ; Sp. moschett. 

Midriff, s, the diaphragm ; G. midrif; S. mcdhrife ; 
from mid and hrife, the belly, a wrapper. 

Midwife, s. a person who delivers women ; G. mil ; 
D. midy for vit^ knowledge, wisdom, corresponding 
with F. sage femme, and Scot cannie wife. G. met 
signifies skill, art ; but B. maia is the Greek name for 
a midwife ; A. qabila, skilful. 

MiENy s, countenance, look, air, manner; G. mynd ; 
Swed. mynd, mine; D. mine; F. mine; Isl. mena. 
See MuNs, Mouth and Mine. 

Might, pret. of May. 

Might, *. power, force ; G. maht, magt ; S. maght ; D. 

magt ; Swed. makt, from G. meiga, to have power. 

See May. 
Mild, a. gentle, soft, lenitive; G. mild; Swed. milder; 

S. mild ; T. mild. 

Mildew, s, blight, a disease in plants, mouldiness; L. 
melliso ; F. mielot, a kind of sweetish gum produced 
on plants by defective vegetation, has been confound- 
ed m English with meal and mould. S. mildeaw ; D. 
meeldug; T. mehlthau, millaw, dusty dew or moisture. 

Mile, s. a measure of 1760 yards ; but with the Ro- 
mans 1000 paces; F. mile; It. miglio, from L. miUe, 
a thousand. 

Milk, s. a white nutritious fluid by which females nou- 
rish their young ; G. miolk ; Swed. mjeolk ; D. melk ; 
T. milch ; B. melk ; S. mile ; I. meilg. 

Mill, *. a machine for grinding ; f*v?^ ; L. mola ; D. 
maUe ; T. muhhle ; S. myln ; Arm. meiU ; W. melen ; 
I. muilion; F. mottlin, from G. mala; L. molo, to 
grind. See Meal. 

Millet, s. a plant and its seed ; A. mileb ; F. millel ; 
It. milgio. 

Milliner, s. one who makes women's caps and sells 
ribbands, &c. O. £• milloner, supposed to have been 
originally a dress maker from Mtlan; but probably 
from G. miUa; Swed. mella, to meddle, to divide, in- 
terfere, deal ; venders of housings were called horse 
milliners. See Mbll and Monger. 

Milt, s. 1. the spleen ; Isl. mUlte ; Swed. tnfaUe ; D. 
milt ; S. milt ; T. miltz ; Arm. melch ; It. mtUza. 

2. The soft roe of fish, from its milky appearance ; D. 
melken ; T. milch. F. laite du poisson. 

Mime, s, a mimic, a buffoon ; fUfMf ; L. mimus ; It. mi- 
mo; F. mime. 

Minaret, s. a turret, pillar or spire ; A. meenar ; P. 
minar ; F. minaret. 

Mince, v. to cut into small pieces, to relate with cau- 
tion, to speak small and imperfectly ; F. mincer ; S. 
minsian. See Minish. 

Mind, s. intellectual power, opinion, sentiment, re- 
membrance, attention, recollection ; G. mod ; Swed. 
mod, correspond with Ti. animus ; and minne ; Swed. 
minne; D.minde; S.gemind; Sans, mun ; h. mens, 
signify properly memory ; G. inna ; T. innen, to hold 

Mine, pron.poss. belonging to me, my own ; P. mine ; 
G. 7nin ; Swed. min ; S. my« ; T. mein ; F. mien ; 
L. metis ; It. mio. 

Mine, s. a place where minerals are dug, a hole, a 
cavern; D. mine; T. mine; B. mi^n; owed.mina; 
Arm. mwi/n ; W. mwn ; I. mein ; Sp. mina / F. mine ; 
It. mina. See Mouth, Mint and Muns. 

Mineral, J. a hard fossil substance; F. mineral, from 
mine, as fossil from L,. fossa. 

Mingle, v. a. to mix, to compound ; G. meinga ; S. 
mengen ; B. men gen, mengelen ; T. mengen, manegeti ; 
fityfvtt. See Many. 

Miniature, s. a painting, a small picture in water co- 
lours; F. miniature; Sp. miniatura, from L. minio, 
to paint with minium. We have confounded this 
word with L. minus. 

Minikin, a. small, diminutive, a very small pin; G. 
min, minna ; B. min ; T. min ; W. main ; fuiav ; L. 

Minim, *. a dwarf, a small type, a short note in music ; 
L. minimus. 

Minion, s. a favourite, a creature of affection ; T. mi- 
nion, minn ; B. minnen, min ; F. misnon ; Arm. nug.. 
non, a darling ; from G. vin, min, aflSction, friendship, 
love. The root appears to be G. una, to love. See 

Minish, v. a. to make less, impair, cut off, hash ; Swed. 
minska, from G. minn ; L. minus, small ; F. mincer ; 
fitfv^tf ; L. minuo. 

Minister, s. a person employed in the government or 
church, an agent ; L. minister ; F. ministre, an attend- 
ant, servitor, waiter, assistant 

Minium, s. red lead, a mineral ; L. B. minium ; D. mi- 
nie, from mine. 

MiNNOCK, s. an elf, an urchin, a mischievous child, a 
saucy girl; perhaps from G. mein; S. man, myn; 
Swed. mehn, perverse, wrong, and G. ug ; I. og, a 
young person. See Minx. 

Minnow, or Mennow, s. a very small fish ; Sp. mena, 
from L. minus. 

Minor, s. one under age, the second proposition of a 
syllogism ; L. minor. 

Minster, s. a monastery, cathedral church ; L. mona- 
sterium; T. munster ; S. minstre. 

Minstrel, s. a musician. AvA«(, a pipe, was added to 
minister in forming L. B. ministrotus, menestralus ; 
Sp. menestrel, a performer of music. Aulos was after- 
wards omitted; and L. B. menestrum, menetrum, signi- 


M O D 

fying a pipe> prodaced F. menesirier, a piper. AvAq- 
riif mid the same signification. 

MiNT^ «. 1. a place where money is coined. L. moneia, 
money, seems to be derived from O. and Swed. mynd, a 
mien^ face or image ; whence S. mynetian ; B. munUn ; 
T. mufUzen, to com. The Eastern ruppee^ known in 
Russia as ruble^ is from Sans, roop; P. roo, a face; al- 
though now, through Mahometan superstition, that 
coin bears only an inscription. See Mine, Mibn, 
MuNs and Money. 

2. A heap, a multitude. See Mount. 

Minuet, s. a stately regular dance ; F. minuet ; It. mt- 
nulo, from L. minute, nice, accurate, graceful. 

Minx, s. a saucy perverse girl. See Minnock. 

Mibacle, s. a sight, wonder, some act that is contrary 
to human nature ; L. miraculum, from L. nuror ; P. 
mikra, to see, to behold. 

MiRADOR, s. a seeing place, a balcony ; Sp. from L. 
miror ; P. mihra, from raa, to see. 

Mire, s. 1. mud, wet dirt, filth ; O. myra ; Swed. 
myru ; B. moer ; T. moder, wet, dirt, mud. 

2. An emmet; P. mur ; G. maur ; S. miru; Swed. 
myra ; B. mier ; W. myr ; fiv^f. See Pismire. 

MiRROUR or Mirror, s. a looking glass, a show, a pat- 
tern ; A. nUrut ; L. miror. See Mirador. 

Mirth, s, laughter, joy, gladness ; S. myrthe, merry- 
hood. See Merry. 

Mis, a prefix denoting failure or deviation in all the G. 
dialects ; F. mes. See Miss. 

Misanthrope, s» a hater of mankind ; furmf^^tnrf. 
Miscellany, s. a mixture, a composition of various 

things; L. miscellanea. 
Mischief, s, injury, damage, harm; contracted from 

mis achteveance, a misdeed. 

MisciBLE, a, mixible ; from L. misceo. 

Miscreant, s. an unbeliever, a term of the greatest re- 
probation among Christians and Mahometans, a vile 
wretch ; F. mescreant. The word is formed by pre- 
fixing the negative mis to L. credens, believing. 

Miser, s. a sordid covetous wretch, who suffers from 
privations ; L. miser, 

MisLE, V, fi. to rain in very small drops ; properly to 
mistle, from mist. 

Miss, 1. a contraction of Mistress applied to a young 
lady. Mistress is still pronounced Misses by the 
vulgar, who, to avoid the sound of our plural, con- 
tracted the word into Miss ; but the original term is 
generally considered more respectful ; n. meisje, a 
little girl or servant, is the diminutive of G. maij, 
meidje, a maid. 

2. A failure ; from the verb. 

Miss, v, to go beside the mark, fail, escape, omit ; G. 
missa ; Swed. missa ; T. missen ; S. mission ; B. ims» 
sen, to deviate, to pervert, confuse ; pret G. miste ; 
D. mist, our mist for missed. The root of this verb 
is G. um, ym, around, about ; whence yms, ims, ymis, 
vacillation, deviation, change ; ymisa, and missa, to go 
hither and thither, to err, to fail. 

Missal, s. the mass book. See Mass. 

Mist, s, a low thin doud, £og, dimness ; S. mist ; B. 
wMi; T. mkst. 

Mistletoe, «. a plant that grows on treesi particularly 
the apple and ash ; but perhaps never found on the 
oak naturally. The Druids, however, had probably 
contrived to cultivate it on that tree> and practised 

much religious m3r8tery in gathering it G. vnsiel 
tein ; 8. mystelta ; Swed. misteUen; T. mistel; G. mis- 
lit ; S. mistl, discolour, and G. tein, ta, a branch, was 
evidently the origin of the name. The Gauls called 
^t guy, their corrupt pronunciation of L. viscus. 

Mistress, s. a woman who governs, a sweetheart, a 

concubine. The feminine of Master. 
MisY, s, a kind o£ mineral ; fUrv, 
Mite, s.I.b. small coin or particle ; T. meit, meid, me^ 

del; B.myte; Qr.mith, small, minute, from meida; M. 

G. maitan, to divide, cut 
2. A small insect; D. mide; T. made; B. migt ; F. mite, 

from its smallness, as tiie preceding word. It was 

also called mal in Gothic, which signifies, like insect, 

a particle or animalcula. See Mad. 
Mitigate, v. a. to alleviate, mollify ; L. mitigo. 
MiTREy s. 1. an episcopal crown; ft/r^; G. mitur; L. 

mitra ; F. mitre. It was apparently a tiara worn by 

the priests of Mithras; from P. mihr, the sun; Sans. 

Mahadeva, the great God, the divinity of fire ; Miih- 

ridates, from Chald. Heb. and P. dat, dad, justice. 
2. The joining of boards by acute angles, resembling 

those of a mitre ; a term used by carpenters. 

Mittens, s. pi. gloves without fingers ; L. manitia ; F 
mitane, a glove. 

Mix, V. a. to mingle, unite, join ; fiivyf ; L. misceo; T. 

MiXEN, J. a dung heap, a compost; S. mixen, meoxen, 
from muck; sometimes confounded with mixing, a com- 
post. Scotch midding is from mow, a heap, and dung ; 
D. moegding. 

MizzEN, s. the mast in the stem of a ship ; Swed. me- 
san ; D. mesan, hesan ; B. hizaan ; F. basenne ; It. 
mizzana ; Sp. mezana. 

MizzY, s. a bog, quagmire, swamp ; Arm. mouis ; W. 
mize. See Moss and Moist. 

Moan, v. n. to grieve, to lament ; S. masnan, to express 
grief. It is probable that oUr word may be cognate 
with fvoe; as the Gothic transmutations of v and m 
were frequent 

Moat, s. a canal or ditch made round a castle; Sp. mota; 
F. motte ; L. B. mota, apparently from A. ma, mao ; 
(utv ; G. moda, moa, water ; Swed. ma, mad, a marsh 
or fen. 

Mob, s. 1. the populace; contracted from Mobile. 

2. A woman's cap ; B. mop, moff; Scot mabbie. See 
Muff and Hood. 

Mobile, s. cause of motion, sphere, mob, rout ; L. mo- 
bile; F. mobile. 

Mocha, a. a stone containing figures of trees ; It. pietra 
mosca, from L. muscosus, me moss stone. 

MoGK, v. a. to imitate, mimic, deride, deceive ; iituAit ; 
F. moquer ; W. moccio. 

Mode, s. a form, fashion, way, state, appearance ; L. mo- 
dus ; It modo ; F. mode ; Sans. mut. 

Model, s. a copy, pattern, representation, mould. From 

Moderate, a. temperate, sober, mild, reasonable ; L. 
moderatus; It. moderato. 

Modify, v. a. to shape, change the form or mode ; F. 
modifier, from L. modojacere. 

MoDWALL, s. a kind of woodpecker ; G. meid is wood, 
and S. tvigol, from G. ve, veg, holy, consecrated ; ap- 
parently a name given to oirds of divination. See 
WiTWALL and Hicxwall. 

M O N 


MoHAiB, s, a thread or stuff made of silky hair ; F. mom- 
(Ure, moire ; T. moor ; B. moor^ from P. mooy fine hair ; 
A. mqjacar, mushir, hairy. 

MoiDER, v. a. to make craay, to madden ; Mw 6. moda, 
crazy. See Mad. 

MoiDORB^ #. a Portugal gold coin in value 27 shillings ; 
L. moneta de auro. 

Moiety^ s, the half, the one of two equal parts ; F. 
moUi^S It. meta, from L. medietas. 

Moil, v. 1. to drudge, toil, labour; O. modila, from 
moe£?, mtxi/ Swed. moe/, matt; S. moethe ; T. mude ; 
Scot. muddU, fatigue, trouble. See Muodub. 

2. To daub, to sprinkle; to muddle, from mud, confound- 
ed with F. mouiller, to wet 

3. To stain, spot, paint; T. mallen, from O. mal; S. 
mat, a spot. 

Moist, a. wet in a small degree, juicy ; F. moist ; Arm. 
moues, from L. madidus. 

MoKY, a. dark, foggy, perhaps corrupted from murky. 
See Muggy. 

Mole, j. 1. a natural spot on the skin ; T. maJd ; Swed« 
mhl: S. mal ; L. macula, 

2. A false conception ; L. mola ; F. mo/e ; Sp. mola, 

3. A small animal ; B. mol, contracted from Molervarp, 

4. A round pier or dike ; L. moles ; F. mole ; Sp. muelle. 

Molest, v. a. to trouble, disturb, vex ; L. molesto ; F. 

MoLEWARP, ^. a small animal called a mole. See 


Mollify, v, a, to soflen, assuage, quiet, from L. mMis 

Molly, s, a girl's name, generally used for Mary ; M. 

6. mawilo ; S. meoule ; Scot, mull, dim. of G. mc|y, a 

maid. The Goths used illo as a diminutive ; barnillo, 
' was a little child. Maids of honour were anciently 

called the Queen's mcys, Mary, however, may have 

become Maly, from the usual mtermutation of r and 

/. See Sally. 
MoLossEs, or Molasses, s, treacle, dregs of sugar; 

Heb. malatz ; fiixird^ ; It melazzo ; F. melasse ; ^««Ai, 

honey, and ^ikkvwoty a bee. 

Moly, s, a kind of rue or wild garlick ; ^Av ; L. moly ; 
but Tartar inola ; Swed. mola ; T. melde, is our orach. 

MoME, s, a dull, stupid fellow, a mis-shapen cub, a 
blockhead. The word was anciently marvn ; B. moon. 
See Mooncalf. 

Monday, s, the second day of the week ; Mondag in all 
the Gothic dialects ; from Moon and Day. 

Money, t, metal coined for public use ; S. mynet ; T. 
muintze ; Swed. mynt ; Sclav, mince ; L. moneta ; It. 
moneta ; F. monnoie ; W. mwnai ; from G. mynd, mint, 
a countenance, face, image. See Mint. 

Moneywort, «. an herb called in botany nummularia. 

Monger, s. a dealer; G. mangare; Swed. mangere; 
from manga ; S. mangian, to deal in many articles ; 
L. mango, a regrater. See Many. 

Mongrel, a. any thing of a mixed breed ; from the 
same root with mang and monger. See Many, 

Monk, s, a religious recluse ; fMfux^f, & solitary person ; 
L. monachus ; G. munk, and adopted in all Christian 

Monkey, s, an ape, baboon, a silly fellow ; supposed to 
be dim. of S. mon, a man, a manikin ; P. mamoon, 
mono ; Port mono, a name perhaps adqHed from the 

Moors, to which ooo^ a dog, may have be«n added to 

form our word. 

Monsoon, s, a shifting trade wind ; A. mon^oM, a sea- 
son. The year in Asia is divided into two monsoons, 
the summer and the winter. 

Montbro, s, Sp. a horseman's cap, or mounting cap ; 
from montar, to ride. 

Month, s, the space of four weeks ; P. mahcena ; G. 
manad; T. monat ; S. monath ; L. mensis, from P. 
mah ; G. man ; ^9 ; S. mon, the moon. 

MoNTHSMiND, J. an camcst dcslrc ; G. ma, our mo, much, 

great, seems to have been prefixed to G. unath, in 

forming Isl. munad, desire, affection ; munaths mind, 

a mind of affection. 
Mood, s, I. temper of mind, disposition ; G. mod : Swed. 

mod ; S. mm; B. moed ; T. mutt, mind, will, ^irit, 

2. A term in grammar ; L. modus* 
Moody, a, 1. wayward, passionate, spirited ; S. modig; 

B. moedig; T. muthig, from mood. See Mettlb. 
2. Mental, intellectual ; from mood, the mind. 
Moon, s, the nocturnal luminary; P. mak; ^r; G. 

mana ; Swed. mMna ; S. mona ; Isl. mona ; B. maan ; 

T. mond. 

Mooncalf, s, a monster, a false conception, an ideot, 
a term of abuse; T. monkalb, from G. mcein; S. 
man, false, spurious ; B. moon, an evil spirit, and G. 
alf, a conception, a foetus, corrupted into calf, which 
is G. ku alf, the offspring of a cow. 

Moor, s, 1, a marsh or fen ; G. masr ; T. mor ; B. motr, 

2. A heath, black earth covered with ling ; G. moar ; S. 
mor ; Scot, mure ; Isl. moor ; S. more, which, from its 
dark heathy appearance, is also a mountain. 

3. A cable; A. marra, a cable; Port, amarra; Sp. 

4. A negro, an African ; L. maurus ; It. moro ; Sp. mora, 

5. A term in venery, when the deer is slain; L. mors; 
F. mor. 

Moor, v, a, to fasten with a cable. From moor, a cable ; 
Port, marrar; F. amarrer; Sp. amarrar. 

Moose, s, a large American deer, called by the natives 
poose and mampoose. 

Moot, v. to argue, to plead a mock cause ; G. mot a, 

motgian ; Swed. mota ; S. motian, to encounter, to run 

against, to dispute. See to Meet. 
Mop, f. 1. a fiocky utensil to clean houses. Named 

perhaps from its resemblance to a muff or mob. 
2. A wry mouth ; F. moue, from mouth. See Muffle. 
Mope, v, to be drowsy or stupid ; fivtt £x»t, to close the 


Mope, Mopub, s, a drone, a stupid person ; fAv^t^ ; L. 

Moppet, Mopsy, s, a puppet made of rags. See 

Moral, a, belonging to manners; L. moralis; F. 

Morass, s. a fen, bog, marsh ; from Moor ,* Swed. nto- 
rass J T. morast, 

MoRB or Mob, a, greater in number, quality, quan- 
tity or size, the comparative of much; G. meir; 
Swed, mer; T. mehr; S. mare. It is contracted from 
marer, as G. mar, mer, signified much or great, and 
corresponds with P. mihtar, from mih ; Saois. maha, 
great See Moch. 

M O S 

M O U 

MoBBL, #. an add cheny ; but |wroperly the alkakengi ; 

L. moriUa solanum ; F. morell. 
MoBELAND, *. a mountainous or waste country; IsL 

mddr; S. mor, and morland, whence Westmoreland, 

and Mame in Ireland. See Moor. 
MoRGLAT> s. a great sword ; W. and Arm. tnaur clez; I. 

claidkam mor ; L. gladius major. 
MoRiL^ s, a kind of mushroom ; P. moriUe ; T. morcheln; 

Sp. morel, from its dark colour. It is called in Swed. 

murkla, perhaps G. morkulle, black cap. See Murrby. 

Morion, Murrion, s, armour for the head, a Moorish 
helmet, any thing Moorish ; F. morione. 

Morkin, s. a wild beast found dead ; a term with hun- 
ters; L. morticinus, 
MoRLiNO, s. the wool taken from a dead sheep ; F. 

mortelane, from I', moriui lana. 
Morning, *. the first part of the day ; G. momi, mor- 

gan; S. mame; D. morgen; T. morgen. See Or, 

soon, early. 
MoRPHEW, s, a disorder of the skin, appearing in tawny 

spots ; L. B. morphea ; Port, morphea ; It. morfea. 
MoRRis-DANCB, *. a Moorish dance. 
Morrow, *. the day after the present ; T. morgen. See 

Morning. The morrow, or to-morrow, corresponds 

with the F. demain, from L. de mane. 

MoRSB, *. the river horse ; G. mar, the sea, and ors, a 

horse. It appears to be confounded sometimes with 

marox, the sea ox. The F. marsouin, a porpoise, is G. 

marsuin, the sea swine. 
MoRSBL, s. a mouthful, a bit, a small quantity ; F. mor* 

ceau, morcelle, from L. morsus, a bite. 
MoRT, *. 1. a tune at the death of game, called ako a 

moor ; L. mors ; F. mort. 
2. A great quantity, a heap; G. margt, murth ; S. manih : 

T. merheit. G. morgtal, a great number, vulgarly a 

mortal deal. See More and Tale. 
Mortar, *. 1. a strong vessel wherein materials are 

pounded to pieces ; L. mortarium ; F. moriier. 

2. What is beaten in a mortar, a mixture of Ume and 
sand with water, to cement stones or bricks; F. 

3. a short wide cannon, out of which bombs are thrown ; 
F. moriier, from ite resembling the vessel used in 
pounding materials. 

Mortgage, s. a dead pledge, a security ; F. mortgage, 

from L. mortuus, and Gage. 
Mortise, s. a joint in wood, a term in joinery ; F. mor^^ 

iais ; Arm. murtase ; W. mortals ; I. moirtUj from L. 

Mobtling, *. the wool of a dead sheep. See Mobling. 

Mortmain, s. an inalienable estate ; F. main morte ; L. 

manus mortua. An estate in dead hand ; that is made 

over to a guild or corporation, whence it cannot be 

Mosaic, s. variegated work with jewels, glass or shells ; 

F. mosaique : It. mosaico, supposed to be from futrttc^t, 

skilful, beautiful; but G. moskue; D. maske; T. 

moesch ; W. masg ; Arm. maisk, all signify, like L. 

macula, reticulated or spotted work. See Mesh. 
Moschbtto, s. a gnat; Port moscheUo, from mosca; 

Jju mMsoa. 
Mosk, Mosque, s. a Mahometan temple; A. musfid; F. 

9110^711^ ; It. moschia. 
Moss^ s. 1. a substance growing on trees and sUmes ; 

Isl. motsi B. moick; Swed. moMsa; T. moos; F. 
mousse; L. mutcus. 

2. A bog, the substaneoi pf which peat is made; Swed. 
mossas T. mosz ; 1. niaotky have the same purport, 
and appear to be morass, vfiikk the r omitted. See 

Most, s. greatest in size, number, qualitv or quantity ; G. 
mest, maust; S. masst ; Swed. mest ; T. meist ; B. inieest, 
the superlative of much, and of M. G. maiza, more, 
corresponding with firyt^-H* The T. merest, used as 
most, is probably the right word. See Mobb and 

Mot, for Mought or Might ; S. mot ; B. moet. See 

Mote, «. 1. a small particle; G. mio, mith ; S. mot; 
Swed. mot ; I. miot. See Mite. 

2. Used in composition, as an assembly or meeting ; G. 
mot ; Swed. mote ; S. mot. See to Meet. 

3. A ditch. See Moat. 

Moth, s. a small insect that eats cloth ; S. moth ; T. 
moite ; B. mot ; Swed. mactt. See Mad. 

Mother, s. 1. she who has borne a child; P. madur; 
Sans, mata, matri; Hind, mattara; G. moder ; D. mo- 
der ; Swed. moder ; T. mutter ; B. moeder, moer ; ^'- 
m^ ; L. mater ; It. Sp. madre ; I. mathawr. 

2. Scum, lees of liouors ; B. modder ; Swed. mudder ; 
T. moder. See Muo. 

Motion, s. the act of moving, a proposal ; L. motio; F 
motion; It. mozione. 

Motive, s. the cause of action ; L. motus ; It. motwo ; 

F. motif. 
Motlev or MoTLY, a. mixed, speckled. See Medley. 
Motto^ ». a flhort sentence prefixed ; f*v^§f ; L. mutus ; 

It. motto; F. mot, a word. 

Move, v. to put in motion, to walk, to propose ; L. moveo; 

F. mouvotr. 

Mould, s. I. a kind of fur or discolour, fustiness ; M. 

G. malo ; D. mull, rust, smut, foulness in com ; G. 
mal; S. mal; Swed. m&l, a spot, a stain. 

2. Earth, soil, loam; G. moal, mold; Swed. mould; S. 
mold, dust, ashes, small cinders. 

3. A kind o£ ulcer, a kibe ; Swed. moegel; O. nutel ; 
F. mule. 

4. A form, a cast, a model ; F. moule; Sp. molde, from 
L. modulus. 

MouLDWABP, s. a mole ; G. moldwarp ; S. mM weorp, 
that throws up mould. See Whabf. 

Moult, v. a. to shed the feathers; anciently written 
morot, from mue. 

Mound, s. a fence, a bank of earth ; Q. ntund, defence, 

protection ; Swed. mynda ; S. mundian, to defend ; L. 
munitus, fortified. The word is confounded with 

Mount, s. a hill, a small eminence ; L. mons ; F. mont ; 
It. Sp. and Port, monte, have not only our significa- 
tion, but also a heap, store, hoard or bank of money. 
The vulgar expression of '' a mint of money," pro- 
perly signifies a mount of money. 

Mountebank, s. a quack, a stage doctor ; literally one 
who mounts a bench to sell medicines ; F. montabakc. 

MouBN, V. a, to grieve, bewail, wear black ; Sans, uta- 
ran, to die, M. G. mournan; T. mornen; S. muman ; 
L. moerorj to grieve ; F. mome, melancholy. 

Mouse, #. 1. a small quadruped; Sans. miishi» moosa; 
p. muik; ftZf; L. mus; D. muusj B. muU; Swed. 

M U F 


mus ; S. fffti^jT T. maus, a species of small rat. Sans. 
tnu4h, signifies steal ; fiv0, to concMd* 
2. A small bird^ a finch^ a titmouse; P. mush; Swed. 
mes ; D. muse; B. miM^A> mus; S. mase; F. mesange ; 
a general name for small birds. See Musket a hawk. 

MouTH^ s. tb« aperture in the head where food is re- 
ceived> a distortion of that feature^ a grimace^ an en* 
trjince; Sans, moonh; Hind, munh; O. mun, munth; 
Swed. mun; T. mund; B. mond; M. O. munths; S. 
muth ; Aim, muzz ; Scot morv ; F. moue. The word 
appears to originate from 6. in, int, an entrance; 
whence 6. minn; Swed. mynne, myning, an orifice^ 
an opening inward ; and O. mund, mytul, like L. os, 
signified the countenance. See Mibn^ Mine and 

Mow^ s. a heap of hay or corn ; S. mone, muha, muga, 
muega ; Scot, moch ; It. mucchio, apparently the same 
with our much ; Isl. mocka, to heap^ is from G. auka, 
to increase. 

Mow, V, a. to cut down or reap ; O. maitha, meida ; D. 
meye ; IsL maa ; B. maayen ; T. mahen ; S. mawan ; 
t^Ua ; L. meto. 

2. To raise in mows ; from the noun. 

MucH> a. large, long in time, many; P. mih; Sans. 
maha, and fily»f, signified great ; U. mik, miuk, mu^ ; 
Isl. mioc ; Swed. mike; T.mich; S. mycell; Polish 
moc ; Sclav, moech ; Arm. myg, many, great. The G. 
auk, eyk, signified increase, augmentation, to which 
ma, more, may have been prefixed. See Mow. The 
resemblance of Sp. mucho, to our word, arises from 
the corrupt pronunciation of L. multus. 

Mucin, a. slimy, mouldy, musty ; L. mucidus. 

Muck, s, I. dung for manure, dirt; G. myk ; Swed. 
mok ; S. moec, meox ; D. moeg. G. eyk ; Swed. ok, 
whence our ox, signified beasts of labour in general ; 
to which mom, a heap, seems to have been prefixed, 
to express a heap of aung made by cattle. See Mix- 

2. The vulgar pronunciation of amok, a Malay word, 
which signifies slaughter. It denotes a stete of des- 
peration, where the person wishes to kill or be killed. 
See Mate. 

Muckender, Muckador, s. a dirty handkerchief ; Sp. 
mocadero ; F. mouchoir, from L. mucus, snot. 

Mucker, a. 1. dark, obscure; Swed. morkur. See 

2. Concealed, clandestine, hidden; Swed. mjugg ; T. 
mauger, from mauchen, to conceal ; G. smuga, to smug- 
gle. See MicflE. 

3. Usurious, penurious, hoarding, sordid ; Scot, muker ; 
O, E. muckre : Isl. mocka, to heap, as well as our 
word mow, a heap, and much, is formed from G. an- 
ka, to increase ; whence also Swed. ocker ; T. wucker, 
interest, usury. 

Mud, 1. wet dirt, mire ; G. mod ; Swed. modd, mudder ; 
B. maed, modder ; T. moder, mire, filth, scum ; cog- 
nate with fividif; L. madeo, and W. mwydo. See 

Muddle, t;. a, 1. to make half drunk; /ui#i*». See 

2. To toil, fatigue, drudge ; G. modila, from mod, mad ; 
Swed. matt See Moil. 

MuDWALL, s. a bird. See Modwall. 

MuB, V. to cast feather, to moult, to shed, to dung ; a 
term in venery. See Mew. 

Mupp, *. a warm cover for the hands; D. muffe; Swed. 
muff; T. muff; B. moff; F. moiMe ; supposed to be 
from moiutk, but probably from G. hufa ; Swed. huf, 

I a veil, hood or covering ; Swed. hufa ; Scot hap, to 
cover or conceal. See Mob. 

Muffin, s, a small loaf of fine fiower ; F. miche, fine. 

• See Manchet. 

Muffle, «. 1. a mouth, a cheek; G. maugle; Swed. 
mule; T. muff, maule; D. muuie; B. muile ; F. moujU, 
the mouth. 

2. A mouth cover in chemistry ; F. moufle. 

Mufti, s, the Turkish high priest ; A. mqft, wise, sa- 

Muo, s, a cup to drink out of ; G. miols ; Swed. meet ; 
B. mutsie, a measure, a quart ; Scot, muichkin. See to 

Mugger, a. clandestine. See Mucker and Smuggle. 

Muggy, a. misty, damp, moist ; P. migh, a cloud ; Isl. 

^^ggo / Scot mochy, foggy. 
MuGWORT, s. a species of wormwood ; from T. and Scot 

mach, mauk, a worm, and wort, corrupted into wood 

in wormwood. See Mad. 
Mulatto, s, one begotten between a black and a white; 

from Mule. 
Mulberry, s. a tree and its fruit ; properly murherry, 

from L. morus ; F. meure ; T. maulbeere. 

Mulct, s, a fine of money ; L. mulcta. 

Mule, s. an animal generated between a horse and an 

ass ; L. mulus ; F. mulct ; ifu •vXf. 
Mull, v. a. to warm liquor with sugar and spice ; L. 

MuLLAR, s. a stone to grind colours; T. muhler, a 

grinder. See Mill. 
Mullen, s. a plant; T. wullen; F. molene, from its 

Mullet, s. 1. the name of a fish, a barbel ; fivXXH ; L. 

mullujf : F. mulct. 
2. In heraldry, a star denoting a fourth son ; F. molette, 

a little mill, which it resembles ; from L. mola. 

Multi, a Latin prefix signifying many. 

Multure, s: a toll for grinding com ; L. moUtura. 

Mum, interj. Hush ; a word used by people when mask- 
ed ; B. mom ; F. momon. See Mumm. 

Mum, s. wheat ale; D. mummc; T. mumme; B. mon; F. mum. 
Mumble, v. 1. to speak inwardly or indistinctly; frcm 

2. To grumble or mutter ; G. maugla ; Swed. mumla, 
to mouth. See Muffle. 

3. To mouth, to turn about with the tongue or lips. Set 

Mumm, v. n. to frolic in disguise, to wear a mask : 
MttfiUftm ; from which is derived Momus the god of 

Mummy, s. an embalmed corpse ; A. and P. momiya, 
from mom, wax ; L. mumia ; F. momie. 

Mump, v. a. to nibble, bite quick, speak low and quick, 
to repeat over and over like a beggar, to beg ; fr^m 
mow, the mouth. See Mumble and Mouth. 

Mumps, '• P^ 1* & swellinff in the jaws, throat and 
mouth ; from Mow and muffle, the mouth. 

2* SuUenness, the projection of the mouth in ill hu- 

* mour. 

Munch, Maunch, Mounch, v. n. to chew quickly, to 
eat ikst ; F. manger, from L. mando. 

Mund, *. protection, safety, peace, law ; G. mund, pro- 
tection ; S. mundian, to defend. 

Mundane, a. belonging to the world ; L. mundanus ; F. 
I maniane. 


M U S 

M Y T 

MuKDic^ #. a kind of marcasite ; W. mtvndig, from mtvn, 
a mine. 

MuNDiFY^ V, a. to cleanse^ to purify ; from L. fmtndus, 

cieaxiy BXkdJacere, to make. 
MuNSRABT, a. relating to a gift ; L. tnunerarius, 

MuNs^ s. the face ; G. mun, mund, the mouth, my't^> the 
countenance ; Sans, moonh. See Mouth and Mibn. 

Murder, s. the act of killing unlawfully ; P. moorg ; 
Sans, murt; O. mord; Swed. mord ; T. tnardj f^^n; 
L. mors; F. mort; It morto; W. martvaidd, death: 
Sclav, murha ; Sans, mara, slain ; P. murda, a corpse ; 
G. morder, mauriher ; Swed. mordare; S. morder; B. 
moorder; I. mortair; P. meurtre, slaughter, homicide. 

Mure, v. a. to wall, to inclose with walls ; F. murer ; 
It. murare, from L. murus. 

Muriatic, a. briny, salt like brine ; from L. muria. 

Murrain, s. a plague among cattle ; A. murz ; fU^vrn, 
a distemper; S. morrina; F. marrane, a pining or 

MuRRB, s. a cormorant; W. tnorvran, the sea crow. 

MuRRET or MuRREL, a. darkly red, a dark brown 

colour ; It tnarello, from L. morus, a mulberry ; G. 

mor, red brown. 

MuRTH OF Corn, s. See Mort, a great quantity. 

Muscadine, s. a kind of sweet grape, a sweet wine, a 

kind of pear, a confection ; F. muscadin ; It musca^ 

teUo, from L. moschatus, a nutmeg, any thing of that 

Muscle, «. 1. a shell fish; L. muscutusj F. nunule, 

2. A fleshy fibre; L. musculusj It musculo; F. »itM« 

Muse, v. n. to ponder, think closely; F. muser; B. 

muysen, MSm, from ^u^, to inquire, approaches our 

word in meaning. 

Mushroom, s, a spongy plant; met an upstart; F. 
Tttousseron, from /m«k«« and i^m/m. 

Music, t . the science of melody and harmony ; /mvmiui ; 

L. mtinca v It musica ; F. mutique. 
Musk, f. a strong perfume; A. mooshk; P. muskk; 

fU0XH; L. muscus; It musco; F. mti^c. 
Musket, «. I. a soldier's hand gun; It moschetto; F. 

meckeUe, a matchlock, from ^mnk ; L. i»yxa, a match. 
2. A male sparrow hawk ; from mouse, a sparrow. See 

Merlin and Mouse. 
MuBKiN, s. a titmouse. See Mouse. 

Muslin, s, a kind of cotton doth ; L. B. museolinum ; 
F. mousseHn ; Sp. musotino, said to have been brought 
from India to M&usoul ; but it may however be L* 
musciiinum, moss linen, as it is still called in Germany, 
nettle cloth. 

Mussulman, s. a Mahometan believer; A. muslimon, 

from eslam, salvation. 
Must, *. wine unfermented, wort; L. mustum; S 

must; F. mo6i, mousL See Mum. 

Must, v. to make or grow mouldy ; L. muscito, muceS'" 
co; F. moisir. 

Must, v. imperf. to be obliged; S. most, mot; T. 

mussen, from the same root with our may ,* and the 

Danes use maae for our may, and also for mtf^^ The 

G. m«na, and Scot, man, are cognates. 
Mustaches or Mustachoes, s. pL whiskers, hair on 

the upper lip; fiv^; Sp. musiacko; F. moustache. 
Mustard, s. a seed, plant and flower ; It mostardo ; 

F. moustarde ; W. mwstard ; Sp. mostaza ; supposed 

to be L. mustum ardens. 

Muster, v. a. to review, to assemble ; It mostrare ; Sp. 

mostrar, from L. monstrare. 
MusTT, a. mouldy, spoiled with dampness ; L. mucidus ; 

It mucido. 
Mute, a. dumb, silent, speechless ; L. ntti/ti^ ,* F. muet ; 

MuT9, V. n, to change, to shed, to dung as birds ; L. 

mutare ; It mutare ; F. muter. See Mew. 
Mutilate, v. a. to deprive of some essential part ; L. 


Mutinous, a. opposing lawful authority, seditious ; F. 
mutin, from L. mutio ; ^vl«f . 

Mutter, v. to murmur, to grumble ; L. muttio, from 
mutus; ft^t; F. mot, a word; sometimes perhaps the 
frequentative of to Mouth. 

Mutton, s. the flesh of a sheep, but properly of a wether; 
F. mouton ; Arm. mout ; W. mcit ; t. moHin, from L. 
muHlaius, castrated. 

Mutual, a. acting in return^ reciprocal ; L. mutualis ; 
F. mutueL 

Muzzle, s, the mouth, a fastening for the mouth ; Arm. 
muzzel; F. museau; It muso; Sp. bozal; I. busted; 
the intermutations of m and 6 were frequent See 

Myology, s. the doctrine of the muscles, fh>m f$vm and 

Myriad, s. the number often thousand; ^v^m^. 

Myrmidon, «. a constable, a soldier ; fiv^fuim. 

Myrrh, s. a strong aromatic gum; A. moor ; fivf^mi L- 
myrrha; F. myrrhe. 

Myrtle, «. a fragrant evergreen shrub ; fiv^n ; L. myr- 
ius; F. myrte. 

Mystery, s. something sacgredly obscure, a secret, a 
trade; ftftwwt ; L. mysterium; F. mystere. It pro- 
perly signified a trade or art, the secrets of which 
were revealed only to the initiated. 

Mythology, s. a system of heathen worship ; fiv$4X9yim. 




NA semivowel^ has, in Enelish, an invariable sound; 
9 as mine^ name, net : but sometimes almost lost 
after m ; as hymn, condemn. In GK>thic, Arabian 
and Pernan, unless when initial, it was not pronounced 
in colloquial discourse. Our words BacK and Bank 
had no original difference; and we hare transformed 
the L. Brachium into Branch, while we use it with- 
out the n in Brace and Bracket. The Latin Qoantus 
and Quotus have no radical difference, and Avy( is the 
Latin Lynx. 
Nab, v. a. to catch unawares ; O. noma ; Isl. nima ; S. 
niman; T. nehmen ; Swed. nappa; D. naape; 8cot 
num, nip, nap. See Nim and Snap. 

Nackbr, #. a shell called mother of pearl; Sp. nacar ; 
F. nacre ; A. nosgru, noogru. 

Nadir, s. the point in the heavens opposite to the ze- 
nith. A. anadir. 

Nag, s. a riding horse ; G. gnegg ; B. nagge ; T. natft, 
nickel. See Nsioh. 

Nail, #. L an iron pin, the claw of a bird« the comeons 
substance on the toes and fingers; Qt^nagl; Swed. 
nagel ; D. nagle; S. WBgl; T. nagd. 

2. A measure of length, the 16th part of a yard. Nail 
and Knuckle were different measures^ but seem to 
have been confounded. See Elbow. 

Nakxd, a, uncovered, bare, plain; O. naken; Swed. 
nakoi; S. nacod ; T. nackend, nacket; B. naakt ; 
Sclav, nagi ; Turk, and Tart, nagu ; Hind. niguL 

Namb, s, an appellation, title, renown ; O. P. and Sans. 
nam; Swed. namn; Isl. nafn; M. O. nanu>; T. 
name; S. nama ; B. naem; L. nomen; It ncme; F. 
nom : Sans. P. and Heb. nam, to say, to tell. 

Nancy, Nanny, «. used as a diminutive of Agnes, is per- 
haps from nmfif, a girl. 

Nap, «. 1. a short sleep ; A. P. Hind, and Heb. naom, 
nuom, sleep ; T. fiqfzen, to sleep. 

2. Fleeciness, the grain of cloth raised bv fulling and 
teazing; S. hnoppa; Swed. nopp; D. noppe ; W. 

N A V 

Napb, #. the uptoer joint of the neck behind ; O. gnap, 
gnep ; Swea. Ihuep s 8. cnap^ the summit. 

Naphbw, Navbw, s. an esculent root ; L. napus ; F. 
navet ; T. niipe. See Tubnip. 

Naphtha, s, a kind of bitumen ; A. nwfat ; »«^l«. 

Napkin, -9. litien to wipe the hands upon; F. nappe, 
from L. mappa, in the same way that L. matia became 

Nappy, o. fWim Nap ; ileeoy, soft 

Naboibsub, s. the white daffodil ; ni^uw^^, fVom its sopo- 
rific odour. 

Nabd, s, an odoriferous shrub ; A. nardin ; P. nard; 
fd^ ; L. nariu. See Spixsnabb. 

Nabbow, a. not broad, strait, dose, near ; 8. nearu, 

ftom Nbar. 
Nabwhale, Nabwal, #. a sea unicorn ; 6. narwhal, 

from nar, a snout, and wkmle. See Nosb. 
Nasty, a. disgustingly impure, filthy; B. sckyUg, na- 

^hykg, from schyi, ordure, excreme nt ;; Swed. 

nh, to partake. 
Natty, a, neat, small, accurate ; G. nmM. See Nbat. 
Navb, s, 1. the centre part of a wheels a boss ; Swed. 

and 8. m^; D. naver; B. navej T. nabe. 
2. The middle roof of a church ; It nave; F. nef, are 

supposed to be from mvf ; L. nmnt, from resembling 

the bottom of a ship. 
Navbl, s. the boss in the middle of the body, the cen- 
tre; P. nqf; D. navle ; Swed. najk ; 8. nqfda; T. 

nable ; B. navel See Navb. 

Naught, a. worthless^ bad ; 8. naht, nawhiht, from the 

Naught, s. nothing ; 6. nevt; S. nahi, naukt, the ne- 
gative na prefixed to aught or mhit. It has been well 
observed tnat L. hilum corresponds with whit, and ne 
hilum became nihil. 

Navy, s. the shipping, the naval force of a country ; P. 
nave; Sans, nau ; Hf}; h. navis, a ship, from Sans. 
naai ; Heb. naan ; nm ; L. no. 

Nay, s. a denial, a refusal; O. ne; D. net; 8. na; 
Sans, na ; P. ne; L. ne; F. ne; W.nt / I. na. See Na 

N E S 

Nb, 0d. no1;» iieitber ; 6. S. P. aod U ne. 
Nbaf> s. the hand when clenched, the fist ; O. n^, an- 
ciently kno; Isl. ihi^tf ; Swed. rurfwe; Scot iwiw. 
Nbal, ©• o, to soften by gradual heat See AknbaIm 
Neap, a. low, decreasing, scanty ; O. n^; Isl. Ammmt^ 

naufnr; Swed. nof^p/ S. «<?^, deficient, wv^/b^t 

the low tide. 
Nbar, «. 1. nigh, close, intimate; G. and Swed. nari 

S. ner; B. naer. 
SL Narrow, parsimonious, close; O. mugr; D.mBrig; 

Sans, nigur; Hind, tiere. See Nig^abd. 
Nbat, «. an ox ; 6. iiaii^ ; Swed. nJ/ / S. neai : Scot 

Nbat, a, 1. small, accurate, exact, el^^t; O. fuUMf / 

Swed. nor//^- T. neti. 

3. Pure, dean^ bright; It mtito; F. fw<; Arm. net; 

L. fUtidus, 
Nbath, «. low, undet; 6. Mosd; Isl. nedan; Sw«d* 

ned; B. nedan / S. sieerfA •• G* asd, hmd, adr^ high, 

with ne prefixed. 
Nbb, #• the bill or beak of a bird ; G. nrf; Swed. naf; 

D. nceh ; S. neb ; B. ite&6tf. See Nib. 
Nbck, s, the part between the head and die body ; G. 

nacka; D. nakke; Swed* nacke ; B. ii€cl;/ B. AiMca/ 

A. Bttdta / It nuca ; F. nv^tie. 

Nbbp, #. exigence, necessity, want; G. naud; Isl. 
neuf/ D. mrdy Swed. noay B. iiooc^/ S. iieod/ T. 

Nbedle, s, a small instrument to sew with ; M. G. 
nethU; S. nasdU; T. luui^, nalde; IsL itoo// B. 

Nbbds, ad. necessarllj i firom JSMmxf. 

Nbbsb, s. a nose, a headland ; G. neea. See NBse. 

Nbbbb, t^. It. from the noun ; to emit wind convulsively 
through the nose. See Snbbzb. 

Nsp, #. the body of a church ; F. ntf. See Navb. 

Nbobo> «. a blackmoor; Sp. and It negro; F. negre, 

from L. n^er. 
Nbif, s, 1. a fist. See Neaf. 

2. A woman bom in bondage ; L. B. neifa ; L. nativa. 
Neioh, v. n. to cry as a horse; Swed. gna^a; S. 

hnegan; B. neyen ; Hind, henhina; L. ninmo. See 

NeiohBOub, «. one who lives near another; G. nabur; 

Swed. miAo; S. nesehur; T. nachbaur, from Niob, 

and G. 6tia, to dweU. 

Neither, 1. a. not either^ no one. 2. coig;* nor; S. nojther. 

Nep, #. an herb called catmint ; L. nepeta. 

Nephew, «. the son of a brother or sister ; F. neveu ; 
S. neuMi B. neef^ from L. ntpo9. See Nibcb. 

Nesh, a. soft, tender, delicate ; S. hnese ; D. knaes; B. 
ne^e ; M. G. hnasquia. 

Nb8S> a termination denoting condition, which added 
to an adjective, changes it into a substantive ; G. 
eigns, peculiar property or quality, eeems to have 
been contracted into M. G« ns; S. nes, neue. As 
dizziness, S. dyngnesse, from dizay ; likeness, S. &• 
iie«^, from like. 

Ness, s, a promontory, a point of land projecting iato 
the sea; G. nes, annesj Swed. itJiy S. mete, a nose 
of land; fSr«$, an isle or peninsula. See Nflaat. 

Nest, s. a bird's bed, a box of drawers; Swed. nmtief 
S. and T. nesti W. mi Am. t^fii, &mk U nidns:^ 


NxsTLB, ft. from Nb6T ; to breed, to foster, to cherish, 

Net, s. a knotted texture, a reticule ; G. D. and S. nH ; 
Swed. naa ; B. netie; M. G. natij T. netze; L. nasea. 
See to Knit. 

Nbthbb, Nbatbbb, a. lower, infernal; G. nider; 
Swed. neder ; S. neother ; T. nieder, comparative of 

Nbtti^b^ #. a stinging plant; D. ndde; S. fie<e^; Swed. 
fHBssla, T. nef^, corresponding with svAv, and ap- 
parently from G. el; S. old, fire ; as I^ tirltca, from 

Nbvbb, ad» at no time, in no degree ; the negative of 


New, o. modem, fresh, uncommon ; G. and Swed. ity ; 

S. neow; T. neu; B. nieuw; P. n«o; Hind, nava, 

niMi; Russ. nohoe; hh; L. novus; W. newyz; Arm. 

nwy ; It mwoy F. new/! New and Nine seem to be 

connected in all the foregoing dialects. 
Newt, s. an eft, a water lizard ; a nevet, for an evet. 
Next, a. nearest in place ; G. and D. ncest ; S. nest ; 

T. nechsi; P. nazd, Nighest 
Nia8, a. silly, foolish ; F. nuns, a nestliiur, from L. m- 

due; ntr^tiL A younff hawk unfledged was called a 

fdae. See Eyas and Piobon. 
Nib, s. the point of a pen, the beak ; dim. of Neb. 
Nibble, v. to bite slowly, carp at; B. knXbhden, nib' 

Nice, a. accurate, refined, squeamish; D. nasje ; T. 

nau, genau, apparently cognate with the first etymon 

of neat, and frequently used in the sense of the se- 

cohd, as well as cineeh. 
NiCHB, #. a hollow made for a statue; F. niche; It 

nkchio; Sp. nicho; B. ȣ#; T. nitscMe, apparently 

eitner ntmi wuiUm or !#. nidus. See Nook. 

Nick, s. 1. a nod, a wink, a precise time, a conjuncture ; 
P. nika; G. neck; Swed. nick; D. nik ; T. nicke ; 
B. knik : L. nictatio. 

2. A score, a small cut, a tally; dim. of Nock. 

3. A winning throw at dice; Swed. nmka; S. ndiwan; 
G. na, to mt upon, attain. 

4. The devil ; U. nikur ; Swed. necken ; D. wekken ; 
B. nikker; T. nicks, necker. Neckuden seems to have 
had G. ude, water, added to the name, and dience 
signified the Demon of the sea; pertuma indeed 
Neckuden and Neptune may have been dira*ent pro- 
nunciations of the same word. T. wasser nixen were 

Nickname, s. a by-name, a term of derision ; G. auk^ 
nam; D, cegenam; Swed. dknam; S. ic or ecnam; 
L. agnomen. It is our eke name ; but an ekename 
was mistaken foft a nekename. 

NiDE, s. a brood of pheasants ; L. nidus. 

NiDGEBY, s. a foolery, a bauble; F. maisery. See 


NiDOET, s. 1. a fool, an idiot ; F. nudset. See Niab. 
2. A niding, a coward, a dastard, a mean fellow. See 

Niece, s. the daughter of a brother or sister; F. niece; 

It. nezza ; S. nt/f ; Scot, neipie, from L. nepHs ; O. E. 

NIGGARD, #. a miser,, .a sordid fellow ; G. niuger^ nogm 

gur; Swed. nn^erl See Nbab and Snudgb. 

Nigh, a. near, close, nearly alHed ; G. and Swed. na; 
T.nah; S. n^A. 

N I 

N U M 

NiOHT^ t. the time of darkness ; O. naht ; D. nai ; 8. 
niht ; T. nacht ; vv{ ; L. nox ; F. itiit^ ; It. wMt ; W. 
nos ; Sans, nis, 

NiOHTiNOAL^ f . a bird that sings by night ; S. nighU' 
gale; T. nachtegal, from Night and P. goo/^ music ; S. 
gtUan ; 6. gala, to sing; Sans, gulgid ; P. hulbuL 
»ee Oal. 

Nightmare, ^ . a morbid oppression in sleep called in- 
cubus ; from Night and O. mcer, a maid or nymph, 
which, like Jiaur, was one of the fates ; T. maer, 
mare; S.mara; F. couchemar. See Mare. 

NiOHTRAiL, #. a loose nightgown. See Rail. 

Nightshade, s. a poisonous plant ; T. nacht schatien, 
night shadow ; perhaps G. nauiskade ; D. tiatskade ; 
T. natschade ; S. nyt scada. See Neat and Scath. 

Nile, s. the name of a river ; A. P. and Sans. Nuel, 
Neel, blue. The name seems to have been given to 
the Indus, and to a branch of the Egyptian river, 
from their colour. 

NiLL, s. the glowing ashes of melted brass. See to 

NiM, V, a. to filch, steal, pilfer ; G. nema ; Swed. «t»i- 

ma ; S. niman ; B. neemen ; T. nemen. See to Nab. 

Nimble, a. speedy, quick, active ; Isl. nimlig ; S. ntf* 
mul, apt, quick of apprehension. 

Nincompoop, Nick-am-poop, s, a novice, a fool, a silly 
person ; S. nicum, new, raw, inexperienced, and ouphe. 
See Oaf and Ninny. 

Nine, a. ^ve and four ; G. niun ; IsL niu ; Swed. nio ; 
P. nu ; S. nigan ; T. neune. 

Nineteen, a. nine and ten; S. nigantyne; T. neunzehen. 

Ninety, a. nine times ten ; G. niuntig ; T. neunzig. 

Ninny, #. a novice, a simpleton, r child ; my. a novl/^e i 
Sp. ninno, a baby, perhaps from r«fW. 

Nip, v. a. to pinch, vex, satirize ; G. niupa ; Swed. nypa ; 

B. nipen; T. kneipen. 
Nipple, #. part of the breast, a teat, a dug ; S. nypele; 

B. knopje; It. nepitello. See Knob. 
Nit, «. the egg of a louse ; tUvn, ffftit ; Isl. Ant^ ; Swed. 

gnet; D. gnide; S. hnitu; B. necl; T. niAese ; Arm. 

niz ; W. nccW 
NiTHiNO, f . a coward, a dastard, vile, contemptible ; 

Isl. ntthing ; G. niding ; Swed. nidinger ; S. niihing. 

See NiDGET. 

NiZY, #. a simpleton, a dunce. See Niab. 

No, 1. ad. a word of denial. 2. a. none; Q,nea; M.G. 

ni; Swed. ««; T. ni; S. no; Pol. n^y P. and Sans. 

na; L. non; It no; F. now. 
Noble, #. a Spanish ducat; six shillings and eightpence. 
Nock, s. a notch, a slit, the anus; Isl. hnocka; Swed. 

nock ; T. nocke ; Scot nok ; It noccMa, See Notch 

and Nick. 
Nod, v. n. to lower the head with a quick motion, to be 

drowsy ; L. nuto. 

Noddle, s, the head, used in contempt See Noll. 

Noddy, #. a silly person, a simpleton ; F. naudin. See 

NoGGEN-sHiRT, s. B, coaTsc shirt ; G. hnauke, labour, 

Noggin, s, a small mug, a gill ; I. noiggin, a wooden can. 

NoiANGE, #. mischief, inconvenience ; from Noib. 

Noib, v. o. to injure, disturb, annoy; F. nuir; It no- 
care; L. nocere. 


Noious, a, hurtful, misdiievous, troublesome ; It ntoio, 
from the verb. 

Noise, s. sound, disturbance, clamour; F. noise; Arm. 
noas; L. noxa. 

Noisome, o. offensive, noxious, filthy ; from Noious. 

Noll, s. a hillock, a top, the heaA; S. hnoL See 

NoMBLES, #. the entrails of a deer ; F. nomblet. See 

Nonce, #. a purpose, a design, intent ; Swed. namnas, 
fVom G. nenna ; D. nenne, to attempt. Chancer wrote 

None, a. no other, not any ; G. nein, ne ein, not one. 

Noodle, s, a simpleton, a fool ; G. nadtU ; S. nik dot, 
nearly stupid. See Dull and Doodle. 

Nook, s. a comer, an angle, a covert ; B. ein koek, an 

Noon, s. the middle of the day ; L. nona hora was adopt- 
ed by the Christian Gk>ths to denote a particular time 
of church service ; whence G. non, mia day. 

Noose, s^ a running knot, a gin, a snare ; Swed. knusse; 
L. nodus. 

Nope, s. an ouphe, a bullfinch. See Oupre. 

Nor, conf, not either, neither. 

NoRE, s. a canal, a channel, a river, a lake ; G. Swed. 

and Tartar nor. Nukr is still applied to Uie great 

canal at Babylon. 

North, s. the part of the earth opposite the south ; G. 
Swed. D. T. and F. nord : S. north. 

Nose, s. the prominence on the face ; Sans, nasa ; G. 
naus, nef; Isl. nos, nauf. ner ; S. nosa ; Swed. nas ; 
D. nassn^' T. nase; L. naswr, naris ; F. nez; It naso. 
From this rout are derived our words, Nosle, Snaffle, 
Snarl, SnaBt, Snart, Sneeze, Sneer, Snipe, Shite, Snifl^ 
Snivel, Snore, Snort, Snot, Snout, Snuff, Snu£k. 

Nostril, s. the cavity of the nose ; S. nos thyrly nose 

Not, ad. on no terms, in no wise ; G. neii ; B. nj^ y T. 
nichl jT^S. nate ; W. nod. 

Notch, s. a cut, a nick, a cavity ; Swed. nocka ; B. tiocke ; 

It nocc^a, an incision. See Nock and Nick. 
Nought, s. nothing. See Naught. 
Noun, s. a name, a part of speech ; L. nomen ; Sans, and 

P. nanw, from namna, to say, to tell. See Name. 

Nous, s. knowledge, intelligence ; jm< ; P. noos. 

NousEL, V. a. 1. from Noose ; to ensnare, to bind with a 

2. To nurse, to cherish. See Nuzzle. 

Now, ad. at this time; P. nu ; G. Swed. D. and; 
T. nun; yyy; L. nunc. 

NowES, s. a running knot, a noose ; L. nodus ; O. F. 
neau, nou. 

NozLE, #. a small snout ; dim. of Nose. 

Nubble, v. a. to pound with the fist, to beat, to bang; 
Scot neve/, n^ffle; from Nbaf. 

Nudge, t;. a. to jog with the elbow or knee ; O. hnuda ; 
Swed. nudda* See Knuckle. 

Nuisance, #. something offensive; F. nuisance. See to 

Numb, a. torpid, senseless; G. num, nam; 8. benum, de- 
ficient, stupified ; Ann. num ; W. nam, a defect, pri- 

NuifBEB, s. an wgregate, a aeries, ver»e, harmony ; 
Heb. niphrad; L. numerus / F. nomkre. 

N U S 

N U Z 








Zingari orl ^^^ 
Gipsey, f' 







Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, 

Isnani, Sulasui, Urbuut, Khumsut, Sittut, 
Shenayein, Sheloshah, Arban uh, Chamuhat,Skuhat, 

Do f^;^ I Chuhar, Punj, 

Dwau, Traya, Chatur, Pancha, 
Dwau, Teen, Char, Panch, 

Ein, \ 
Eit, f 











Schiar, Pantsck, 

Tcheiwar, Piat, 














Quinque, Sex, 
Coig, Sia, 









Eight, Nine, Ten, 
Sumaneeut,Tisut, Ushrut. , 
Shemorat, Tishahy AasharuL 































Nun, s. a religious recluse woman ; S. nun ; D. nonne ; 
T. nonn ; F. nonne ; said by St Jerome to be an Egyp- 
tian word signifying holy and chaste. Mevif , however, 
was a female monk, written NeMf by Palladius. 

NuNCHiON, *. a piece of victuals eaten between meals ; 

from Noon, and T. essen, food. 
NuRSB, s. one who suckles a child, an attendant on the 

sick ; F. nourrice; L. nutrix. 
NuBTUBB, *. diet, food, education ; F. nourriture ; L. 

NusTLE, v. a. to fondle, to cherish. See Nbstlb. 

Nut, s. a gland, fruit of a tree ; Swed. not ; S. hnut ; B. 
noot; T. nusse; W. cnau ; F. noix ; It. noce; L. nux. 

NuTMBO, NuTMUO, s. the musked nut, a spice ; L. mux 
muschata ; F. muguette. 

Nuts, s. a gratification, an advantage; G. nuts; T. 
nutze, use, pleasure, from G. niota; Swed. niuta; S. 
nyttian, to enjoy. 

NuzzLB, cherish, to foster. See Nustlb. 

2. To ensnare attach ; dim. of tor Noosb. 

3. To go with the nose downwards ; from Nosb. 




OHA8, in English, a long sound, as drone, groan, 
stone ; or short, as in got, knot, shot. It is usually 
denoted long by a servile a or u subjoined, as moan, 
soul ; or by « at the end of a syllable, as tone, doke, 
sole. When these vowels are not appended, it is ge- 
nerally short, as in loll, doll ; but droll and scroll are 
exceptions. In the Oothic dialects, a, o, and u have 
been used almost indiscriminately. The pronuncia- 
tion of the negative Na and No, however, seems to 
indicate the counties in Britain where the Scandina- 
vian or Anglo-Saxon predominated. 

O, in Irish, a descendant ; I. o, ogha, perhaps from og, 
young; but, as a possessive, it appears to be the 
£ngbsh cf, as formerly used in William of Gloudesly, 
Clem o' Cleugh, John o' Groat ; Isl. qf; G. itfj L. ab, 
anciently of; W. op, corresponding with T. von ; B. 
van ; F. c^, as a title. 

O, inierj, 1. an expression of surprise, joy or grief; G. 
and S. o; O. See Ah. 

2. Sign of the vocative case ; L. and Isl. o; Sans, uhe; 

3. Used as a termination in burlesque poetry, to suit 
the verse. See A 

Oaf, s. I. an elf, a changeling. See Ouphe. 

2. An idiot, a stupid person ; Swed. odfwe, inept; qf&r, 
siUy, imbecile, weak ; o being a negative prenx. See 


Oak, s, a tree remarkable for its durability; G. ek; 
Swed. d* ,• D. ac s T. eiche ; B. eike ; S. ac^ which, 
like L. rtjhuTy simplified this tree and strength. G. 
auka ; Swed. 6ka ; S. ecany to increase, produce, aug- 
ment, may perhaps have had reference to the acorns 
so highly esteemed by the Goths as food, correspond- 
ing with i}ffk. 

Oakum, #. tow, old rope untwisted and reduced to tow 
for caulking vessels ; S. ascwmhty ascetnb, cemh, comb- 
ings, refuse of hemp. 

Oab, #. an instrument to row with; G. ar; Isl. are; 
Swed. hr; S. arcs D* f^^^* See to Row. 

O F 

j Oast, Ow, Oust, *. a kiln to dry bops or malt upon ; 
B. att is from G. assa, to bum ; but G. elsto ; l^ed. 
elldsio, aUto ; S. csld Ho, are from G. ell ; S. asld, fire, 
and siOy a place. 

Oat, #. a well known grain ; S. ate, supposed to be from 
G. ett, at ; Swed. &t, food ; Heb. hittah, was a kind of 

Oath, s, a solemn attestation ; G. ed, eid, aith ; S. ath ; 
T. eid; B. eed, from G. and Swed e; S. te, law, jus- 

Obelisk, #. a quadrangular pillar of stone, approaching 
the form of a pyramid, and called aCiX^ by Herodo- 

Ocean, *. the main sea ; mmatlf ; L. oceanus; G. eegi ; 
W. eigion, 

OcHiMT, s. a mixed metal. See Alghtmt. 

OcHBE, s. a coarse kind of earth ; '^fijt^ ; L. ochra. 

Onn, a. singular, particular, uneven ; Swed. udda ; D. 

ude, singular, appear to be from G. eitt ; A. uhud, one. 

See One. 

Ode, *. a poem to be sung to music : P. adda ; tiin ; 
L. ode, a song ; G. odd, verse ; odda, to versify ; Isl. 
edda, a heroic poem. The Goths had fiflteen kinds of 
verse, and seem to have been the inventors of that 
species where the lines terminate by similar sounds, 
generally called metre and rhyme ; which, both mean- 
ing measure or number, are equally applicable to 
blank verse. 

Odin, #. a divini^ worshipped by the Goths, corres- 
ponding with Pluto; and also a divine personage, 
who conducted a colony of Goths from Iran into 
Scandinavia; and, like Mercury, introduced magic 
and the use of letters ; G. and Swed. Odin ; S. Woden ; 
T. Wodan, Godan, 

Oeiliad, #. a wink with the eye, a glance ; F. oeiUade; 
L. oculatio. 

Of, prep, concerning, amon^, on the part, according to ; 
G. a; Swed. d; Isl. and S. of; G. and Swed. om. 
See vl. 

o o z 

Ofr, ad. tnm. out of, Mpantted ; G. Iil. M.Q. D. T. B. 

of; S. ^: Mwi ; h. ab, andently mf; W. op. 

Offal, a. wute meat, reEuge, tripe ; firom off andJaUj 

OpfBH, V. to present, propose, exhibit, attempt, sacri- 
fice; L. oWero; F. offrir ; 111. fiKra and bcera cor- 
respondeowithL.ycro, and are supposed to have pro- 
duced T. ojifern, and Swed. offer, a sacrifice. 

Oft, Oftkn, ad.' frequently, many times j O. ofX ; 8wed. 

Oo, Ogee, t. a kind of moulding ; F. ogive. 

OoLB, V. a. to view in fondness, to cast a wistful loolt ; 
from L. ocubu. 

Oko, inter;', of surprise. See O and Ho. 

Oil, t. the juice of olives, fkt ; tKmn ; L. ofewR ,■ It. og^ 
lio; F./ittile; S. oal. 

OiNT, e. a. to smear with oil or fist; L. ungo, »netO£ F. 
ointer; It. tuUart. 

Ointment, *. s salve; It. wstaMc. 

Otn, a. 1. ancient, bt^n long ago; O. aldai Swed. 
lOAtr; 8.eaid; D.alde; T. aU. 

S. Complete, excellent, pre-eminent ; O. aid, adlr, aii ; 
B. Mer ; T. oivf, qU, apparently fVom all, whole, en. 
tire. Old England means pre-eminent; and the 
British Americans use Old fellow as a complimen- 
tary title. Old is still applied in Yorkshire, like pre- 
eminent, complete ; and signifies also on ^e whole, 

Olibandu, I. white incense ; A. and Heb. looban ; ?Ji». 

Olid, Olidous, a. sraelUiut strong, rank ; L. olidiu. 
Ohio, t. a medley of food, a hc£^ potcb ; Sp. oila ; 

Port. oUa, stewed meat ; L. and It. oUn, a cocking 

Olive, *. 1. a tree, a fruit producing oil, the emblem 

of peace; L. otivay F. otiv<i- It. utfva. 

2. Meat &rced and stewed. See Olio. 

Ohbbs, r. I. a game at cards supposed most suitable to 
men ; L. him»o, and A. imra have the same significa- 
tion, and produced Sp. hombre, a man. 

3. A kind of fish, a halibut ; L. umbra. 

On EGA, t. the last, the ending ; literally the greatO which 
terminates the Greek alphabet. 

Ohblbt, «. a kind of pancake made with eggs, milk and - 
herbs; F. omolette; Arm. oumiaelk, fVom oum,- L. 
OVUM, and laeth ; L. lac. 

Oni prfp. upon ; G. on, ofa» ; M. G. ana ; S. on ; D. and 
T. any B. oan. 

On, ad. forward, in progression ; G. an ; T. an. See 

Once, ad. at one time ; G. oini, corresponding with 
Arm. univet; Port, una mz, from L. una vicit. 

One, a. 1. single, some, any, different; G. en, an; 
Swed. «n, on ,• M.O. ain,- S.oene; T. ein. 

3. A person, some one, every one ; F. on, formerly ong, 
contracted from L. unutque, untuquiique, has nearly 
the same meaning with 3. ang, any or some ; but the 
Ooths used an or en, our one, for a person, which ap- 
pears to have produced German man, for tnan tagl 
corresponds wim F. an dil. 

Onion, «. a bulbous plant, a scallion ; L. unto ,- Q. uni- 
on ; F. oignon. 

Ooze, «. humidity, soft mud, a gentle flow, a spring of 
water, the liquor of a tanner's vat ; P. tm, ab ; G. 
aa ,- S. ea ; F. Mw ,- L. a^ua, water, cognate with iw. 


produced G. IBM, 1^. .nd 6. mu. ite, mu, ote, km, 
a stream ; whenc* S. ate, ttg, itc, wc, utc, corrupted 
into our ax, eti, ex, ox. owe and ux, which give 
names to so many of our rivers, and to the Ysad in 
Holland. From G. wot, mot/ 8. wue,- Swed. 
9ta^ca, we have wooi, teycA, math, a tkrw of liquid, a 
swamp, a pool : and Port, otga; Arm. utqtu .■ I. uiige, 
vul^ly called teAt/ivgr, aignify water or wash fye 
spirits. See Ubqci maitsh. 

OoxB, V. 1*. from the noun ; to drop or flow goitly. 

Opal, «. a kind of precious stone; li.opabu; P. opal. 

Open, a. unclosed, uncoverad; O. openj Swed. opptm; 
S. and B, (p«i ,- T. offoi. 

Opera, ». a musical performance with scetiery ; IL and 
F. from ti. opera. 

Opidx, t. the inspissated juice of poppies ; iwm, sup- 
posed from Mf, sap; L. opium; but the A. name 
tt^rooM, signifies affecting the senses, depriving irf 

Ob, a masculine termination denoting agency ; admted 
from the L., and supposed to be Scythian aor, a man, 
a male. See Eb. 
Ob, a. contracted from either tx other; G. odr ; 8 

Ob, 1. 1. the first, the be^ning ; G. and 8. or, aoon ; 

S. ord, beginning. See Foxb. 
3. In heraldry, gold ; P. or y It. on, from L. aurum. 
Oba, inleiy. now, well now; L Aora; Port ora; W. 
orah, used in the same way, signify time, and also 
luck ; as in P. heur, whidi produced kettreux and 
bonkeur. See Abbah. 
Obatobio, f . It. a brotherhood at Rome, a aacred drama, 
religious music; at first was the name of a choir 
where prayers were sung ; from Ii. oro. 
Obanoe, t. the name of a golden-coloured fruit ; Ij. mr- 

ranlium ; F. orange. 
Obcral, Ahcbil, properly Roogblla, t. a moss gather- 
ed from rocks on the shores of the Meditetranean, 
and used for a blue colour. 
Obohanet, I. the herb anchusa; F. orcanete; It. area- 
net. See Alkanxt. 
Obchabs, t. an indosure for fruit tt«es ; from G. awl, 
a plant, and gard, a garden ; Swed. drtegard ; D. ur- 
iegard; S. wtegard: G. auri corresponds with k^k 
andL. Aortw*. See Wost. 
Okcbib, t. B plant and its root from which salep is 

made, satyrion ; itXM, a testide. 
Obdeal, t. a trial of innocence by fire ; G. vrdeil, or- 
deil ; L. B. ordalium ; F. ordalie, called God's judg- 
ment by the Goths, was also used in Persia and !«& 
to prove female chastity. Swed. or^Ja ,■ S. ordal ; 
T. Mrlkeil, signified an; judicial decision ; the prefix 
to dela being, in this esse, the Swed. Br, final; but 
in our word, the prefix is believed to be Chald. w ; 
G. ar, am, fire. 
OftDiMAHCB, «. a law, a rule, holy rit« ; from h, ordmo. 
Obdnamob, «■< cannon, artillery; fomeriy onUmance, 

Oksube, s. filth, excrement ; F. ord, ordure ; It onfu. 

ra ; T. ord, tckord ; L. tardea. 
Obb, r. metal in its mineral state ; Swed. Sr^ signified 
both metal and money ; T.orry 8. ore,* B. oor, cor- 
resposded with L. mt, terit. 
Obewebp, ». sh or c w c ed, wrack; Q.^; W.eyre: S. 
ora; Swed. hr : L. oro, the shore, the strand. 

O V E 

Oroal> s. tartar or lees of wine poncreted and used by 
dyers ; A. and P. ihall, ^Ikhal See Aroal. 

Organ, s. a musical instrument ; i^muf ; P. arghun. 

Oroant, ^. a plant See Origan. 

Oroixs, s. drunken feasts, frantic revels ; from m^», 
i^m, a festival. 

Oribnt, s. rising of the sun, the east ; L. orteiti. 

Origan, s. an herb ; L; origanum. 

Orison, #. a prayer, a supplication ; F. oraiton, from L. 

Ork, #. a kind of fish ; L. area ; F. ourque. 

Orle, s. in heraldry, a kind of border ; F. orle ; It 
orlo; Jj, ora, orula. 

Orlop, s. the deck of a ship; Swed. oeffoerlopp; B. 
€verloop ; T. overloff: B. loopy a run, walk or course. 
See Landi«oper. 

Orpimsnt, s. a mineral, yellow arsenic ; F. orpiment ; 
L. auripigmentum. 

Orris, s. 1. a plant and its flower ; corrupted from L. 

iris ; but sometimes from L. acorus. 
2. A kind of gold lace ; F. orris, from L. aureus. 
Ort, pL Orts, *. leavings, refuse of fodder ; S. over 

astSy over feedings. In Scotland the word is used for 

refuse of any kind. 

Ortolan, s. a small delicious bird that frequents gar- 
dens ; It hortolano ; F. ortolan, firom L. hortus. 

Osier, Ozier, s. a kind of willow ; utU ; but Arm. 
ausU ; F. osier, seem to be cognate with our ooze, 
near which the willow thrives. 

OsPRAY, s, the sea eagle ; corrupted from Ossifraob. 

OsBBLET, #. a little bune ; F. osselet, from L. ossis, 

OsBiFRAGE, s. a bird called the sea eagle ; L. ossifraga ; 
F. ossefrague. 

Ostler, #. who takes care of the horses at inns. See 

Ostrich, s, a large bird of the desert ; A. and P. shoo* 
toor churz, ooshtoor ckurz, the camel bustard; L. 
struthio camelus ; F, auiriche ; T. strausse ; ll.struzzo. 

Otar of roses, s, a perfume of roses ; A. atar, perfume, 
odour, fragrance. 

Other, a, different, not the same ; G. audr, adr, odr ; 
M. G. aulhai ; S. anther, other ; T. oder ; which in 
Swed. D. T. and B. is ander, being all apparently 
from Q, eda, eder, corresponding with fn^H ; F. autre, 
used in nearly the same sense, is from L. alter. See 

Othergates, ad. otherwise ; G. odrugatas. See Other, 
and Gate, a way. 

Otherwise, ad.msL different way, by other causes, in 
other respects; G. odrun>\js. See Other and Wise. 

Otoman, a. belonging to the Turks; A. utumm, su- 
blime, perfect. 

Otter, *. an amphibious animal; Sans, ood ; Q.otr; 
D. odder ; T. otter; L. lutra. 

Oven, *. an arched place for baking ; G. qfon ; Isl. qfn ; 
S. of en; Sclav, ogne ; Swed. tfgn, qfn; M.G.oun; 
T. oun, qfen ; D. own; Q.fon, and Sans, tigji, signify 

Over, pr«rp. above, upon, across ; Q.qfar; Swed. of wet ; 
S. ofrey T. uher ; P. uhar ; Hind, upar ; wn^\ I. 
obair; Arm. oar; h. super. 

OVERCOME, V. a. to subdue, vanquish ; from over and 
come, conreq>onding with L^ supero, supereo. 

O Y S 

Overt, a. open, apparent, public; L. apertus; It. 
uperto ; F. ouvert. 

Overture, s. an opening, a disclosure, proposal, a 
flourish of music before a play begins ; L. apertura ; 
It. upertura ; F. ouverture. 

Ought, s. any thing. See Aught. 

Ought, pret. of the verb to Owe ; owed, obliged. 

Ounce, s. 1. a beast of prey ; L. fynx ; It lynce ; Sp. 
lince, lonce, onza ; F. once, by mistaking lonce for 
Ponce ; but the onca of Buffon seems to be a different 

2. A small weight ; L. uncia ; F. once. 

Ouphe, f. 1. an elf, a fairy, a sprite ; G. alf; T. auf. 

2. A name given to the bullfinch, which is also called a 
pope ; G. olpa, a priest's hood. 

Our, pron. poss, belonging to us ; G. uar ; Isl. wor; D. 
mor ; Swed. mar ; S. ure, the possessive of »e. T. 
unser, user, is the possessive of us. 

OusE, OwsE, s. tanner's bark beaten small for infusion. 

See Ooze. 
Ousel, s. the blackbird, the water starling; S. osle; 

T. amsel, wasser amsel, a water ousel, and also a water 

rail. S. ose, water ; Swed. sdl, black. 

Oust, s. a frame to dry hops upon ; G. elsto^ a fire- 
place, from eld, fire, and sto, a place. 

Oust, v. a. to cast out, vacate, take away ; G. austa, 
from G. us, ut ; T. aus ; S. uzu ; Arm. ouz. See to 

Out, ad. abroad, not in, away from home; G. ut; 
Swed. utt ; S. ut ; B. uyt. 

Out, v. to expel, put forth, extend. See to Oust. 

Outlaw, s. a man excluded from the benefit of the law, 

an exile ; G. utlag. 
Outrage, s. extreme violence, commotion ; F. oultrage; 

It. oltraggio; L. B. ultragium, from L. ultra agere. 

Owe, v. a. to be indebted to, to have to pay ; G. a^aga; 
Isl. aa ; S. ahan ; Swed. hqfwa ; Scot, aigh, all sig- 
nifying to own or possess, and also to be indebted. 

Owl, Owlet, «. abird that flies by night; Sans. ooUoo; 
It. ulula ; S. ule ; D. ugle ; F. hulotte. 

OwLER, s. a contraband dealer in wool, a smuggler, 
from G. ull; S. uloh, wool. 

Own, pron. poss. belonging to, possessing by right ; as 

my own, their own ; G. €Bgn, aihn, property, from a, 

to have, to possess; S. cegan; D. eijen ; T. eigen, 

corresponding with li. 
Own, v. a. 1. from the pronoun ; to possess, to claim as 

one's own. 
2. To admit, assent, acknowledge; from G. ia; T.ja^ 

hen, hejahen, to say yes, to yea ; ayan, to say ay, to 

OwRE, a. wild, savage; G. aur ; Swed. T. otter; B. 

awer, wild. See Ure ox. 
Ox,pL Oxen, s. a castrated bull ; G. and Swed.oxe; Isl. 

and D. uxe ; S. oxa ; T. ochs; M. G. auks; Sans. 

aksha ; Arm. ouch ; W. ych ; I. agh. 

Oyer, v. n. to hear, a law court for hearing appeals; F. 

ouir ; It udire ; L. audire. 
Oyes, v. hear ye ; F. oyez. See Oyer. 

Oyster, s. a well known shell fish; Str^Mv; L. ostrea; 
B. oester; F. kuitre. 



PIS a labial consonant formed by a slight compression 
of the anterior part of the lips. The Goths^ like the 
ArabS; had formerly no P, although it is now com- 
mon in all their dialects ; but liable still to be con- 
founded with B, V and F. The JEoUans and Osce 
transmuted the Oreek T into F, as will appear at the 
former letter. The Armoricans and Welcn intermute 
P^ B^ F, M and V, continually ; and like the Osce, 
frequently substitute P^ where the Latins and Irish 
use Q^ K, or C hard. K«i«( and U^tn were synonimous ; 
and occasionally the Latins seem to have adopted the 
Oreek variation to form a slight distinction^ as Coaui- 
na and Popina, a kitchen, a cook's shop. In English 
Peep seems to have been substituted for Keek, and 
Pod for Cod ; otherwise the pronunciation of it is uni- 
form, except that Ph or Oreek ^ has the sound of F, 
as in Physic, Phenix. It is however mute in Receipt 
and Accompt ; but, according to modern orthography, 
in those cases it is usually omitted. 

Pacb, s. a step, gait, a measure sometimes of two feet 
and a half or of three feet ; but the greater or geome- 
trical is five feet ; L. passus ; It pasto ; F. pas. 

Pacha, Pasha, «. a Turkish title of honour. See Ba- 

Pack, s. a bundle, a bale, a band, a set ; P. pagcka, 
hagcha ; Isl. piokur ; Swed. pack ; D. pakke ; B. 
pack ; Arm. pah ; F. pacquei ; It. pacchetto. 

Pack, v. a. 1. from the noun ; to bind up for carriage, to 
unite in bad designs, to sort cards or place them for 
unfair purposes. . 

2. To dismiss in a h«rry, to send away bodily, to bun- 
dle off; Swed. paeka ; D. pakke; T. packen. 

Pagkwaz, #. a tendon of the neck. See Wax. 

Pad, *. 1. a path, a footway; wilrf; B. pad; T. pfad; 
S.paath, rrom; StaxB.pad; wtlvf; It. pes ; W. 
pea ; Arm. pau ; It. pede ; F. pied. 

2. An easy pace, an ambling horse. 

3. A pack saddle ; D. pude; F. bat. See Bat. 

Pad, v. 1. from the noun ; to pace, to go on fbot, to tra« 

vel gently. 

P A I 

2. To smooth by treading with the foot. 

3. To rob on foot 

Padab, s. the refuse of oats ; L. B. paleatura. 

Paddle, s. a kind of short broad oar ; L. patulus, batH~ 

Paddog, f. 1. a large frog ; IsL podda ; Swed. padda ; 
D. padde ; S. pcula ; B. padde ; It. bolta ; whence F. 
crapaud, a toad. 

2. An inclosed pasture ground ; F. pdtis, from h^pastus; 
but sometimes written parrok for Park. 

Padlock, s. a lock with a staple and hasp ; a lock for a 
pad gate. 

Pagan, s. a countrjrman, a gentile, a heathen : li.paga" 
nus, from pagus, a village. Heathen and Oentile sig- 
nified a native inhabitant, and denoted, with the early 
Christians, one who adhered to ancient religious ob- 
servances of the country. 

Page, s. 1. one side of the leaf of a book; L. pagina ; 
F. page. 

2. An attendant on a great person ; Sp. and F. page ; 

It. paggio ; L. B.puseus, either from «•«?(, or O. poik; 

Swed. poike, poig, a boy ; P. puegh, puek, a messenger. 

See Boy. 
Pageant, s, a show, a spectacle; vffy/ui; L. pegma. 

ITqyii or f;c«y««iiyMi, was the Jewish grand ceremony at 

the feast of the tabernacle; and signified literally 

scenic ornaments and devices. 

Pagoda, Pagod, s. an Indian temple, a coin which for- 
merly had that representation ; P. boat khoda ; Hind. 
boot kuda, the abode of Ood. 

Paiglbb, s. cowslips, palsy wort ; L. paralisis. 
Pail, s. a wooden vessel open at top; Sp. payla; It. 
paeol; Arm. pd; L. patella. 

Pail Mail, a, violent, furious, in confusion. See Pell 

Pain, #. a sensation of uneasiness, toil, trouble ;. iruni ; 

L. pcsna ; F. peine ; S. pin ; Arm. poan ; W. poen ; I. 

PAiNAjf, s, an infidel ; F. payen. See Pagan. 



Paint^ v. a, to colour^ represent^ adorn ; Sp. pirUar ; F. 

peindre, from L. pingo. 
Pair, s. two things of a sort, a couple ; F. pair; from 

L. par. 
Palace, s. a royal or splendid house ; F. palais, firom L. 

palatium, the residence of the Caesars on the mount 


Palanquin, s. a kind of covered litter carried by a class 
of people in India like chairmen ; Hind, palkee, appa- 
rently from Sans, paluk, a couch ; but perhaps con- 
founded with Sp. and Port, palanca ; L. and Greek, 
pkalanga, a pole for carrying. 

Palatb, s, the roof of the mouth ; L. palatum; F. pa- 

Palavbb, s, a word, a speech, idle talk ; Sp. palahra, 
supposed to be n»^JU>^ ; but Sp. labia, labra, elo- 
quence ; Arm. laver ; W. Uqfar ; I. labhair, speech, 
are apparently from L. labrum, a lip. 

Pale, a. wan, colourless, faint, dim ; L. pallidus ; F. 

Pale, s, a stake, a fence, inclosure, district, territory ; 
L. palus ; F. pal ; It. palio ; T. pfaL 

Palette, s, a painter's board ; F. palette ; It. paletta, 
dim. of L. pala. 

Palfrey, Palfby, #. a small riding horse ; F. palefroy ; 
Sp. palafren ; L. B. paUffredus, palfredus : It para* 
veredo; L. veredus; ^^r, P^'f ^^'^t signifying a 
horse, from ^f^«r, to carry. Thus also O. jara, to go, 
produced ^r, German pferd, a riding horse. 

Pall, s. a cloak or mantle of state, a covering for the 

dead; Jj. pallium; Kind, pal; Bp.paUo; ¥. poele. 
Pall, v, 1. ftom the noun; to cloak, to invest. 

2. To dispirit, to daunt, to make vapid or pale ; L. pal* 
ho; It, palUdo, impalUdo. 

Pallet, s,1.r small mean bed; F. pailette ; L. palea* 

^ In heraldry, a palet, a small pale or stake. 

3. A painter's board. See Palbttb. 

Pall Mall, s, a kind of game, bat and ball ; It, pala* 
maglio ; F. palle maiUe, from tr«^AA« ; L. pita, andTma^ 

Palliabdxbb, s. whoredom, fornication ; from L. peU 

Palliate, v. a, to cover, to excuse, extenuate, cure im- 
perfectly ; L. B. and It. paUiare ; Sp. paliar ; F. pal^ 
tier, from L. pallium. 

Palm, s. 1. the inner part of the hand, a measure of 
duree inches ; L. and It. palma ; F. palme ; mtxdftn. 

2. A tree having leaves expanding, like the open hand, 
which were exhibited as the emblem of victory ; L. 

Paliibb, «. I. a pilgrim ; perhaps for Pilgrimer ; but 
supposed to denote one who returned triumphant 
from a journey to the Holy-land, bearing a branch of 
palm-tree, which sanctioned mendicity. 

2. A hairy caterpillar; from its roving like a palmer. 

Palsy, s, a privation of motion ; L. paralysis. 

Palter, v. to err, deceive, trifle, dod^^e, shuffle, pla^ 
tricks ; Sj^.^altar, baldar, from L. jaUo : L. B. patt- 
tare, to deviate, wander, err. 

Paltby, a, I, from the verb; shuffling, tricky, deq>i- 

2. Ragged, shabby, mean ; T.paltrig; F. pietre, appa- 
rently from S. paU ; D. pialt ; Swed. ptUt, paUor, a 
shrea, a tatter. 

Pamper, v. a. to feed luxuriously, to glut ; It pambere, 
for panbere, to eat and drink, is from L. panis and 6t- 
bere; but It. pampeare, pampenare, spampanare, to 
flourish, shoot out luxuriously, revel, vaunt, are from 
L. pampinus ; F, pampre, an overgrown flhoot of a 

Pamphlet, s. a printed sheet of paper stitched with 
thread, a small book; written paunflet by Caxton, 
from L. paginaJiUUa, 

Pan, s. a kitchen vessel, the small bone on the knee, the 
part of a gun-lock which contains the priming; Swed. 
panna; B. panne; T. pfanne; S. panne, panna; 

^ttrtifn ; L. patina, ^ 

Panacea, s, a universal medicine, a kind of violet called 
heart's ease; nufdmrn; Jj, panacea; F, panacie. See 

Pangy, s. a kind of violet called heart's ease ; L. pa* 
nax; F.pensie. 

Pandeb, V, a, to discover, find out, provide, pimp ; L. 
and It. pandere, 

Pandoub, s. an Austrian irregular soldier ; Turk, pan* 
daur ; Hind, pindara. 

Pane, s. a square of glass, wood or paper; L. and 
It. pagina ; F. paneau. 

Panel, s. from Pane; a square of wood or paper, a jury 
roll delivered in. 

Pang, v. a, to torment, put to great pain ; S. pinian. 
See Pain. 

Pano, s, fr«m tihe verb ; ^ttreme paiti^ a sudden throe ; 
S. pang, venom. 

Panic, s, a violeiit friglit without cause; F. panique; 

Pannadb, v. a, to curvet, to stmt, to affect a proud 
gait ; F. paonader, panader. See Pa van. 

Pannel, s. a kind of rustic saddle ; It panello, panetto; 

F. paneau ; B. paneel; W. panal, from L. pannus, 
Pannigk, Pannickle, s. a species of millet ; Coptic, 

pe n oik ; L. B. panicum ; F. panic, j^nU ; It. panico, 

supposed to be cognate with X>. pants, 

Pannieb, s, a kind of wicker basket ; L. panarimm ; 
F.panier; lU paniere. 

Pansy, s. a kind of violet called heart's ease ; L. pa* 

nax; F.pensie, 
Pant, v. n. to beat at the heart, to bresthe quick, to 

long; L. B. pantheh; F, pamieler, oorrespondiiig witii 

L. anhelo. See Pitapat. 
Pantalon, s. a buffoon, the tutelar saint of harlequins, 

and a kind of breedies worn by rope->dancer8 ; It 

pantalone ; Sp. and F. pantakm. 
Pantile, s. a large tile ; from pan and tile. See Fms* 

Pantlbb, s, the officer of a great fiunily who keeps the 

bread. See Pantby. 

Pantoflb, s. a slipper ; P. paoniabul, paiabul, from pa, 
paon ; Sans, panw, the foot ; F. panUmfie ; Swed. and 
D. toffel ; S. tuejle, a sock. 

' Pantby, s. a closet used for provinona; L. B. panata" 
rium ; It panatcria ; F. paneterie, from L. pamU. 
Pap, s. 1. a nipple, a teat, a dug ; L. pajm, papUla ; It 
poppa ; B. pappe; P and T were liable to fr^uent 
intermutationa. See Tbat. 

2. Food of bread boiled in water iot in&nta, the pulp 
of fruit; L,papo, ^amwtUfmt; S.papa; It. poppa ; 
F. papin; Arm. papa, 

Papa^ s, a common name for fetther with very young 



children; wdiewn,; P. 6iab»; A. btuAai^ Sans, hapi 

L. B. papa. See Abba. 
Papaw^ #. an Indian tree and its fruit ;. Hilid« ptipiMf a y 

F. papa^er. 
Papbr, #. a substance made o£ ragB fixr writing upon ; 

I/, papyrus, a rush known to ue Egyptians also> as 

Pafilio, «> a butterfly ; L.iMijpi2»oy F. ptwilkm. It is 

the same word wita pavtlion y as G» and It. JbrfaUa, 

fatfaUa, slgtufy a curtain and a butterfly. 

Papposb, Pappous^ a. downy> soft; L. B* ptkpposus, 
from flTiiTii^H ; L. pappus, 

Paradb^ «. order^ ornament^ pomp, show, military ar- 
ray ; P. parade ; It. poarada, from L. paro. 

Paiudisb, ^. the garden of Eden ; Heb. and F.pardes, 
fardes, a garden ; irm^miurH ; L. paradlsus ; F. por/x- 
(f»« jT Eden, Aden, is an abode. 

Paragon^ s. a models a pattern ; xm^^yin ; F. parang/»n ; 
It paragone,-^/^ ■ 8 $./ ' /j/. 

Paramoukt, a. superior in rank, chief; F. paramotiiy 
from amonter, to ascend. 

Paramour, ^ . a lover, a wooer; F. par amour, per 

Parapet, s. in fortification, a mound breast high ; F. 

parapet ; It parapelio, from petto ; L, pectus. 

Parapluy, s- an umbrella to defend from rain ; F.para^ 

pluie, from pluie ; L. pluvia. 
Parasol, s. an umbrella; It parasole ; F. parasol, 

from L. w/. See to PXrry. 
Parboii^, v. a. to half boil, to part boil; F. parbauUkr, 
Parbrbak, s. a vomit, a retching ; T. verbreche^ See 

Parcel, s. a small bundle, a part, a lot, a set ; L. B. 

pariicella; F. parcelle. 

Parcener, s» in common law, a joint-possession ; F. 
parsonier, parsunier, from L. pars and tint re. 

Parch, v, to scorch, dry, grow dry ; Lu perarescoj pe*. 

rustus, scorched. 
Parchment, s. sheepskin dressed for writing ; Perga- 

mena ckarta, being first used at Pergmnus. 

Pardon, v. a. to forgive, pass by, remit ; F. pardonner ; 

Parb^ ti. a. ta trim, dress, cut off^ the surface ; F. parer ; 

Parget, s. a kind of plaster, stucco; F^ pargette, per* 

haps from L. gypsata. 

Parish, #• a particular district oi land; F.paroisse; 
L. B. parocMa ; wm^tinU, 

FhXSLt #• an inclosed ground for deer, asheep-fisld, a 
kind of net for game ; G. park, from berga, to inclose, 
preserve; Swed. park; S. peamtk; F. pare ; Sph 
parque; L. B. parens; Arm. pare; W. pare; I. 
pairc, perhaps from L. parco* 

Park lbavks, #. an herb called St JcHmLS wort ; L. hi^ 
pericon, and leaves, 

Parlb, Pablbt, #. an oral treaty; F.parii; from the 

Parlbt, v. n. to treat by words, to qpieak; F. mrler; 

It. parlare, supposed by some to^Jabulari, or 

Parliament, #. an assembly of the three estates, king^ 
lords and commons, a meeting to discuss public ai- 
fairs ; I/. B. parHamenHtm ; F. parlemeni. 

Parlour; s. a room on the first flo^wker^ malters of 

business^ were discussed ;^ F. pariah; U. parialimo. 
See Parley. 

Parlocs, a. adventurous, keen,. subtle ; wt^u^tm^. See 

Pabolb, s. a verbal promise; F. ptarok; It parola-- 
See Pablbi^ 

Paroquet, *. a small kind of pafTot; F. paroquet; 
wm^^mum. See Parrot. 

Parrot, m. a talking bird-; B: Greek wa^n»m, from 
f^^o. The Smis. name hmra, kwrewa, signifies green. 

Parry, v, a^ to ward off a thrust, to guard ; P. parer; 
It parare ; Sp. parar. 

Parse, v. a. to resolve a sentence by the rules of gram- 
mar; from* L* parr. 

Parslby, #. a well known herb ; B. petersdy ; Sp. pe- 
rexU; Fipersil; h. petroselinon. 

Parsnip, «. a plant and its root; L. pasimaca napus. 

Parson, a a clergyman, one who has th^ charge of a 
parish ; L. parochianus ;. but F.paraw^ signifies pure, 
noly, upright 

Part, s. a portion, share, qmoe ; Heb. paras; L. pars; 
F.part; It. parte. 

Part, v. a. from the noun ; to separate, divide; share. 
Pabtacu, s. a divisi(Hi, a share, the act oTparting or di- 
viding; F, partage. 

Partakb, v. to participate, to have a share with ; origi- 
nally perhaps from, partage; but confounded with 
our G. word take, of which it follows the constmotion. 

Partbbbe, m. even ground, a plot^ in a garden ; P. par.> 
terre; h,par terra. 

Pabtisam, s. 1. an adherent to a party^ the head of a 
party; F. partisan; It. parHsano. 

2. A quarterstaff; G. 6ariifA«»e, a halbert; T. partisan; 
F. pertuisan ; It. partiggiana, 

Pabtlbt, *. 1. a ruff to the neck, a loose doublet; It. 
parata, dress, seems to have been prefixed to lattucca, 
lattugke, a dress worn by women who gave suck. 
See TucKBB. 

2. A hen with a ruff of feathers on the neck. 

Partbidgb, #. a bird of game; 9ri(%{; L. perdix ; F. 

Party, s. from Part; a select assembly, one of two liti- 
gants, a detachment'of sddiers; F. partie. 

Pas, s. a step, precedence; P. pa ; F. pas; L. passus; 
It passOf accord in both senses. 

Paschal, a. relating to the passover ; Heb. pasaoh ; L. 
paschalis ; F. pascal, 

Pash, s. the head, pate or skull ; P. pasch ; Scot posh, 
Pash, v. a, to kiss, lay on, strike ; wmm ; L. pango, pago; 
Swed. pussa, to buss. 

Pasque flower, s. a kind of anemone worn at Easter ; 
It passajlora. 

Pasquil, Pasquin, s. a mutilated statue^ near the place 
Navonna at Rome, which was fiimous for 
vered with lampoons called pasquinades. 

Pass, v. to ^, proceed, exceed, excel; snrmss^ term*- 
nate, vanish; Heb. pofaAy F. passer; It. possate^; 
Spb pasar. 

Pass, s, from the verb ; a narrow entrance, a passage^ a 
thirust through, a lieense to proceed^ state of proce^ 
dure, condition. 

Passablb, a., that may be passed over, tolerable; F^ 
passable ; It passable. 


PassadEj Passado^ s. in fencing, a pass, a thrust ; Sp. 

pasado; It passata. 
Pa88BNOSB« s. a passer, a traveller; F, passager ; It. 

Passdicb, s. a game with dice ; It. passa, as used in 

fastime, signifies play, amusement ; but Sans, and 
[ind. pase is dice. 
Passion, s. suffering of the mind, anger, ardour, zeal, 

lust, love ; F. passion ; .It. passiane ; L. passio. 
Passion flower, s. a species of clematis which has a 
flower with a cross, the mark of Christ's passion; Sp. 

Passover, s. a sacrifice in commemoration of the time 
when God, smiting the Egyptians, passed over the 
habitations of the Hebrews; Heb. pasah, pascak; 
wa^x^ ; L. pascha ; It. pasqua ; F. pasque, p&que* 

Passport, s. a permission to pass a boundary ; F. passe^ 
port ; It. passa porto, from pass and L. portus. 

Paste, s. dough, cement; F. po^/e, pdte ; It. pasta; 
L. B. pastum; L. pistum, from pinso, to knead; 
whence pistor, a baker, pastillus, a loaf. 

Pastel, s, a colouring substance, woad; Sp. pastel; 
F. pastel ; O. F. guasdel; L. glastum, frequently con- 
founded with pastil. 

Pastern, s. the joint of a horse's foot ; F. pasturon ; 
It. pastoia, passatoia, supposed to be from L. passus. 

Pastil, s, small pastry, perfumes or colours made up 
into small rolls of paste ; F. pastille ; It. pastiglia ; 
L. pastillus. 

Pastime, s, sport, diversion ; It. passa tempo. 

Pastoral, a. rural, rustic, belonging to shepherds; 

relating to the cure of souls firom the spirituid pastor ; 

F. pat tor ale ; L. pastorales. 
Pastt, s. a pie raised in paste ; It. pasticcio ; F. pasti, 

Pat, a. fit, convenient, exact ; B. pas is used like our 

word, which seems, however, to be from It. atto ; L. 

Pat, s. a tap, a quick light blow ; F. pattie is from 

patte, a paw. 
Patache, s. a Phcenician vessel, a pinnace ; wUrmMf ; 

F. patache ; Sp. patache. 
Patacoon, s. a Spanish coin, a piece of eight ; Sp. pa- 

tacon ; It. patacone ; said to have borne formerly the 

figure of a patache. 

PAgrcH, s, I. a piece sewed on, a spot ; It pezza j Sp. 

pieza, pedoTso, See Piece. 
2. A paltry fellow, a ninny ; It. pazzo. 
Pate, s. the head, the skull ; L. patina, patella ; Sp. 

and It. patena, a skull. 
Paten, s. a plate used at the altar ; L. patina. 
Path, s. a footway ; wttrt ; S. path ; W. paith. See 


Patience, s, 1. calmness under suffering, endurance, 
power of suffering; L. patientia; F. patience; It. 

2. An herb called burdock ; F. la patience ; It. lapa^ 
zio; L. lappacea. 

Patriarch, s, the head of a family, a bishop; m- 
r^tU^Xl'^ ; L. patriarcha. 

Patriot, s. one who professes a regard for his country ; 
wmr^mrmi ¥, patriate. 

Patrol, *. a guard going the rounds ; Sp. patrula ; 
F. patrouiUe. See Pad and Roll. 

P E D 

Patten, s. the foot, the base of a column, a clog shod 

with iron for women ; F. pattin ; It pattino ; B. pa^- 

tyn. See Pad. 
Patter, t;. n. frequentative of to Pat ; to drum with the 

fingers, to make a noise like hail. 
Pattern, m, a model ; F. and Sp. patron, from L. patro. 
Pavan, s, a grave, stately dance ; It. pavana ; F. pa^ 

vane, from L. pavo. See Pannade. 
Pavilion, s. a magnificent tent; F. pavilion; h.papiUo. 
Paunch, s, the belly, the stomach of a beast ; Sp, pan^; 

F. panse ; It pancio ; L. pantex. 

Paw, s. the foot of a beast ; Pers. and Hind, pa ; Arm. 

and W. paw ; Sp. paia ; F. patte. See Pad. 
Pawn, j. 1. a footman, a piece at chess; P. paan, pa 

adagan ; F. pion, pieton ; It pedone ; Sp. peon, from 

L. pes, 

2. A pledge, a security ; L. pignus ; It pegno ; F. pan ; 

"B.pand; Swed. jTany ¥• j^and. 
Pay, V, a. 1. to discharge a debt, reward, atone ; L. jfMi- 

care ; It pagare ; F. patter, to satisfy. 

2. To beat, to strike ; «-«/«r ; W. pwyo; L. pangq, pago. 

3. To daub the seams of a vessel with pitch ; from F. 
poix ; L. pix. 

Pea, s. a well known pulse; F. pois ; Arm. jpi#; 
wiT%f ; L. pisum. 

Peace, s, quiet, rest, respite from war ; F. paix ; It. 
pace ; L. pax. 

Peach, s, a tree and its fruit ; F. pesche ; It persico ; 
L. malum Persicum. 

Peacock, s, a fowl remarkable for the beauty of its fea- 
thers ; L. pavo. 

Peak, s, a pointed top, the foretop of a head-dress ; S. 

peak. See Beak. 
Peak, v. n. to look meagre, to pine, to sneak ; L. B* 

and F. pica, loss of appetite, languor, supposed to be 

from ^9w, 

Peal, s. a succession of loud sounds; D. biofl, a ring- 
ing ; B. belui, gelui, the noise of bells, from luijen, to 
ring ; G. A/to, sound. 

Pearl, s, a. gem fbund in a shell fish, a scale on the eye ; 
A. para loUoo, sea jewel ; F. perle ; Sp. and It. perla; 
T. berlein, supposed by some to be from 6. ber, a 
berry, synonymous with L. hacca. See Maroarite. 

Pearmain, s, the name of an apple grafted on a pear. 
Peasant, s, a rustic, a husbandman ; F. paisan ; It 
paesano, from paese ; L. pagus, a country, a village. 

Peat, s, a kind of turf used for fuel; T. pfHtze, a bog; 
Isl pytt. 

Pebble, s, a hard small stone ; S. papol, apparently from 

G. and Swed. hoU ; Scot, boule, a round stone. 

Peccadillo, s, a petty fault ; Sp. peccadillo, from L. 

Peck, s. the fourth part of a bushel ; Arm. pech ; F- 
picotin, a fourth, from Arm. pezwar, pechwar, four. 

Peck, v. a. to ^ick up food as a bird, to strike with the 
beak ; Sp. picar ; F. hecquer ; B. hicken. See Beak. 
Ped, s. a small pack-saddle. See Pad. 

Pedant, *. one vainly ostentatious of learning ; F. pe- 
dant, from 9rtui%iftt, 

Peddle, v, n, to be busy about trifles, to pettle ; from 

Pederero, Pedereto, Paterero, s. a swivel gun; 
Sp. pedrero, a gun to shoot stones; from piedra; 
L. pelra. See nTRARY. 



Pedestal^ s. the basis of a statue ; F. piedesial ; It. ye^ 

destalo, from «-a%^ and rv^f. 
Pedigree^ *. genealogy^ lineage^ race ; F. pied degr^, 

from pied ; L. pes, a stem^ a stalky a root, a founda- 

tion, and degree. 
Pedlar^ s, one who carries a pack, a dealer in small 

wares ; Scot pedder, from L. pes ; F. pied oiler, to go 

on foot. 
Peek, s. the upper part of a sail extended by a gaff or 

yard. See ^eak. 
Peel, s, 1. the rind o£ fruit, a membrane ; F. pelure ; 

Arm. pel; W. pill, from L. pellis, 
2. A baker's board with a long handle to put bread into 

the oven ; F. pelle ; L. pala. 

Peel, v, a. 1. from the noun ; to take off the rind, to 

flay; F.peler. 
2. To rob, to plunder. See to Pill. 
Peeling, s. a kind of soft silk ; Chinese, peelam, satin ; 

R pelang. 

Peep, v. n. to view slily, to make the first appearance ; 

apparently the same with to keek, by changing ^ or c 

into p ; as pod for cod. 
Peeper, s. 1. a young pigeon, a chicken ; L. ptpto. 
2. From the verb ; an observer, a keeker. 
Peer, s. an equal, a nobleman as equal in the highest 

degree ; F. pair ; L. par. 

Peer, v. n. to come into sight, to peep, to appear ; L. 

pareo ; It. parere ; P. paroitre. 
Peerless, a. having no equal, matchless. 

Peevish, a, petulant, waspish; It. pecchioso, pe/toso, 
from pecckia ; L. apicula, a bee. See Wasp. 

Peg, s. a wooden pin, a pointed stick ; Isl. piackur ; 
Swed. ptkk, pik, pigg ; D. pege ; a mark m liquid 
measure. See Pin. 

Peggy, s. the dim. of Margaret, but properly a little 
girl ; O. poige ; Isl. pika ; Swed. and S. mga ; D. 
pige, the feminine of 6. poik, a boy ; from 6. ug ; I. 
0^, young. See Polly and Molly. 

Pelf, s. riches, used in contempt ; L. B. pelfra ; Norman 
F. peuffe; Isl. pula; Swed. pala, signify to toil, to 
slave, and Q.far ; ^»feo, weadth. 

Pelisse, *. a fur robe ; F. pelisse, from L. pellis, fur. 

Pell, s. a skin, hide, roll of parchment, a record ; L. 

VhIaIa mell, ad. jumbled together, in confusion; F. 

pesle mesle, from L. peUo and miscello. 

Pellet, s. a little ball, a bullet ; F. pelote; dim. of L. 

Pells, s. pi. an office in the exchequer ; from Pell, 

a record. 

Pelt, s. the skin, a hide; T. peltze; L. pellis. See 

Pelt, v. a. to hit with some missile, to strike ; F. pelo^ 
ier. See Pellet. 

Pen, s.l.h fold for cattle, a coop ; G. pind. See Bin. 

2. An instrument to write with, a quill ; L. penna. 

Pen, v. a. 1. from the noun; to coop up, inclose; G. 
pynda ; S. pyndan. 

2. To use a pen, to write, to compose. 

Pencil, s. a small hair brush, an instrument for writ- 
ing without ink; L. penicillus ; T.pinsel; F. pin- 
ceau ; It. penello. 

Pendant, s. 1. a jewel hanging in the ear, a pendulum ; 
F. pendant. 

2. A small flag in ships. See Pennant. 

Penguin, *. a bird like a goose; from L. penna: It. 
pennachio; F.penache; Sp. penacho, penachino, sig- 
nify the crest of a bird, or that tuft of feathers which 
is remarkable in the Magellanic goose. Pen gmyn, 
white head, is the Welsh name &r the bald eagle, 
which is quite a different bird. 

Pennant, s. a small flag at the mast-head. See Pennon. 

Pennon, s. a long narrow flag distinguishing command; 
Y. pennon, fanon,f anion; It penfume ; Sp. pendon ; W. 
penwn : Sclav, pan ; G. fan, dominion^ authority, 
produced /aium ; M. G. and Swed. fana, fania; S. 
jana; T.fannon ; B. van, an ensign. The standard of 
William the Conqueror, consecrated by the Pope, 
was called pkanon. See Fane, Gonfanon and 

Penny, s. the twelfth part of a shilling, seems to have 
signified original W coin, stamped money; Q.peninga ; 
D.pcenge; £. ofening ; S. penig, apparently from G. 
pcena, pcenga ; L. pango, to bang, to coin. The Goths 
nad a great and a small penny ; five of the former, 
and twelve of the latter, to a shilling ; but some sup- 
pose it to be from^n^. See Fee. 

Penny royal, s. fleawort, poley royal. See Poley and 

Pensile, a. hanging, suspended ; L. pensilis. 

Pensive, a. thoughtful, meditative, melancholy; F. 
pensif; It. penstvo, from L. penso. 

Pent, pari. pass, of the verb to pen ; shut up, inclosed. 

Penthouse, Pentige, s. a sloping shed ; It. pendice ; 
F. appentis, from L. pendo. 

Pentile, s. a sloping roof; It pendtdlla; but fre- 
quently used instead of pan^tVe. 

Pepper, s. a pungent aromatic, spice; Sans, and P. 

pilpil ; ^Tn^t ; L. piper ; F. poivre ; It. pevere. 
Pepper, v. a. to sprinkle with pepper, to make hot, to 

hit with small snot. 

Peradventure, ad. perhaps, by chance ; from L. per, 

and adventure. 
Perch, s. 1. a rod, a bird's roost, a measure of Ave yards 

and a half; L. and It. pertica ; F. perche. 

2. A fresh water fish; %i^Kn, from its dark coloured 
flakes ; L. B. perca ; F. perche. 

Perform, v. to execute, achieve, act a part in a play ; 
It. performare, from L. per andformo. 

Perfume, s. a sweet scent, a strong odour ; F. par- 
fume; It. prqfumo, from L. fumus. See Frankin- 

Perhaps, ad. perchance, peradventure; from L. per 

and hap, as mayhap, maybe. 

Peril, s. danger, hazard, jeopardy; F. peril; It. pe-> 
riglio ; L. periculum. 

Periwig, s. a wig. See Peruke. 

Periwinkle, Perwinkle, s. herb; F. pervenche; 
L. B. pervinca ; L. vinca, from its winding nature. 

2. A winkle, a wilk, a small shell fish. See Winkle. 

Perk, v. to assume airs of consequence, to affect dis- 
play of dress, to prank. See to jPrick. 

Perk, a. from the verb ; conceited, pompous, proud. 

Perry, s. a liquor made from pears; F. poire. 

Pert, a. petulant, saucy, lively, brisk ; suppd^ed to be 
F. pret ; L. parate, ready. W. pert, spruce, neat, 
smart, is properly berth ; G. hert, fair^ shining, bright. 

Peruke, *. a wig, a periwig ; F. perruke ; It* perucca ; 

P I A 


Sp. peluca : F. pelu ; It. vela; Sp. peh, hair, from L. 
pilus. If. B, rica, a headdress, appears to be from S» 
rug, rye ; M. O. rtA, hairy, and produced It. ricciaia, 
false hair. The two etymons may have been con- 
Pbbusb, v. a. to look through, to read, to study ; L. 

Pbsade, #. an appearance of stepping, the action of a 

^ horse in the manege when he raises tiis fore feet with- 
out moving those behind ; F. passade ; It passata, 
from L. pasius, a step. 

Pbbsart, s, a tentlike form of medicine; ^nmt^uf; F. 

Past, #. the plague, pestilence ; F. peste ; L. peslis. 

PE8TBR, V. a. from Pbst ; to plague, disturb, perplex. 

Pbbtle, s, a tool to beat with in a mortar ; It. pUtelio ; 
pisteau ; L. pisttUupi. 

Pet, #• n^hat is taken to heart, a slight fit of passion, a 
fiivourite ; It peito ; L. pectus. 

Fbtab, Pbtabd, s. apiece of ordnance used, to force 
open a barrier, a, cracker; F.' petard: It petardo, 
from ¥. peter; li.pedo. 

Pbtit, a. small, inconsiderable ; F. See Pbttt. 

Pbtbabt, 9. an engine to throw stones ; from L. petra. 
See Pbdebebo. 

Pbtbel, s. 1. a bird called Pewetrel from its cry; L. 

2. A kind of breastplate ; It pdtorale ; L. pectaraUs. 

Pbtbol, Pbtrolium, #. a liquid bitumen; L. peiras 

Pbtbonel, s, a small gun, a carabine ; F. petrind, from 

L. and It. peir a, a stone, a flint, distinguished firom a 


Pbtticoat, s. a garment worn by women, small cloth- 
ing ; from petty and coat. 

Pbttifogobb, #. one who litigates in trifles; £rom petty 
and T. fuiger, fuger ; S. jogere, an arranger, ntter, 
suitor. See to Fit. 

Pbttitobs, s, pL the feet of a sucking pig ; D. paite is a 

Pbtto, s, the breast, something reserved in the breast, 
privacy ; It petto ; L. pectus. 

Pbttt, a, small, trifling, unimportant; It. piccietto, 
piccioletto, poc/ieio ; Sp. pequeto, pequeno ; F. petU, 
from L. paucus. 

Pbw, s. an inclosed s^at in a church ; B. puy ; It, pqg- 
gto ,* L. podium. 

Pbwet, #. a plover, a la^wine ; T. piewit ; B. kiemtt ; 

Swed. kofvipe, called in the northern counties pee 

weep ; Scot whape ; D. wibe, from its cry. See 

Pbwtbr, s. an artificial metal ; F. epeutre; It and Sp. 

peltre ; B. piauter, speauter. See Spbltbr. 
Phial, s. a small glass bottle ; Heb. pial; P. pyala; 

Chald. phial J ^iWah; L. phiala; F. phiole. 

Philibbo, s. a short petticoat worn by the highlanders; 
I. and Erse^iaA beg. 

Philomel, s. a nightingal, a lover of song; ^Pofuixm. 

Philomot, a. brownish. See Filbmot. 

Phiz, s, physiognomy, countenance, face. 

PuLBMB, #. a farrier's instrument to bleed cattle ; some 
suppose from phlebotomy ; but see Flbam. 

PiANNBT, s. a magpie, the lesser woodpecker ; dim* of 


Piano, a. a mode in music> smooth^ evtnj tpf^ ; It gifmoi 
L. planus. 

Piaster, s. a silver coin weighing an ounce ; F. piastre; 
It. piastra ; a ^te of metal. 

Piazza, s. a portico, a covered walk ; Ilk piaxxa. See 


Pica, s. 1. the green skknesa; L. Bi and.F. pica. See 
to Peak. 

% A pie, a magpie ; L. pica* 
3. A small printing type. 

PiCABOQN, s. a frteebooter, a robber; Sp. pioaron; F. 
picareur. See to Piokbbb. 

PicoAOB, s. compensation for picking holes in theground, 
when erecting booths at a country fHir ; L. 0. picca- 
gium. See Piob:. 

Pick, s, a sharp pointed iron tool ; It pico ; P. pique, 
pioche. See Pike. 

Pick, v. 1. to take, pluck, gathei^ jMlibr ; M. O.Jigg, a 
^'^gf figg^y A finger, from O.^a, to take ; S. jacan, 
fmccean^ pteccean, to take, fetdi, defraud. 

2. To prick, point out, indicate or select ; Sp. picar ; F. 
piguer ; Swed. pecka ; S. pycan ; T. pikken ; D; pege ; 
w. pi^t supposed to be infy«; L. pugOy punge ; wnence 
B. putk, choice. 

3. To apply the beak, as birds. See to Pbgk. 

Pickback, a. on the top or peak of the back. 

PiCKEER, t;. a. to skirmish, vex, harass, pillage, rob ; P. 
pikdr ; Sp. picar ; F. picorer. See Bicker. 

Picm<E, s. I. salt liquor, brine ; T. peckelj B. pekel, sup- 
posed to be cognate with piquant, pungent, sharp ; 
out Swed. spicke ; B. spickel, appear to be from spice. 

2. A small place, a patch of ground, situation, position ; 
L. B. pictellum, called also a pigtel. See Pibcb^ 

3. A tricky fellow ; Low S. picket ; Scot paik^ from S. 
pcecaUf to trick. 

PiCKLBHERRiKa, f . a buffoou ; Swed. pickelhdring ; T. 
pickelherring, from pickle, and G« garung, a buTOon. 

PiCKT, a. speckled, variegated ; L. pictus. 

Piddle, v. n. 1. to make water, a term with children; 
dim of puddle, as Scot, to make a dam. 

2. To triffle, to deal in small matters. See Petty. 

3. To pick at table, to eat daintily ; B. peuzzeln, from S. 


bitel, morsel. 

Pie, s.l. a, paste baked with something in it^ F. pdk- 
See Pasty. 

2. A magpie ; F. pie ; L. pica. 

3. A book of devotion, a rubrick, vulgarly, cock and pie.; 

S. pie ; F. pHe ; L. coccus et pins. 

Piebald, a. spotted like a magpie ; F. pU, See Bald. 

Piece, s. a part, patch, fragment, portion, performance, 
coin, a gun ; Heb. pas, pat, pissa ; It pecia, pexza ; 
F. piece ; Sp. pieza, pedazo ; Arm. fess ; W. feth : I. 
piosa ; L. B. pe/ta, pitacium, pictatium, pedacmm. 

Pied, a. parti-coloured, speckled, spotted ; P. pii, pie- 

PiELED, a. tonsured, bald; It pilado; Scot peild ; L. 

PiBPowDBB* s. a court held at country fairs for the pur* 
pose of deciding between petty dealers ; F. pi^ puL 
dreau ; L. pes pulveratus, a pedlar. 

PiBB, s. the column of an arch, a stone dam ; F. pierre; 
L. B. petraria, from L. petra. 

Ftrnwrn, V. <i. Yd iienetrate, enter by force, affisct the 
heart ; F. percer ; h. perico, percieog wil^if* 

Flo, 9. 1. aytiung sow or boar ; &.pic; B. big: T. jwg- 

gen : G. ug ; I. qg, young. 
2. A mass of metal, from the furnace. See Sow. 

Pig. V, a. 1. to bundle, go to bed ; Swed. pick is the dim, 
of pack ; but It. piegare, from L. phco, signifies to 
fold together, to bunme. 

2. To produce pigs, to farrow. 

PiOBON, a. 1. a dove, a fowl; It. pkcume; F. pigeon, 
from L. pipio, pronounced pitio, by the Osce. 

2. A dupe, a novice ; P. hejaune, beejaune, ycUow beakj 
a jroong bird. 

PioiHM, s. a pail with a handle ; perhaps from peak ; 

FtKM, s. 1. a sharp point, a lance; Heb. pi; P. puck; 

O.pike; Swed. pifk; D. pik; T. picke; S.pitc; B. 

pi€k; V, pique; It. pica; Arm. ptc ; W. pigg. The 

G. word signifies properly a pointed stick or pole, a 

2. A freshwater haak ; named from its pointed head. 

PiiiASTEB, s. a small square column ; F. pilastre; It. 
pilasiro. See Pillar. 

PiLOH, PiLCHEB, *. a child's robe ; S. pylcke ; T. pelis. 
See Pellicb. 

Pilchard, #. a fish like a herring; Sp. piel; It. peh, 
the skin, signify also the colour, and sarda is a pil- 
chard ; F. pelamide. See Saboa. 

PiLB, *. 1. a stake or piece of wood; F. piiotU; It pah; 
L. palus. . 

2. A heap, a mole, an edifice, a fort ; mKB% ; L. pHa ; 6. 
pil; Y.pUe. 

3. Hair, the nap of cloth ; It peh ; F. pot/ ; L. piUu. 

4. A wedge or coin used to mark the escutcheon of re- 
verse on a medal ; L. pila ; F. pUc. 

5. A dart, the head of an arrow ; L. pUum. 

Piles, s. pL small protuberances called haemorrhoids ; 

L. piluUe. 
PiLEWOBT, s. a plant used for the piles. See Wort. 
Pilfer, v. n. to steal trifling matters ; F. pUfier. See 

to Pill. 
PiLGARLiCK, *. a wanderer, a person without a home ; 

T. pilgarUke, from pilgar, a pilgrim. 

Pill, v. a. to take awav, to rob, to plunder ; F. pUler ; 

Sp. piiar, from L. pilo. 
Pill, s. a small ball of physic ; L. pUula ; It pilMa ; 

F. piUuU. 
Pillar, *. from Pile ; a column, a support; F. pilier; 

Bp. filar. 
Pillion, s. a woman's sofr saddle ; L. pulvinus. 
Pillory, #. a place of punishment for perjury ; P. pUier, 

pilori. See Pillar. 
Pillow, s. a bag of feathers to lay the head upon ; S. 

pyle ; Swed. pul; B. peuletv ; T. pole, pool, pfulbe ; L. 

pulviUus, See Bolster. 
Pilot, s. one who steers a ship, a leadsman ; D. and B. 

hots, pilooU; F. pihte; Sp. piloto; It. pihto. See 

PiMENTA, Pimento, #. allspice, Jamaica pepper ; Sp. pi^ 

menio ; F. piment, from L. piamentum, a remedy. 
PucPy «• a pander, a procurer, a bawd ; B. ooppen, to 

fornicate, from L. pupa ; T. buib, puip, a blackguard, 

a pimp. 

P t P 

PiKPiNG, a. little, petty, mean ; F. pimpatU ; B. pimp. 

see X IrHC. 

Pin, e. a pointed short wire ; F. epingle, from L. ptn- 

na, spinula> ^ 

Pin, s. a peg, a point, a pinnacle, a knbb ; S. pinn ; B. 

pin ; and with the Danes, like Swed. pag, it signifies 

a mark in liquid measures, denoting the divisions ; 

whence a peg too high, and a merry pin. 
Pincers, #. plur. from pinch ; nippers, an instrument 

to draw nails, points. See Pinch. 
Pinch, s. a nip, a squeeze, a difficulty ; F. pince, poince ; 

Bp. pinza ; Li. punctus. 

Pinch, t;. to squeeze, gripe, straiten, oppress ; Sp. pin^ 
tor ; F. pincer. 

Pine, s. a tree, a kind of fir; L. pinus, pixinus;; 
S. pin ; 8p. pino. 

PiNB, t>. n. to languish with desire, waste away, con- 
sume ; O. pina ; 8. pinion ; B. pynen ; T. peinen ; 

Pinfold, s. a place in which cattle are confined. See 
Pen and Fold. 

Pfnole, s. ditb. of Pen ; a small enclosure, sometimes 
confounded with pickle. 

Pinion, s. 1. a wing, first joint of the wing, a quill, a 
fearer, a shackle for wings or hands ; from L. petina. 

2. A small pin, the tooth of a wheel ; F. pignion ; L. 

Pink, s. 1. a flower, the colour of a pink ; F. pinces, 

from pince, a point, because d its pointed leaves. 

2. From the verb; an eyelet hole. 

d. A fish, a minnow, any thing small or young ; B. pink; 
Sp. pequeno ; It piccino, from L. paucus. 

4. A fishing vessel with a narrow stem ; D. pink ; B. 
pink ; Sp. and F. pingue ; It. pinca. See Pinnace. 

5. The summit, the point, the pinnacle. 

Pink, v. 1. to puncture, to pierce with small holes ; S. 
pyngan ; L. pungo. 

2. To wink, to look with the eyes half closed ; B. pinken, 
either for bewinken, or from pink, small. 

Pinnace, *. a man of war's boat; It pinaccia ; F. 
pinasse, from L. pinus. 

PiNNOCK, s. a small bird, a titmouse ; F. penache, the 
crested wren, from L. penna, a plume. 

Pint, s. a measure containing a pound of water ; L. B. 
pinia; F.pinte; Sp. and It ptii^a y T. andB. ptn^; 
8. pint; supposed to be from wiw ; but wine was an- 
ciently measured by the pound in Germany. 

Pintle, s. dim. of Pin; the rudder hook of a boat; T. 

Pioneer, s. a military man employed to sink mines or 
to dear roads; F. pionier; It sappionero. See to 

PiONY, s. a plant and flower fbrmerly esteemed in me- 
dicine; u-pmonia; It. peonia; F. pivoine. Minerva 
had that name from her medical power. 

Pip, #. 1. a disease amonjo^ fowls ; D. pip ; Swed. pipp ; 
T. pippe, p/ifs ; F. pepte ; Sp. and It pepita, supposed 
to be L. pUmia; but apparentlv confounded with pip, 
a scale or wart producM on we tongue by that ma- 

2. The seed of an applie, ^spa or cucumber, a spot on 
cards, a' dot or bum ; F. pepin ; Sp. pepita, from L. 
pepo. See PiffiN. 

PiPp «• h to chirp M cry like a bird, to pule, to whine ; 
L. pipio, from irAiwff. 

^•^iSsP ^ /^ -G^A^ry/ 

^if^^t*^ ^ 


2. To dot^ to mark with pips. 

PiPE^ s, 1. a tube, a musical instrument ; Heb. hih ; 
Syr. ahuh ; L. ambubaia ; Arm. and W. pib ; G.pipa ; 
T. pfejf; B. pype ; Sp. and It. pipa ; F. pipe, L. /w- 
bus, tuba, tibia, may be cognate with bma, biba, pi' 
pa ; for G. mpa and L. tibia alike signify a shank or 
bone of the leg. 

2. A cask of two hogsheads ; O. and Swed. pUpa, rvifi' 
pipa ; T. ^ppt ; F. pipe ; It. pipp^' 

3* A receptacle for papers in the exchequer, distinguish- 
ed from that of the Hanaper. 

Piping, a, 1 . the act of sounding a pipe^ bubbling with 

heat. Shakespear uses kissing hot. 
2. Crying like a young bird, whining, plaintive^ feeble, 

weak. See to Pip. 

Pipkin, s. a small earthen boiler ; pitkin, dim. oi pot. 

Pippin^ s, a seedling, the name of an apple ; F. pepin ; 
Sp. pepita ; D. pipling ; B. pippUng, irom L. pepo. 

Piquant, a. severe^ piercing, stimulating ; F. piquant* 
See Pique. 

Pique, s, a point, any thing sharp or stimulating, a 
grudge, ill will ; F. pique, fi*om L. pungo. See Pikb. 

Piquet, s. a well known game at cards ; F. piquet, from 
pique, a point, which is the chief object in tne play. 

Piracy, s. from Piratb ; the act of robbing on the high 

Pirate, s. a sea robber ; wu^tmi ; L. pircUa ; F. pirate. 

Pish, interj. an expression of contempt ; T. pfech ; ^u. 
See Fy and Pshaw. 


Pismire, s. an ant, an emmet ; P. mur ; G. maur ; Swed. 

m^ra ; D. mire ; B. mier, to which G. Jj^s, bustle, 

may have been prefixed. 
Piss, v. n, to urine> to make water; F. pisser; It. piS' 

ciare ; T. pissen ; Swed. pissa. See Pizzlb. 
Pistachio, .?. an aromatic nut ; P. pistu ; Fume Jistaq ; 

^tfTiiKta ; L. pistachio ; F. pistache. See Mastic. 
Piste, s. the track of a foot ; Sp. pista ; F. piste, from 

L. pes. 
Pistol, s, a small hand gun ; F. pistole ; It. and Sp. 

pistola, supposed to be L. Jistula ; but Pistoia was 

formerly celebrated for fire arms. 

Pistole, s, a coin of Pistoia, an ancient republic of 
Italy ; F. pistole ; T. pistoL 

Pistbben, s, a West India coin, the fourth part of a 

Pit, s. a well or ditch, a hole, a profundity ; F. puit ; It. 

poztjo : B. put ; T. pultz ; S. ana D. pit; L. puteus y fiyf^f. 
Pitapat, s. a palpitation, a flutter ; frequentative of Pat ; 

but formerly pintle pantle, pintledy pantledy, seem to 

have been a jmgle on pant. 

Pitch, j. 1 . a resin ; «-/r]», a-iWa ; L. pix ; G. bik ; 
Swed. beck; D. beeg; S. pic; T. peck; B. pik; 
Arm. pig ; W, p^g ; F. poix ; It. pece, 

2 A fixture, position, degree, height ; L. positio. See 

the verb. 
Pitch, v. 1. from the noun; to imbue with pitch. 

2. To hx, place, fix a choice ; F. poser, from L. ponere, 
corresponds with our word, which however may be 
formed from L. pango, pegi. 

3. To toss, to throw headk>ng. See to Put. 

Pitcher, *. 1. a large earthen vessel ; F. pichier ; Sp. 

pichel, puchero ; It piiiaro ; inrnMf. 
2. A large iron bar for pitching stakes. 
Pith, s, marrow, th? medoUa in plants, ttengdi ; S. 

pHk; B. piite, suppoaed to be fiom iwr^. 

^a^^^i^ -^ ' J0C^ 

^ >8t7 

^git^^^i^^^r.^ ^ j^i^i^ C^L 

PiTTANOB, s. a small portion ; F. pilance; It piUanza ; 
Sp. pitanca ; L, B. pitadum, which, according to Sal- 
masius, was the daily allowance of food to each soldier. 
See Piece. 

Pity, s. compassion, pious sympathy; F. pitie ; It 
pieta ; It, ptetas. 

Pivot, s. a pin upon which a wheel turns round ; F. 
pivU ; It. pie voUa ; L. pes volutus. 

PizzLE, s. the urinary member of a bull; S. pisel; T. 
Jlsel, from G. pios ; owed, pes ; B. pees ; wUf ; L. penis. 

Placard, Placabt, s, an edict, manifesto, public order ; 
F. placard ; B. plakaat ; Sp. placarte : pla4sero is a pub- 
lic place, a market^ and placear, to publish. 

Plage, s. space, locality, situation, rank ; L. B. placea ; 
F. place ; Sp. plaza ; It piazza ; T. platz ; S. pUgca ; 
L. platea ; trA«Tii«. 

Plagub, s. pestilence, a state of misery ; D. T. and B. 

plage ; L. plaga. 
Plaice, s. a flat sea fish; L. platissa ; B. plate; F. 

Plaid, s. an outer garment worn in Scotland ; I. plaide, 

said to correspond with T. platt ; F. plat ; x-Xmrvt ; but 

perhaps the same with plight, a garment G. Miat ; 

T. plyat; F. bUant, was a kind of shawl worn by 

Plain, a. smooth, even, flat, open, without ornament ; 

F. plain ; It, planus. 
Plaint, s, lamentation ; F. plainte, from L. plango. 
Plait, v, a. to fold, braid, weave ; L. plecto. 
Plan, s, a plot, form, model, scheme ; Sp. and F. plan, 

from L. planus, signifies a smooth surface on which a 

design was traced. See Plot. 

Planb, s, a level surface, an instrument for smoothing 

wood ; Sp. plana is also a mason's trowel, from L. pla- 

Plank, s, a strong thick board ; F. planche ; It palan- 

ca ; Arm. plank ; W. plang ; Swed. planka ; D. and 

T. planke; L. planca. 

Plant, s. a vegetable production, an herb ; L. plania ; 
F. plante ; T. pfiantz. 

Plantain, s, an Indian plant with broad leaves, and its 
fruit ; a medicinal plant, ribwort ; F. plantaine ; L. 

Plash, s, 1. a marshy place; B. plas, plasch, from L. 

2. The tender branches of treespartly cut and interwoven 

to form a fence ; F. plisse; L. plicatio. See Plbach. 
Plaster, s. a substance to cover walls, a salve for a 

wound; ¥. piastre, pldtre; B.plaester; T.pjlaster; 

L. emplastrum. 
Plabtbon, s, a plate or thin piece of metal, for which 

stuffed leather is now used, in fencing ; F. plastron ; 

It piaslrone, from «-Ai{. 

Plat, s, a smooth surface, a small piece of ground ; T. 

platt ; F. pliU ; wXmrvf. 
Plate, s. a piece of metal beat into breadth, ¥rroaght 

silver, a shallow vessel to eat off*; F. plat; It piatta ; 

S. plat ; B. plate, from trA«m. 

Platform, s, from Plat ; an horizontal plain, a frame of 

timber ; F. plateforme. 
Platoon, s, a ball, a small division of musqueteers ; F. 

peloton, from L. pUa. 
Platter, *. from Plate ; a large shallow dish. 
Play, v, to frolic, wanton, game, sport, to act a part, 

gesticulate, practise deluaon; T. belaicken; M. G. 

Hiaikam; & plegan; from G. leika; Swed. Idku; D. 

kege; 8. lacan; T. latchen; O. E. lake. See Bilk. 

P L U 


Plba> #. an allegation^ the act or form of pleading; O. 
F. pUud; B. pleii. See to Plbad. 

Plbach, m, a fence made of interwoven branches ; L. 
pUcatio ; F. pUs9e. See Plash. 

PlbaOj «. o. to discuss^ argue ; B. vleiten ; F. plaider ; 
It. piaiire, from L. placet, it is decreed, which pro- 
duced L. B. piacito, to quote decrees or precedents, to 
moot, to discuss legally. 

Plbasb, v. to delight, give satisfaction ; Sp. placer; It. 
piacere ; F. plaire, from L. placeo. 

Plbdos, #. a security, pawn, hostage ; L. B. plegium ; 

F. pleige, perhaps for pUghtage. 
Plbdob, t;. a. from the noun ; to pawn, to give security, 

engage to drink ; F. pleiger. See to Plight. 
Plbdobt, 8, a piece of lint for a wound ; B. pluisje ; L. 

B. plunuUio, from L. pluma. 
Plbntt, #. abundance, fulness, fruitftilness ; L. plenUas, 

from wXuf. 

Plbvin, «. an assurance, a security ; F. pleuvine, from 
plever, pleger ; L. B. plegiare, to j^edge. 

Plibbb, s. pL a small kind of pincers used to p/^ or bend 
thin metal. 

Plight, v. a. to engage, condition, pawn, pledge ; Swed. 
pUgta, pUckta ; S. plihian. See to Plbdgb. 

Plight, #. 1. from the verb ; condition, position, state, 
case, pledge, sacred engagement. This word has been 
erroneously confounded with B. pligt, pliclU, an office, 
a duty, from pleegen, to ply, to exercise. 

2. A braid, a fold ; L. plicatio. 

S. A cloth, a loose outer garment called a placket ; 6. 

and Swed. plagg; B. pEigghe; Scot j^A. 
Plinth, s. the square base of a column ,* trAivIt^. 

Plod, t;. n. to drudge, to study laboriously ; B. ploegen, 
to plough, to labour, signifies also to pore over a wxk 
or plan. 

Plot, #. a plat or smooth surface, a spot of ground, a 
bed in a garden, a design, scheme, stratagem, conspi* 
racy. From this word, whidi seems to oe properly 
plat, the F. complot has been formed. See Plan. 

Plovbb, s. the lapwing, a bird ; F. pluvier ; It pwieu, 
from L. pluvialts. 

Plough, v. a. to turn up the ground, to furrow ; A. 
Julakj Heh.falah; 0'Jllya,Jlqja,plya; Swed. ploj/a; 
B, ploegen. 

Pluck, v. o. to pull with violence, snatch, take off fea- 
thers; Swed./tfita; S.lyccan, aluccan,pluccian; T. 
pflmcken; B. plocken ; D.plukke; Swed. ploeka; F. 
pluckerj It pUuccare. See to Lug. 

Pluck, «. 1. from the verb; a sudden pull, a snatch. 

3. The lights, liver, and heart of an animal ; 6. lugu. 
See Lights, Lungs. 

Plug, #. a stopple to drive in, a bung; Q.Jleygs Isl. 
figitr ; Swed. pUgg, plugg ; D. pUfg ; B. plugge; T. 

Plum, «. a fruit with a stone; D. blomme ; S. plume; 
T. pfiaume, perhaps from what we call its bloom or 
blue colour ; but B. pruim, from L. prunum, is pro- 
bably our word. 

Plum pudding, «. a pudding with plums, for whidi 
cbried raisins are now substituted. 

Plumb, s. a leaden weight, a plummet; F. plomb; L. 

Plumb, v. a. to sound, to search fbr the bottom with 
line and plumb, to regulate or ac^st by the plimu 

Plump, ad. with a sudden fall, perpendicular like a 

mason's plummet 
Plump, a. round, fat, sleek, smooth: some suppose 

from the noun ; but B. vol op is fulness, rotundity. 

Plump, v. a. to fatten, swell, become sleek ; from the 

Plump, #. a lump, cluster, tufr, ball ; Swed. plump ; B. 

plomp. See Clump. 
Plunder, v. a. to pillage, rob hostilely ; Swed. plundra; 

D. plyndre ; T. and B. plunderen. 
Plungb, v. to dive, to immerse, to flounce, to hurry in* 

to distress ; F. plonger, in which sense the Gkrmans 

use plump. See Plumb. 
Plungbon, #. from the verb ; a diver, a kind of water 

fowl ; L. mergus. 
Plunket, s, a bluish colour ; blunket, from blue. 
Plush, s. shag, a rough dodi ; L. pUotus : It peloto ; 

F. pelucke; D. plys. 
Plt, v. 1. to bend, fold, plait; Heh.palac; L. pUco; 

Sp. pliego ; Arm. pUga ; W. plyga ; F. p/tfr. 

2. To work assiduously, to exercise strenuously, to soli- 
cit with importunity ; Isl. plaga; Swed. ficega; D. 
pMe; B. pteegen ; T. pflegen ; S. pUgan, apparently 
n-om O. lag, a custom, usage, habit, or regular occu« 

Poach, v. 1. to boil eggs by throwing them out of the 
shell into hot water, liy which they are formed into 
globules or pouches ; F. pocher. 

2. To stab, to stick. See to Potch. 

3. To catch game frurtively, to bag hares ; F. packer, 
from pocke, a pouch. 

4. To become sloppy or miry. See Podgb. 

Pock, #. the pustule of the small pox, a boil, a bubo, a 

poke or pouch of matter; S. poc, a disease called 

oladder in Germany. 
PocKBT, s. a small bag in clothes ; S. pocca ; F.pockette. 

See Poke and Pouch. 
Pod, s. a seed vessel, capsule, husk. See Cod. 
Podge, s. a puddle, a mire, a plash, a bog ; T.tfutze; 

It pozetto, paude, palude, from L. palus, paludu. 
Poignant, o. stimulating the palate, sharp, severe ; F. 

Point, s. a sharp end, indivisible part of time, punctilio, 

fredseness, a stop in writing ; L. punctum ; It punto ; 
\ point ; W. pwynt. 
Poison, s. venom, what destroys life ; L. po^to, potiona- 
tum were used in this sense ; but L. B. piso, potcio, 
seem to have been, like It totco; Sp. tosi^o, from 
r^M^y ; L. toxicum, venom. The Osce substituted P 
for the Ghreek T, as Paout for Tmstf, Petor for Tit^. 

PoiZB, s. weight, balance, equipoise; It and Sp. peso; 

F. poidf, from L. pondut. 
PoKB, s. 1. a small bag, a pouch ; B. poke. See PouoH. 
2. A projecting point, a stake; Swed. puk; Isl. pieck. 
PoKB, V. a. to thrust, to feel about with some longpoint- 

ed instrument ; D. pake; IsL piecka. See to Potch. 
PoKBB, s. a poking iron for stirring the fire. 
Polb, s. 1. a rod, a perch, a long staff, a measure of five 

yards and a half; S. oole ; Arm. pool ; W. paml ; It 

palo; F.pal; Ii. paius. 

2. The extremity of the axis of any spherical body ; 
wiXH ; L. poUts ; F. pole. 

3. A native of Poland ; Sdav. and Tartar Pol, a country, 
a plain. 



P O S 

Polecat, s. the foul cat, the fitchet; P. pul, pulan; 
pavXof, See Fitchet. 

t^OLEV, X. the herb fleawort ; h.pulegium ; F. poulioi ; T. 

Police^ s. regulation, laws or government of a com- 
munity ; F. police. See Policy. 

Policy, s. the act of government, mode of regulation, 
art, stratagem, a written document for some public 
institution ; L. politia ; F. police ; TrcXtruti. 

Polish, v. a. to smooth, refine ; L. polio ; F. polir. 

PoLiTURE, s, polish, gloss, lustrc ,* F. politure, from 

Polity, s, civil constitution, form of government. See 

Poll, s, the head, a register of heads or voters at an 

election ; S. poll; B. bol, pol. Bol is said to have been 

a Scythian word, synonymous with P. kull; G. kul ; 

S. coll, the head ; and by the usual intermutation of 

k 6nd p, may have become pol. From G. kvl, T. 

kulter, koUer, koUier, a bolster, seems to have been 

produced, L. culcitra. 

Poll, v. I. to lop the heads or upper part of trees, to cut 
short, to shear or trim the poll. 

2. To insert on the poll as a voter. 

PoLLABD, #. 1. a tree polled or lopped. 

2. A fish ; from its poll or head. See Chub. 

3. The finer bran of wheat ; L. pollen, 
PoLLENOER, s, an old pollard, the brushwood lopped 

from it. 
Poller, s, one who votes at a poll. 

Pollock, s. a fish, a pollard ; L. asellus niger. 

Polly, s, a girl's name, used as a dim. of Mary ; L. 
puella or pauxillay a small female; but G. pigele, poik^ 
ele, a little girl, is the fem. of poik, a boy. See Peo- 


PoLTRON, s. an idle lazy fellow, a coward ; It. poltone, 
poltrone ; F. poltron ; Sp. poliron. Dante used poliro 
for a couch, and Sp. silla poltrona is a stuffed chair ; 
poltrona, in Sp. and It. an idle wench. The name 
seems to have been cognate with Pillow or Bolster, 
T. poller ; and not, as Ferrari us supposes, from L. 
poltex (runcaius, T. polster titter was a poltron. 

Pomatum, s, ointment for the hair, a fragrant unguent ; 
It. pomaia ; F. pomade : Sp. pomada ; L. B. pomum 
medtcatumy a perfume ball. 

Pommel, s. a round knob, a ball ; F. pommeUe, pom- 
mean ; It. pomolo, from L. pomum. 

Pommel, v. a, to pound with the knuckles, to beat, to 
bruise ; F. poigneler, from L. pugnus, the fist. 

Pomp, s, ostentation, splendour, pride ; wf^in, a divine 
spectacle ; L. pompa ; F. pompe, 

PoMPioN, s. a large kind of melon, a pumpkin ; F. pom- 
pon ; ^TTtif, 

PoKD, s, a pool, a small lake, a dam ; like pound, it sig- 
nifies an inclosure ; Sans, bundh, an embankment. 
In the same way D. park is synoynmous with our 
pond, as a reservoir for water. 

Ponder, v, a, to weigh maturely, consider ; L pondero : 
P. pundar, is thought, but has a different source. 

Ponbnt, a. western, the setting sun ; It. ponente, from 
L. pono. 

Poniard, *. a dagger ; F. poignard ; L. pugio. 

Ponton, s, a floating bridge, a raft of boats ; F. ponton, 

from L. pons. 
Pony, s. a small horse ; Arm. and W. paun, little, and 

each, a horse ; L. B. paulinus equus*, 


Pool, ^. I. a small lake; Isl. poll; Swed. pol; S. pul; 
B. poel ; T. pfuhl ; Arm. pouU ; W. pwl ; L. paws, 

2. Several stakes at cards put together ; F. poule, a sit- 
ting hen. 

Poop, s, the stem of a ship ; L. puppis ; F. pouppe. 

Poor, a, indigent, mean, lean ; F. pauvre ; It. povero ; 
L. pauper. 

Poor Jack, Poor John, s, salted haak or jack. 

Pop, s. a small quick motion, a sudden sound ; D. puf; 
F. paf, pauf. 

Popinjay, s, a parrot, a woodpecker, a kind of jay ; 
Sp. papagay ; It papagallo ; T. papagay ; B. pape- 
gay : A. habagha ; Hind, pope, a parrot. 

Porcelain, s, I. a fine stone ware, china ; L. B. por- 
cellus ; F. porcelaine, was a name given to the insect 
called the lady bird, and afterwards to a coloured 
shell resembling china ware. See Pozzolano. 

2. Purslain, a pot herb; F. porcelane; It, porcelano; 
Li, portulaca. 

Porcupine, s, a kind of large hedgehog ; L. porous 
spinosus ; It. porcospino ; F. pore epic. 

Pore, v, n. to look with great intenseness ; Sp. ofar, 
perojar, firom L. B. oculare : iw^iut, i^«^«^, to ooserve. 

Pore, s. a small spiracle or hole; L. porus; F. pare. 

Porpoise, Porpus, s. a sea hog ; L. parvus piscis ; F. 
pore poisson, 

PoRRET, s, a small leek ; L. porrum ; F. porreau. 

Porringer^ Potinger, s. a vessel for pottage or spoon 

Port, f. 1. a harbour, a haven ; L. partus ; F. port. 

2. A gate, a door ; L. porta ; F. p(trte, 

3. Carriage, mien, countenance ; P. port, from L. porta. 

4. Wine from Oporto, 

Portage, s. the price of carriage ; F. portage, from L. 

Portal, s, the door of a castle, a gateway ; It. porteUa ; 
F. portail, 

PoRTANCE, s. carriage, demeanour ; from Port. 

PoRTAss, PosTESSE, PoRTHUis, s. a brcviary, a prayer 
book ; from L. porto, and ivxt^, prayer. 

Portcullis, s, a sliding gate at the entrance of a castle ; 
F. port coulisse, 

PoRTGLAVE, s, a sword-bcarcr. See Olave. 

Portrait, Portraiture, s, a picture, a drawing from 
real life ; F. portrait. See to Portray. 

Portray, v, a, to draw, delineate, paint ; F. partraire, 
from L. traho, to draw ; tractus, a feature, lineament. 
See Trait. 

PoBE, V. a, to put to a stand, to oppose, examine, puz- 
zle ; F. poset*, from L. pono, posui. The word de- 
noted the putting of questions at schools. See to 

Posset, s, the serous part of warm milk when curdled 
with wine or acid ; from F. poser, to settle ; L. po^ 

Post^ s, 1. a station, situation, place, stage ; It. posto '; 
F. paste; L. positus, 

2. A courier, a person travelling from stage to stage 
with fresh horses ; It pasta ; F. paste, a &ed stage. 

3. A piece of timber set erect ; L. pastis ; F. posteau ; 
T. pfaste. 

Postern, s, a back gate, a small door ; F. pasteme, p6- 
terne; h, pasterinus, 

PosTiL, a, a marginal note, a ^loss ; F. postilie, apas^ 
tille ; It. apposttUa ; L. appostta. 

P o u 

P R 1 

Po8TiLiON> s, the driver of a post-chaise who rides one 
of the horses ; F. postillion ; It. postiglione. 

Posy, Poeby, s, the motto on a ring or a nosegay ; L. 

Pot, s, a vessel for boiling meat, a crock, a drinking 
can ; G. pott ; Swed. potta ; D. potle ; B. F. and Arm. 
pot. Boat, Butt and Pot are supposed to have a com- 
mon origin, signifying, like Sans, pot, a hollow vessel. 

Pot, v. a. 1. to put in a pot. 

2. To preserve in pickle ; O. F. hoter, supposed to be 

from L. buo. See Potash. 
PoTARGO, s, a West India pickle prepared with caviare 

and fruits. See Botargo. 

Potash, s, a lixivium of vegetable ashes boiled till it 
becomes solid ; T. bod asche ; B. potasch ; F. potasse. 
O. F. boler, to wash, to soak, is supposed to be from 
L. buo, imbuo. See to Buck and Ashes. 

Potation, s. a draught, a drinking bout ; L. potatio ; 

but sometimes denoting malt liquor as taken from a 

Potato, s. a well known esculent root ; called batata in 

South America. 

PoTCH, v. a. 1. to thrust, to stir with a pointed instru- 
ment ; Swed. piita, potta ; Scot. pole. See to Poke. 
2. To boil eggs in a particular manner. See to Poach. 
Pother, s. a bustle, tumult, flurry ; D. bolder ; T. poU 

der, poder, turmoil, uproar ; I. bodhram, to disturb, 

perplex. See Bother. 
Pottage, s. from Pot; any thing boiled, decocted food ; 

F. potage. 
Potter, s. who makes pots or earthen vessels; F. 

Pouch, s. a small bag, a pocket, a belly, a paunch ; 6. 

posk ; T. putske ; S. pusa ; D. post ; F. poche. See 

Poverty, s, indigence, want, meanness ; F. pauvrete ; 

L. paupertas. 
Poult, s, a young chicken, a chick ; F. poulet, from L. 

Poulterer, s, from Poult ; one who sells fowls ready 

for dressing ; F. poultier. 

Poultice, s, a cataplasm of pulse ; irixr^ ; L. puis ; F. 

Poultry, s. from Poult ; all sort of domestic fowls. 

Pounce, s, 1. the talon of a bird of prey; It. ponzo; 
Sp. punzon ; L. punctus. 

2. A gum powdered for smoothing paper, for which 
pumice was originally used ; F. ponce ; L. pumex. 

Pounce, v. a. 1. to seize with the pounces or talons, to 
pierce or puncture the skin. 

2. To sprinkle with pounce. 

Pound, j. 1. a weight, a denomination of money weigh- 
ing originally so -much in silver; P. bund ; G. Swed. 
D. and S. pund ; T. pfund ; B. pond ; W. punt ; L. 
and It pondo, 

2. An inclosure, a pinfold, a prison ; G. pynd ; 8. 
pund; T. peunt. See Pen. 

Pound, v. a. 1. to shut up, to inclose in a pound. 
2. To beat with a pestle, to bruise by weight ; S. punan, 
from L. pondo. 

Pour, v. to flow, to stream, run out forcibly as water, 
fall heavily as rain ; W. burrw, apparently from L. 
ruo; tixt^fvtf. 

Pout, s. a young pheasant or heath fowl ; from its re- 
semblance to a poult. 

Pout, v. n. to look sullen, to push out the lips in ill hu- 
mour ; F. bonder, bouter ; S. butan, to project or sw^ll 

Powder, s. fine dust, dust of starch for the hair, gun- 
powder; It. pulvere; F. poudre ; L. B. pulvitura, 

from L. pulvis. 
Power, s. might, strength, ability, authority, influence, 

command, military force, a potentate; F. pouvoir ; 

Sp. poder, from L. pote, potestas. 
Pox, s. pi. of Pock ; pustules, the venereal disease. 
PoY, s. a rope-dancer's pole ; Sp. appoyo ; F. appuy ; 

It. appogio, poggio, from L. podium. 
PozzoLANA, s. a kind of earthen ware, a stone cement 

found at Pozzuoli, anciently Puteoli, a town in Italy. 
Practice, s. habit, custom, use, method, art ; F. pra- 
tique; L. practica. 
Praise, s. commendation, fame, renown ; Swed. D. B. 

and T. prys, apparently from G. hrose ; Isl. krois ; 

Swed. roos; D. roes ; Scot, roose, berose, laud, fame ; 

but confounded with prize, from L. pretium. 
Prame, s. a flat-bottomed boat; G. pram, a raft; B. 

praam ; F. prame. 
Prance, v. n. to move in parade pompously, to caper as 

a war-horse, to take airs of pretension ; D. prange ; 

T. prangen ; B. pronken. 
Prank, v. a. from Prance ; to frolic, decorate, adorn, to 

Prate, v. n. to chatter, to talk carelessly ; Swed. prata; 

D. prate ; B. praaten, apparently from G. rceda ; T. 

reden, bereden. 
Pratique, s. a license for the master of a vessel to trade 

in the ports of Italy and Spain; F. pratique; It 

practica, from x^tirltt. 
Prawn, s. a large kind of shrimp, n^^ftt, according to 

Hesychius, was synonymous with tU^tf, a locust or 

lobster, and may have produced It. parnocche. 
Pray, v. to off*er up prayer, to intreat; F. prier; It. 

pregare ; L. precor. 
Preamble, s. a preface, introduction ; F. preambule, 

from L. preambulo. 
Prebend, s. a stipend in a cathedral church ; F. pre- 

bende, from L. prebeo. 

Premier, s. the chief person, the prime minister ; F. 
premier ; L. primior. 

Prerogative, s. an exclusive privilege ; L. B. preroga- 
tiva ; F. prerogative, from L. pre and rogo. 

Press, v. a, to squeeze, crush, urge; L. presso ; F. 

Prest, s. a loan or advance, a duty paid by the sheriff; 
F. prest, pret, from L. prassto. 

Presto, ad. quickly, at once, soon; It. presto; F. 

preste, from L. prassto. 
Pretty, a. neat, proper, pleasing, elegant; G.frida, 

pryda ; 8. prate ; B. fraitje ; W. prydus. G. frida 

sweina ocjagrar meyar, pretty swains and fair maids. 
Prey, s. spoil, plunder, depredation; F. proie; L, 

Prick, «. 1. to pierce, spur, paio, puncture, make acrid, 

note down with a style ; G. brydga ; Swed. pricka ; 

D. prikke ; S. prician ; B. priken. See to Prink. 

2. To aflect flne airs, to dress smartly, look priggish ; 
D. prasgte ; T. prycken ; B. pryken. See Prig. 

Pricket, s. a buck in his second year, whose horns re- 
semble a prick or point. See Brocket and Spit- 



P U L 

Priokwood^ s. a tree used for skewers^ the spindle tree ; 
L. euont/mus, 

Pbidb^ «. inordinate self-esteem, ostentation, insolence, 
dignity, a state of tumidity ; G. pmd; Swed. pryd; 
8. pryde. See Proud. 

Prijbbt, s. one who officiates in sacred ceremonies ; 
w^uivn^*i is an elder or senator ; whence L. pretbi- 
ter; P. prehttre, prestre, prHre ; B. priesterj S. 
preosU r. perest was a minister of Perez, the wor- 
ship of fire^ from which the Persians had their name. 

Prio, v. to take unfairly, to steal cloth as a taylor ; O. 

Prio, s, a pert saucy little fellow. See to Prick. 

Prill, Pearl, s. a flat fish ; T. pfreUle. See Brill. 

Prim, a. formal, precise, affectedly nice ; O.'Ei.frim; 
Q,f rem, prim; u.frum; T.frimm; S.freme, cor- 
rect, devout, demure. 

Primage, s. the freight of a ship; from L. and It. 
premo, to press, to load. 

Prime, a, first, best, excellent ; L. primus. 

Prime, v. a. to prepare, to put powder in the pan of a 

fun, to lay the ground on a canvass to be painted ; 
. primer, imprimer, in this case, signifies also to pre« 

pare cloth for receiving colour. 
Princock, Princox, s, a young coxcomb ; from prink, 

affected, and cox, a fool. 
Prink, v, to dress for show, to prank. See to Prick 

and Prank. 
Print, s, a mark made by a stamp, a picture from an 

engraving by impression; B. printe; Sp. prensa; 

It. imprenta ; F. empreinte, from L. premo. 

Prison, s. a gaol, a place of confinement ; F. prison ; 
It. prigione; Sp. prision : G. prisund; S. prisun ; T. 
prisun ; F. prise; It presa, capture, from L. prendo. 

Prison bars, s. a game with boys in which they strive 

to touch each other before they reach the goal. See 

Privet, s. an early shrub ; F. primvert ; L. primus 

Privy, a. clandestine, secret, private; F. privS ; L. 


Prize, s. 1. value, reward, estimation, price, premium ; 
L. pretium ; F. prix ; T. preiss. 

2. Acquisition, booty ; F. prise ; It. presa, preda ; L. 

Profile, s. the edge, the side face, an outline ; It. pro~ 
Jilo; F. prqfil, from h.JUum. 

Profit, s. gain, advantage, proficiency ; F. profit ; It. 
prqfitto ; L. prqfectus. 

Proo, v. n. to steal, shift for provisions. See to Prey 

and to Prio. 
Prono, s. a point, the branch of a fork ; G. prionn ; 

Swed. pren, a point. 
Protocol, s. the first copy of a deed, the title at the 

top of a leaf; F. protocole ; -x^ttx^tUKk^n. 

Fno^, s. a support, a stay, a rest ; F. pour appui ; Sp. 
por apoyo, from L. pro and podium. 

Proud, a. arrogant, haughty, splendid, ostentatious, 
tumid, exuberant ; G. and Swed. prud / S. prut ; B. 
prutz. See Pride. 

Prove, v. to evidence, show, try ; L. probare ; Sp. prO' 
bar; It. provare ; F.preuver; G. prqfa; Swed. 
profwa ; D. proeve; T. pruffen; B. proeven ; S. 

pROVBNDBB, s. dry food for brutes^ hay and com ; F. 
provende ; It. provenda, from L. provenlus. 

Provost, s. a chief magistrate, the head of a college, 

the inflicter of punishments in an army ; F. provoit, 

prevdt; It provosta; Sp. preboste; T. proM ; 8. 

profust ; L. prcepositus. 
Prow, s. the head of a ship ; Sp. proa ; F. proue ; L. 

Prowess, s. bravery, military valour ; Sp.proeza ; F. 

prouesse, from Sp. and It. pro; F. pru ; L. probus. 
Prowl, v. to rove in quest of prey, to plunder; F. 

proioler. See Prey. 
Prude, s. a woman affectedly nice ; F. prude, feminine 

of pru ; L. probus. 
Prune, s, 1. a. dried plum ; F. prune ; It prugno; L. 

prunus; w^uwn. 

2. An' exuberant shoot of a tree; O. £. proyne; F. 

provin, from L. propaga. 
Pbune, v. a. from the noun ; to lop off useless shoots or 

Pbunbllo, s. 1. a kind of brown stuff worn by the 

clergy; L. B. brunella. 

2. A large kind of plum ; Sp. brugnola ; F. prune de 

3. A wild plum ; F. pruneUe, from prune. 

Pry, v. n. to peep narrowly, inspect closely ; Sp. qjeo, 
from L. oculus, signifies among sportsmen the act of 
looking out sharp for game, perojar, to observe ; as if 
per eye. 

Psalter, s. a book of psalms ; ^pmXrn^uf. 

Psaltery, s. a harp used for psalms, from -^^xXit. 

Pshaw, interj. expressing dislike ; Sp. psha. See Pish. 

PucELAOE, s. the state of virginity, maidenhood; F- 
pucelaee frota pucelle ; It pulceUa; L. 'B.paulicilla; 
It. puellay a virgin. 

Puck, s. a supposed spirit, a fairy, an imp ; G. puke ; 
Swed. puken ; T. puk ; Scot, puck, pucken. 

Pucker, v. a. to bag out, to corrugate, to fold loosely; 
from poke, a bag. 

PuDDER, s. a pother, a tumult, a stir. 

PuDDiNO, ^. 1. a gut or intestine, a coil of cordage ; A. 

batan ; Heb. beten ; F. boudin ; Sp. pudin ; W. poUen ; 

L. botteUus : It. budello. 
2. Compound food boiled up in a gut or tegument 
Puddle, s. a dirty splash of water ; It padule, palude ; 

L. palus. 

PuET, s. a bird. See Pewit. 

Puff, s. a quick blast of wind, any thing blown up or 
porous, ostentatious praise; P. puf, breath, blast; 
Sans, pu, wind; B. pof; Sp. bufo ; F. bouffe; F. 
bouffei ; Scot buffie, indated. 

Puffin, s. a water fowl which makes a puffing noise 
when caught 

Puo, s. a Dutch dog, a monkey; so named from its sup- 
posed resemblance to a puck or imp. 
PuoH, interj. expressing contempt. See Foh. 

Puisne, a. younger, inferior, after-bom ; F. puis n^ ; 
L. postque natus. 

Puissance, s. valour, power, strength ; F. puissance; It. 
potenza ; L. potentia. 

Puke, v. n. to vomit, cast up ; T. spucken ; B. spugen. 
See to Spew. 

Pule, v. n. to cry like a chicken, to whine ; F. pioler, 
piauler; It pipolare, pigolare; L. pipilo. 


P Y G 

PuLicx^ 9. an herb ; fleawort ; L. puleg^um. 

PuLL> v. a. to draw forcibly^ eztirpate, eradicate ; S. 
putiian ; B. op haaUn. See to Haul. 

Pullet^ 9. a young hen ; F. pouUt ; L. pulius. 

PuLLBT^ s. a wheel for a running cord ; F. pouUe ; It. 
polea, from ir§>Jut, 

PuLBE^ ^. 1. the beating of an artery ; L. puUus ; Sp. 
pi«/ro ; P. pouls. 

2. Legumes, beans^ peas ; L. /w^. 

PuMiCB^ s. a spungy fossile stone ; L. pumex ; F. ponce. 

Pump, «. an engine to draw up water ; wftirmi ; F. pompe ; 

Sp. bomba ; B. and T. pompe ; D. pomp. 
Pun, «. a quibble, equivocation, a ludicrous turn of 

words ; L. punctum ; F. pointe ; met subdlity. 
Punch, «. 1. a pointed instrument. See Puncheon. 

2. A puppet, a person representinjyr a peasant of Apulia ; 
It puUchinOy polichineuo, ponchtnelw. 

3. A short thick person or horse; supposed to be paunch; 
but perhaps from ponchineUo, 

4. A liquor composed of spirit and water, sugar and le- 
mon ; supposed to be L. p^s nauticus ; but as Toddy 
and Oroff appear to be jEastem words, this may be 
Sans, and Hind, puncheene, from pun, punna, beve- 
rage, and cheene, which signifies bodi Chinese and 

PuNCHBON, «. I. a pointed instrument for making holes; 
F. poinfon ; Sp. punzon, fh>m L. pungo, 

2. A cask used in the Morea for wine or spirits, holding 
eighty gallons ; F. poinfon, from Wl*^ and •Ivf ; fn$tm, 
a wine cask. 

PuNDLB, 9, a little squab woman ; It pinguedilla. 

PuNGAB, s. a sort of sea fish ; F. pagne; L. pagurus, 

PuNicE, s, a bug ; F. punaise, from L. puteo. 

Punk, «. a whore, a strumpet ; L. B. putanica ; It put" 
tanaccia. See Putagb. 

Punt, v, n. to play at basset or ombre ; It punto, to 

Puny, a. young, petty, tender, weak. See Puisnb. 
Pup, s. a whelp, supposed to be L. pupus ; but perhaps 

for cub, from the usual intermutation of c and p. 

Pupil, s. 1. the apple of the eye; L. pupula; It, pU" 

2. A ward, a scholar; L. pupiUus ; F.pupille; It, pu^ 

PuppBT, s. a small wooden image, a doll ; F. poupe^ ; 

It puppa ; L. pupa. 

Puppy, s. 1. from Pup ; a whelp, a young dog. 
2. A saucy fop ; F. poupin, foppish ; T. puppen, to 
sume the airs of a puppet, to oress finically. 

PuRCHABB, V. a. to buy, procure for a price; F. pour- 

chasser ; L. B. proquaso, from L. qucero. 
PuRPiLE, PuBPLB, FuBPLBW, 9, an edging, a border of 

lace or fur ; It prqfilo. See Pbofilb. 

PuBL, s, 1. a sort of lace for edging, an embroidered 
border. See Pubfilb. 

2. A bitter malt liquor, perhaps contracted from bitter 
ale, or from ATm.Jerwt, perwel; W. chwerwl^ worm- 

Purl, w. n. to flow with a gentle noise ; T. porlen ; B. 
opborrelen ; S. byrlian ; G. byrla, to pour out liquor, 
to gurgle. 

Purlieu, s, a piece of ground detached from a royal 
chase, a common on the border of a forest ; F. pur 
lieu ; L. purus locus, free from the forest laws. 

Purlins, s,pL side pieces, inside braces to support raf- 
ters ; L. perligationes. 

PuBLOiN, v. a. to steal, remove clandestinely ; supposed 
to be F. pmr loigner, as eloigner, to place at a distance ; 
but G. leina ; Isl. lena, hlauna ; Swed. lona ; Scot. 
lean, signify to conceal. 

PuRPARTY, *. a share, part in a division ; F. pourparti, 
from L, pro and pars. 

Purport, s, influence, design, tendency of a discourse ; 
F. pourporte, from L. pro and porto. See Import. 

PuRPRisE, s, a manor, close, inclosure; F. pourpris, 
from L. prensus. 

Purr, v. n, to murmur like a cat when pleased ; from 
the sound ; T. murren. 

Purse, s. a small bag to hold money ; G. pus ; S. p%isa ; 
Swed. posse ; L. B. bursa ; «nj^ ; It borsa ; F. bourse ; 
W. purs. 

Pursue, v. to follow, chase, prosecute, continue; L* 
prosequor ; F. poursuivre. 

Pursy, a. short breathed, puffy, fat; P. poussif; It- 
polsivo, beating at the heart or lungs, from L. pulsus. 

Purtbnance, s. the pluck of animals, the ffiblets of 
fowls ; L. pertinens ; F. appartenance, appendage. 

PuRVBY, V. to provide, to procure provisions ; Sp. pro- 
veer ; F. pourvoir ; L. providere. 

PuBviBW, s. a proviso^ a providing clause ; F. pourveu ; 
L. provisus. 

Push, v. to thrust, press forward, make an effort, im- 
portune ; F. pousser, from L. B. pulso ; L. pello. 

Puss, s. a cat, a hare ; B. poes, poesje, a cat and a flur 

Put, ». 1. to place, lay in any situation ; L. B. posito; 

T. poser ; It postare, appostare. 
2. To pitch, to toss ; Isl. potta. See to Pitch. 

Putagb, s. whoredom, prostitution ; weui* ; L. puia, a 
girl ; Sp. Port and G. puta, a prostitute. 

PuTTiNOBTONB, s. SL stouc thrown by the hand. See to 

PuTTOC, s. a kite ; L. buteo. 

Putty, s. cement used by glaziers ; F. poteS ; Sp. potea, 
from vwJl^. 

Puzzle, v. to perplex, confuse ; formerly apposaiL See 
to PoBE, to Appose. 

Pygarg, s. a kind of falcon; L. pygargus; ffvyv m^y^. 

Pygmy, s. a dwarf; F. pigmed ; L. pygmams ; wvyftmf 



a IS a consonant adopted in Latin from the Arabic 
and Hebrew, and substituted for the ku of the 
Goths. The Greeks had no letter to express this 
sound, for which the Osce, Eolians, Armoricans and 
Welsh sometimes used p. 

QuAB, s, a barbot, an eel-pout ; B. kwab ; D. quabbe ; 

T. quappe, kope, any thing with a large head or jole. 

See Chub. 
Quack, v. n, 1. to cry like a duck or frog, to chatter ; 

Isl. kuaka, quceka ; T. kuacken ; B. ktvaaken ; L. 


2. From the noun ; to deal in nostrums. 

Quack, Quackbalveb, s, an empiric, a bold ignorant 
pretender to physic ; S wed. quaksalware ; T. quack- 
salber, a crier of salves, a mountebank. 

QuA£F, V, a. to drink deep ; Isl. kafa ; Swed. quafa, to 
immerse, to suffocate ; from G. kaf, deep. 

QuAFFER, V. 11. frequentative of Quaff; to make a noise 
like ducks dabbling for food. 

QuAO, Quagmire, s, a shaking bog, a marsh overgrown 
with vegetation ; from M. G. gawagsian ; S. tvagian ; 
Swed. tvagga. See to Wao and to Quake. 

QuAOGT, a. from the noun ; swampy, boggy, shaking. 

QuAiD, a. cowed, dismayed; from G. kuga. See to 

Quail, s. 1. a bird of passage ; L. B. quaquila ; It. 

r\glia ; F.cailU; G. wakl, fvagl; Swed. tvacktel ; 
wacktel, from its watching or calling. 
2. Sickness, oppression, languor, affliction of body or 

mind, distress; G. kueU; Swed. qucd; Isl. kuul, quul ; 

B. knaal; T. qucd. 
Quaint, a. neat, subtile, affectedly nice ; F. cointy from 

L. comptus. 
Quake, v, n. to shake, move to and fro, shiver with 

cold ; S. cfvacian, corresponding with L. quatio. See 

Qualify, v. a. to make fit for, to soflen ; F. qualifier, 

iirom L. quale facere. 


Qualm, s, a sudden fit of sickness, a nausea; D, qualm; 
S. quealtn ; T. qualm. See Quail. 

Quandary, s. a doubt, a difficulty ; apparently fVom S. 
twean draga, the agitation of doubt, from ttveon ; 
Scot, tfv^n, doubt, perplexity. 

QuARANTAiN, QUARANTINE^ s. the space of forty days, 
during which vessels or persons, from ports infected 
with the plague, are prohibited from intercourse with 
the shore ; F. quaranlain ; It. quarantana ; L. qua- 

Quarrel, s. 1. a disposition to mutual complaint, a 
dispute, contest; F. que r die ; L. querela. 

2. A square-headed arrow ; F. quadreau, carreau, ca- 

reUe ; It quadrella ; L. quadrangula. 
Quarry, j. 1. a square, a pane of g]ass ; F. quarre, 

from I^. quadratus. 

2. A kind of square-headed arrow. See Quarrel. 

3. A mine where stone is cut in squared masses ; L. B. 
quareria, quadreria; F. quarriere, carriere. 

4. The prey, or portion of its entrails, given to a 
hawk for encouragement ; F. curee, from L. euro, to 

Quart, s. the fourth part of a gallon, two pints, a se- 
quence of four cards ; F. quart, from L. quarttts. 

Quartan, s. an ague which returns every fourtli day ; 
L. quartana ; F. quarlaine. 

Quarter, s. 1. a fourth part, a measure of eight 
bushels ; F. quartier, from L. quartus. 

2. A geometrical square figure denoting the four sides 
of the world ; a direction, district, region ; a regular 
division of a square ; F. quartier; h. quadratura. 

3. In war, signifies sparing the life of a prisoner by 
sending him to tlie captor's quarter, either for sale or 

Quarters, s. pi. are the divisions of a town, or of regu- 
lar barracks, distinguished from cantonments, which 
signify the neighbouring villages or temporary huts. 

Quabterstaff, s. a staff of authority among foresters. 

Q U I 

which was used also as a weapon ; from quarler, 
district, and skiff. 
Quash J v. a. 1. to squeeze, to crush; It, quasso ; It. 
quassare, squacciare ; "B^uassen ; T. quetchen ; S. 
cwysan; Arm, guascu ; V/, gwasgu, 

2. To annul, make void, break, cashier ; Sp. casar ; F. 
casser; L. B. cassare, from L. cassus. 

Quash, s. 1. a species of pompion ; It. cocuzza ; L. cu- 

curbiia. See Squash. 
2. The husk of a legume ,* It. guscia ; F. cosse, from L. 


Quaver, v. n, to shake the voice, vibrate; Sp. quie^ 
brar, from L. vibro. 

Quaver, s, from the verb ; a shake of the voice, a short 

note in music, the half of a crotchet. 
Quay, s. an artificial bank, a wharf; F. quai. See 

QuEA, s, dim. of Cow ; a heifer ; 6. and Swed. kuega, 

kuiga : S. qiiean. 
Quean, s. a woman, a jade, a slut, a strumpet ; Sans. 

kuniya, a daughter ; 6. kueima ; Swed. quinna ; S. 

cwen ; Armenian, kasn ; yvin ; P. zun, a woman. G. 

and Swed. hona, the feminine pronoun, signifies, like 

kona, a female in general. See Hen and She. 
Queasy, a. sick, squeamish, fastidious; 6. kuesa, to 

sicken ; Swed. quesa ; Isl. kueisa, a fever. 

QuECK, V, n. 1. to shrink at, show pain ; Swed. tveka ; 

S. mean, gemican, to wince. 
2. To cry out, to scream ; W. gwichio; Isl. quceka, dim. 

of G. iuaka. See to Quack and Squeak. 
Queen, s. the wife of a king, a reigning woman ; T. 

konigen ; B. koningen, a queen, is merely the feminine 

termination added to konig, a king, and has no other 

connexion with quean, a woman. 

Queer, a. cross-grained, perverse, odd ; T. kuerk, from 

G. twer ; S. ihmyr. See Thwart. 
QuEEST, 5. a wood pigeon ; S. eusceole ; Scot, cusehette, 

from G. and Swea. quist, a branch ; F. ramier, from 

L. ramus. 
Quell, v. to subdue, stifle, suffocate, deprive of life ; 

Isl. kuelia; Swed. qudlja; D. qumle; S. ewellan. 
Quelqueghose, s, F. something, a trifle; It qualche 

causa ; L. qualisque, qualiscunque eausa, 
QuEME, V. n. to please, to agree; Swed. qudtna ; S. 

ememan, from the verb to come, and corresponding 

with L. convenio. See Comely. 

Quench, v. a, to extinguish, cool, destroy ; S. quencan ; 
G. kuaugiasn; M. G. quaugian. 

Quern, s, a hand-mill ; G. kuem ; M. G. quaim ; 

Swed. quam ; D. quern ; S. cueom ; T. quim. See 

QuERPO, s. a dress close to the body, a waistcoat ; Sp. 

cuerpo, from L. corpus. 
QuESB, V. a. to search for, look afler, seek ; L. quttro, 

Quest, s. search, seeking, inquest, request ; F. queste, 

quite; It chiestsi; L. quassiius. 
Quib, s. a sarcasm, a bitter jest. See Quip and Wipe. 
Quibble, s. a pun, a quirk, a play on words ; L. quilu 

bet, quodlibet. See Quillet. 
Quich, Quick, Quitch, Couch grass, s. a grass exceed- 
ingly vivacious; S. cwice ga ; Swed. quick rot, 

quick root, from quick, vivaciou . 

Quick, a, living, vivacious, active, lively, living ; G. 

Q U I 

kuik ; Swed. quick ; D. (fuxk ; S. ewic ; T. queck ; B. 
quik : A. huey, chuey, alive. 

Quick beam, s. a tree called the service or sorbus ; T. 
gewevch, from G. weg; S. wig, holy, consecrated. 
See Whit and Beam. 

Quicken, v. to make or become alive ; 8. cwiccan ; B* 
quiken ; from the noun. 

Quid, s. a morsel held in the mouth to be chewed. See 

QuiDDiT, Quiddity, s. an essence, a cavil, a captious 
question; L. B. quidiias ; It. quiddita, from L. quid. 

Quill, s. the hard strong feathers used for pens> the 
prick of a porcupine ; KtLxmfAt^ ; P. culm ; L. culmus, 
calimus ; G. koyle, a reed used for writing, a pen. 

Quillet, s. subtilty, nicety, a play on words ; L. 
quidlibet. See Quibble. 

Quilt, s. a stitched covering for a bed, a counterpane ; 

It coltre ; Sp. colcha ; F. coueiie, from L. acuUatus. 
Quilt, v. a. from the noun ; to stitch cloth double. 
Quince, s. a tree and its fruit ; L. cydonium ; It co- 

togno; F. coin; T. quidden^ from Cydon in Crete. 

Quinsy, s. a disease in the throat. See Squinancy. 

Quint, s. a sequence of h\e at piquet ; F. quint ; L. 

Quintal, s. Ave score, a weight of an hundred pounds ; 
F. quintal; It quintale, from L. quintus. 

Quintessence, s. the virtue of any thing extracted or 
concentred; It. quintessenza ; F. quintessence; L. 
quinta essentia, a mysterious term in alchemy, signi- 
fying the fifth or purest essence. 

QuiNTiN, s. a kind of military exercise ; supposed to be 
from S3rriac and Heb. chanit ; »«rr«(; L. conto, a 
spear, which produced L. B. quintana ; F. quintaine. 
An upright post fixed in the ground supported a 
cross beam, turning horizontally on a pivot ; at one 
end of which was a board, resembling the bust of a 
man, and at the other a heavy sand-bag. The feat 
consisted in tilting at the bust, and escaping from 
the swing of the sand-bag. The French called it 
running at the Faquin ; but in Italy the figure 
of a Saracen or Turk being the object of attack, 
may have introduced the frequent sign of the Sara- 
cen's head. 

Quip, Quib, s. a sarcasm or smart jest. See Wipe. 

Quire, j. 1. a body of singers. See Choir. 

2. Twenty-four sheets of paper ; F. quaver, cayer, ca^ 
hir ; It. and Sp. quademo; L. quaternto; from which 
seems to be derived G. kuer, a book. 

Quirk, s. a subtilty, artful distinction ; supposed to be 
from T. kuerh. See Queer. 

Quit, v. a. to discharge, free, forsake, relinquish ; L. 
B. quittare ; It. quetare, quietare; Sp. mtitar ; F. 
quitter ; Swed. quitta ; T. quittiren, from L. quies. 

Quite, ad. from the verb; entirely, completely; F. 

Quittance, s. from the verb ; a discharge from debt ; 
F. quittance; It quitanza. 

Quitter, s. from the verb ; a relinquisher, a deliverer, 
the dross which discharges itself from metal in smelt- 
ing, matter from a sore. 

Quiver, s. a case for arrows; Isl. kqgur ; Swed. 
koger ; 'B.koker; S. cocur ; T.cohhar; Sp. cuchar, 
apparently from G. kqfa, kqfe ; L. cavea. See Cof- 



Quiver^ a, nimble^ active, lively ; perhaps from quick ; 
but W. chn>%fjin>r is from chfoyf^ motion. 

QuivBB, V. a. to vibrate, to tremble, to shake, to shiver ; 
Sp. quebrar, from L. vUtro, 

QuoiF, s, cap of a serjeant at law, a hood, a head- 
dress. See Coif. 

QuoiL, V, a. to lay a rope in circles. See to Coil. 
Quoin, s. a wedge, a comer, an angle. See Coin. 

Quoit, «. a flat stone or horse shoe to pitch at a mark. 

See CoiT. 
QuoTB, V. a. to cite the opinion or words of another ; 

F. quoUr, coter, from cott ; It cosia ; L. casta, a side, 

a marginal note ; but Sp. citar, to quote, is from L. 

Quoth, v, impmf, said ; P. kooad ; Isl. kuath, quaih, 

pret. of P. koiaan ; M. G. quilhan ; S. cnxdhian ; G. 

Kueda ; T. queden, to say. 


R A C 

Ris called the canine letter, from being uttered with 
9 some resemblance to the growl or snarl 6£ a do£^. 
It has one constant sound, and is never mute. £i 
words derived from the Greek the initial R is fol- 
lowed by H after the manner of the Welsh ; although 
with the Oreeks and Ooths the aspirate precedes it. 
The Chinese have no R in their alphabet, and sub- 
stitute for it the letter L. The Greeks sometimes, 
and the Spaniards, Portuguese and Italians frequently, 
use L for R ; which is also observable with tne Ger- 
mans and English, in such words as Turtle for Tur- 
tur. Pilgrim for Peregrinus. 

Rabatk, v. 71, from Abate ; to bring down, to lower, to 
recover a hawk to the fist ; F. rabattre. 

Rabato, s, from the verb ; the folding or turn down col- 
lar of a shirt or shifl, which afterwards became a ruff; 
It. rabato ; F. rabaL 

Rabbet, v, a. to groove, to plain down the edges of 
boards, that they may wrap over each other; P. 

Rabbit, s. an animal that burrows in the ground; B. 
robbcy from G. raitf; Swed. rqf, a perforation, a hole 
or opening. 

Rabble, a. an assembly of low people ; B. rapalje; F. 
racaille, rapaille, scrapings, refuse, riff raff, rubbish. 
It. rasare, rassare, rasciare, rascare, raspare, raspeU 
lure ; S. rasar, rascar, raspar ; F. raser, racier, rat* 
'per, rapcr ; T. rapsen, raspeleti, are all supposed to 
be derived from L. rado, corresponding with Swed. 
raka, to scrape. See Rascal. 

Ragb> ^. 1. a running match, a current, progress, course; 
S. rcBs ; G. and Swed. ras, contraction of rant, from 
renna. See to Run. 

2. A root, particular breed, progeny, family ; F. race ; 
Sp. raza ; It. razza ; L. radix, 

3. A root of ginger, spicy or aromatic flavour, strength ; 
Sp. raiza ; fi^* > •^' ^^dix. 

Rack, s. 1. an engine to torture; B. rakke, from G. rec* 
km ; Swed. r(Kcka ; B. rekken, to stretch, to extend. 


2. Action of the wind on vapour or clouds ; G. raka ; 
Swed. reka. See to Raks. 

3. A kind of dog ; G. rakke ; Swed. racka s D. rage ; S. 
rascc ; B. reiki ; L. B. racha, from its raking dis- 

4. A row, range or railing to support fire arms, a frame 
for bottles or hay, a icitchen range ; Isl. hrag ; B. 
rak ; D. raskke ; Swed. rascka. See to Range. 

5. A stack of hay or grain, a reak ; S. hreac. See Rick- 

6. A distaff. See Rock. 

7. A neck or chine of meat ; S. hracca, hricg ; T. ntck ; 
G. rygg, the back or back bone, corresponding with 

8. The utmost stretch, rack rent, cognate with Rack, 

9. Ruin, destruction. See Wback. 

10. An Indian spirituous liquor. See Abrack. 

Rack, v. a. 1. from the noun; to stretch, screw, torture. 

2. To draw off liquor from the lees ; supposed to be G- 
raikia ; S. reccan, to treat carefully ; but B. rekken, 
from G. reckia, to extend, signifies to draw out slowly. 

Ragkbt, s. 1. the instrument with which a ball is struck 
at tennis ; It. racchetia ; F. raquette ; Sp. raqueta ; T. 
racket ; L. reticulum. 

2. From the noise made at a racket court ; a confused 

3. An herb and its flower ; F. raquette. See Rockbt ] 

4. A kind of artificial firework; It raggietto. See 

Racy, a. from Race ; strong, flavorous, tastingof the root 

or soil. 
Rad, in forming the names of great men, signifiesr rule, 

sway, counsel, power, dominicm; G. rod; Swed. rod, 

rad ; S. red, rad, rod ; B. raad ; T. rad, rat, rath ; 

Taitai'rud ; Sans. reel. See Rath. 

Radish, s, an esculent root ; It. radice ; B. radys ; S. 

radex ; L. radix. 


B A E 


Raff^ V, n, 1. to scrape^ to rake^ to collect rubbish. See 
Riff raff. 

2. To snatch, sweep away, rob, pillage; Isi. rqfa, r\fa; 
Swed. riffoa^ rovna ; 8. reqfian ; L. B. reffare; corre- 
sponding with L. rapiOf ertpio. 

Raffle, «. a casting of dice for a prise ; F. rqfle; B. 
rtjiffel; Sp. rt/a. See to Raff and Riflb. 

Raft, *. a float of timber ; Swed raffl ; D. rafle ; Isl. 
rafiur; L. ratis. 

Rafteb, s. the secondary timber in forming the floors 
of a house ; G. rctfr, rasfirm, roof tree ; S. rasfUr ; B. 

Rao, «. 1. a worn-out piece of cloth, a tatter, a fragment ; 
S. hrtiCf hracod, ragged, from racian ; Swed. raka ; F. 
racier, to scrape, nritter, tear ; F. raque ; Arm. rag, 
old worn-out ropes. 

2. A herd of colts. See Rake. 

Ragamuffin, s, a ragged paltry fellow, a tatterde- 

Raoe, s, fury, violent passion, madness ; F. rage ; B. 
raaz, from L. rabies. 

Ragout, «. high seasoned stewed meat ; F. ragout, ra» 
goust, from L. gustus. 

Ragwort, Ragweed, t, an herb with ragged leaves. 

Rail, «. 1. a cross bar, a pole, a rack, a range, a fence ; 
T. riegel; Swed. regel; B. rickgel, dim. of Isl. hrike, 
a pole. 

2. A bird ; L. B. raUus ; F. rdle; It raUo ; B. rayle; L. 

3. A woman's upper garment ; G. hrasgle ; S. rasgle ; L. 
B. rallum. See Rocket. 

Rail, v. n. 1. from the noun ; to enclose with rails. 

2. To use opprobrious language, to scold ; Swed. ralla ; 
B. raUen, frequentative of G. rwgia ; Swed. rdfa ; S. 
wregan, to accuse. 

Raillery, s. jesting, slight satire; F. raillerie. See to 

Raiment, s, vesture, dress, arrayment; from Array. 

Rain, «. water falling from the clouds ; G. rign ; Swed. 

T. B. regen ; S. rotgn, ren, supposed to be cognate 

with L. rigq, 

Rainoeer, s. a northern large deer; G. rein; Isl. 
reindyr ; S. hranat ; B. reen ; F. renne* In the lan- 
guage of Lapland rangti is said to signify an animal. 

Rainworm, s, a worm that comes out of the earth du- 
ring rain ; S. renwyrm. See Dew- worm. 

Raise, r. a. to lift, exalt, erect, levy, excite; G. reisa; 
Swed. resa ; A. raWti. See to Rear. 

Raisin, «. a dried grape ; F. rainn ; A rasa ; P. raz, a 
grape, vine ; \1H ; L. ractmus, a duster of berries. 

Rake, s, 1. a tool with teeth, a scraper; S. race; T. 
rechen ; Swed. raka, to scrape. 

2. From the verb ; a roving dissolute fellow. 

3. From the verb ; a course, a run, the track of a ship, a 
flock of cattle running at large. 

4. The extent from one point to another, the whole 
length or distance. See ^ach. 

Rake, v. 1. to gather, scrape up, collect with a rake, to 

2. To run about dissolutely, to play the rake ; G. raka, 
reika ; Isl. rekia ; T. rechen. 

3. From the noun ; to fire on a ship, in the direction of 
the whole extent, from stem to stem. 

Rakb hbll^ s. a disorderly dissolute ibUow, apparently 


fr<im Swed. rmkel; T. reckel; B. rekd, a rake, a va- 
gabond ; but some would derive the word from G« 
rakke, a dog, signifying, like F. racaUle, the canaille. 

Rally, v. 1. to satirise facetiously, banter ; F. railUr, 
riaUer ; L. B. ridiculare, from L. ridiculus. 

2. To reunite disordered troops, put again into order ; 
F. ralUer, to re-ally. 

Ram, «. a tup, a male sheep ; S. T. and B. ram, from 
Swed. ram ; G. ramur, robust, strong. 

Ram, v. a. from the noun ; to drive with violence, to 
beat against, to use a battering ram; D. ramme; B. 
ramen, ramejen ; T. rameln. 

Ramble, v, n. to rove about, to wander ; supposed to 

be L. reambulo; but perhaps frequentative of to 

Rambooze, s. a drink made of milk, wine, sugar and 

rose-water ; B. roombuize. See Cream and Bouas. 
Ramekin, s. a small slice of bread covered with a farce 

of cream cheese and egg ; T. rahmekin ; F. ramequin. 

See Cream. 

Rammer, s. an instrument to ram a charge into a gun. 

Rammish, a. from Ram; rank, smelling strong; L. 

Ramp, v. it. to climb as a plant, to rise up, to gambol ; 
It. rampare; F. ramper, from L. repo, properly to 
creep, to climb ; but in heraldry, ferocious animals 
so depicted appear to be erect ; and hence the word 
is used with the idea of salient or erect. 

Rampart, s. a wall round a fortified place ; F. rem- 
part ; It. riparo, from L. ripa, a bank, and parte*. 

Ramb, Ramsonb, s. wild garlic ; S. hramsa ; D. rami- 
lock, from its rammish craour. See Buckrams. 

Ran, pret. of the verb to Run. 

Rand, s, the border of a shoe ; G. D. Swed. T. and B. 

Random, ^. precipitation, hazard, chance; S. randun; 

F. randon, running without control; D. renden, to 

run. See Rash. 
Rang, pret, of the verb to Ring. 

Range, «. 1. a rank, order, line, excursion, the course 

of a bullet from the mouth of a gun to where it 

lodges ; G. ra ; Isl. and Swed. ran, rand, a row ; T. 

reihen; D. range; F. rang; W. rheng. See Arbay 

and Rank. 
2. A kitchen grate. See Rack and Rank. 
Range, v, from the noun; to place in order, to put in 

ranks, to go from one place to another, to rove ; F. 

Rank, s. a row or order, a line of men, a degtee of 

rank, high station; F. rang ; Arm. renkr W. rkenc ; 

O. F. regue, perhaps from Swed. rascka. See Rack 

and Range. 

Rank, a. 1. tall, luxuriant; S. ranc; Swed. D. and B. 
rank : G. rakia, to extend. 

2. Strong scented, ill flavoured, rancid, festering ; F. 
ranee; L. ranctdus. 

Rankle, a, from Rank ; to fester, to produce inflam- 
mation of body or mind. 

Ranny, s. the shrew-mouse ; L. araneus. 

Ransack, v. a, to search narrowly and rudely as if for 
plunder, to violate : G. and Swed. ransaka; D. ran* 
sage, from ran, rapine, and saskia, to seek. 

Ransom, s, a price paid for liberty ; It ranzon ; F. ram* 
fon ; Swed. ranson, from L. redemptio. 

Rant, s. pompous jargon, noisy cant; O. E. raye; B. 


R E A 

rejf; T. reiken; I. ran, a song; I. ranUack; Scot 
ranter, a musician, a poet ; me letter n being fre- 
qaently inserted and omitted in the middle of words^ 
perhaps Uie word may be derived fr<»n G. radd, rodd, 
hrod, voice, poetry, song ; M. G. rodgan, to speak. 

Ranunculus, *. a kind of flower called frog's foot, crow- 
foot; F. ranuncule; L. ranuncuius, perhaps ranof 

Rap, s, a quick short blow, a sudden noise ; Swed. and 
D. rapp, rap ; F.Jrape. 

Rap, v.n.l. from the noun ; to strike smartly, to utter 

2. To snatch away, seize by violence, enrapture; L. 

Rapb, s. 1. violation of chastity ; from L. ropto. 

3. A bunch of grapes ; T. rebe ; D. rxpt ; L. B. riht* ; 
P. raffle, a cluster of any fruit, from G. and Swed. 
rep, ref; S. rape, a rope, a string, a bunch, a rope of 

3. A district, a division of country or land ; G. rep, 
krepp, from rifa, to divide, to separate. Iceland it 
divided into rapes, corresponding with our shires, 
from shear, to cut, to divide. 

4. A kind of turnip, the seed of which produces oil ; 
fdwvi ; L- rapa ; F. rave; T. rube. 

Rapibb, s. a small sword; F. rapiere; T. rapier; 

Swed. rapper ; foft^. 
Rapport, *. proportion, connexion; F. rapport. See 

to Report. 
Rapt, s. from the verb ; a trance, ecsUcy, rapture. 
Rarb, a. 1. scarce, uncommon, excellent; F. rare; L. 

2. Underdone by the fire ; G. rar; S. hrere, from Raw ; 

but the word seems to be confounded with rear, 

quickly done. 
Rabbbrrt, Rabpbbbby, s. a bush and its fruit ; sup- 

posed to be from rasp, but perhaps from raeberry, 

the roe-berry. See Hindbbbbt. 
Rascal, *. 1. a raacalion, rapscalion, one of the lowest 

class, a villain ; It raschetlo, rascheUone ; F. racaille. 

See Rabblb. 
2. A lean deer; 8. rascal; Isl. and Swed. ras, decre- 
Rabb, v. a. to rub slightly, to graze, to cancel, erase, 

demolish ; F. raser, from L. rado, raso. 
Rash, a. precipitate, violent, hasty, hazardous ;Q. ras; 

Swed. and D. rask; T. rasck; P. resck. 
Rash, s. 1. satin; F. ras; It rascia, velvet, satin, 

serge, from L. rasusj as it was formerly shorn smooth. 
2. An efflorescence of the skin ; B. roos. See Robb and 

Rabhbr, *. a thin slice of bacon ; L. rasura. 
Rasp, v. a. to rub, grate, clean off; It raspare; F. 

rasper, rdper ; Sp. raspar ; T. raspen. See Rabblb. 

Rabp, s. 1. from the verb; a rough file. 

2. The rasberry bush and its fruit ; It raspo. 

Rat, j. 1. an animal of the mouse kind; G. ratla; 

Swed. r&tta; D. rolte; T. ratze ; S. nrt; B. rot; 

F. rat; It. ratio; Sp. raton. 

2. A bad design, a trick ; D. uraad, merke uraad, to 
mark or smell a rat ; S. unrad, treachery. 

Rat, v. to seek safety^ to join the strongest party; 
from an opinion that rats leave a ship that is not sea- 

Ratafia, s, a cordial liquor prepared from spirits, the 
kernels of apricots and sugar ; Sp. ratqfia. 

Ratan, s. a small Indian cane; Malay, roian, called 
rottang in Java ; B. rotting. 

Hatch, s. a wheel in a clock ; F. rateau ; L. radula. 

Ratb, s. a price fixed, a tax, a standard. 

Ratb, v. a. I. from the noun ; to tax, value. 

2. To correct, chide, reprove ; G. and Swed. rastta ; S. 

3. To provoke, to irritate ; G. reita ; Swed. reta. See 

Rath, in the names of places, particularly in Ireland, 
signifies a seat of jurisdiction or government, a fort; 
I. ratk; T. ratk; G. rad; Swed. r&d. See Had. 

Rath, a. soon, early, precocious, premature ; S. ratk, 
ceratk ; B. eer. oee JBbb. 

Rathbb, a. comparative of Rath; sooner, in preference, 
especially; 8.r€ttkor; T.ratkmr; "B. eerder ; cor- 
responding with F. piaii6L 

Ration, s. daily allowance of victuals ; F. ration. See 

Rattbbk, s. a kind of shorn frise; F. ratine; Sp. ra* 
tina ; B. ratyn, from L. rado. 

Rattlb, v. 1. to make a clattering noise, to speak 
noisily; B. ratelen; D. ralle, frequentative of S. 

2. To chide, to scold ; frequentative of Ratb. 

Rattoon, Raooon, s. a kind of American fox. 

Ravaob; v. a. to plunder, pillage, lay waste ; F. rava^ 
ger ; L. B. raptare, from L. rapio. 

Ravb, v. n. 1. to talk incoherently, to be mad or deli- 
rious ; F. rever ; L. rabo. 

2. To brawl like a fool ; L. ravio. 

Ravbl, v. a. to entangle,' perplex, undo knit- work ; B. 
ravelen ; Low S. rebbelen. 

Ravblin, s. a small detached angular work in fortifica- 
tion ; F. ravelin ; It riveOino ; L. B. revallum, from 
L. vallum, 

Raybn, s. a large black carnivorous bird ; G. and Swed. 
rqfn ; S. kra^n ; D. ravn ; B. raven ; T. rabe. 

Ravin, s. prey, plunder. See Rap and Rbave. 

Ravish, v. a. to violate chastity, to obtain by violence, 

to overcome the senses, to transport with delight ; F. 

ravir ; It rapire ; L. ropto. 
Raw, a. not cooked, unwrought, immature, unripe, 

having the skin stripped off, crude, chill, bleak ; G. 

ra; owed, rd; D. raa; T. raw; S. kreau; B. 

Rawbonbd, a. having large bones, cross-made, strong ; 

G. ra; Swed. wra, angular. 
Rawhbad, s. a supposed spectre, a word to frighten 

children; Swed. rd kieUe, from G. rajrn; Isl. ragr ; 

Swed. ra; P. rakus, a demon^ and&jaMe; Swed. 

kiette; S. eten, a giant 
Ray, s. 1. a beam of light ; F. rate; Sp. rayo; It rag- 

gio; L. radius. 

2. A fish ; L. raia; F. raye; Sp. roya. 

3. An herb ; Y.yvraU; L. ebria ; mi^ See Tabb. 
Ratb, s. a song, a ballad ; T. ray, reiken ; B. rey. 
Razob, s. a knife to shave with ; F. rasoir ; L. rasor. 
Rbach, r. 1. to extend, to arrive at; G. reckia ; IsL 

reikia; M. G.rakjan; Swed. rofka; B. rekken; T. 
reicken ; S. rcecan. See Stbbtch. 
2. To spue ; O. reka ; IsL kraka ; S. krofcan ; B. 6raa- 

R E C 


ken; T. hrechen: G. rtdce ; P. cracke, spittle. Sec 

Reach, s, from the verb ; extent, power, ability, exer- 
tion, fetch, scheme, the distance between two points 
of land. 

Read, v, to peruse written or printed characters, learn 
fully, discover ; G. rtida, reaa ; Swed. rada ; S. rte* 
dan ; T. reden, to explain^ divine, understand. 

Ready, a, prepared, quick, prompt, willing; Swed. 
reda; D. rede; S. reed, from G. rad, hrad, direct, 
prompt, radan, prepared. 

RbaIiH, s. a kingdom, a royalty ; F. roialme, roiaume. 
See Royal. 

Realty, s, adherence to kings, sometimes signifying 
loyalty, which is adherence to the law ; It. reaUa ; L. 
B. regaliias. See Royal. 

Ream, s, the quantity of twenty quires of paper ; B. 

riem; S. ream, from G. reif, reim, a ligature, a 

Reap, v. a. to cut down com, to obtain ; M. O. raup- 

jan ; Swed. repa ; S. ripan ; B. reepen. 
Rear, s, the hinder part, the last class, the hindermoet 

division of an army or fleet ; F. arriere, from L. retro. 
Rear, a. half-roasted, quickly done, early ; contracted 

from rather, but perhaps confounded with rare, 

crude. See Rath. 
Rear, v. a. 1. to raise up, elevate, educate, bring to ma- 
turity ; Isl. reira ; Swed. rora ; S. rasran, apparently 

a different pronunciation of reuse, in the same way 

that lore and lose are synonymous. 
2. To stir up, flutter^ excite, rouse ; G. roera ; Swed. 

rura ; T. ruiren ; S. hreran, apparently the same with 


Rearmouse, Raremous^ s, the flying mouse, a bat ; S. 
kreremus. See to Rear. 

Reave, v. a. to take away by violence ; G. and Swed. 
rijfwa ; D. reeve ; S. rasfian. 

Rebate, v, a, 1. to lower, diminish, make an abate- 
ment, deprive of keenness, to put a mark of degrada^ 
tion ; F. rabatre, to re-abate. 

2. To chamfer, to chancel, to groove. See Rabbet. 

Rebeck, < . a three-stringed fiddle ; P. rubeeb ; F. rebec ; 

It. ribecca; Sp. rebel; A. rdhab. 
Rebuff, s, a sudden resistance, repercussion, denial ; 

It. rebuffo; F. rebuffade. See Buff. 

Rebuke, v. a. to reprehend, to chide ; L. r^pungo, re- 

Rebut, v. n, to repel, drive back ; It. rxbutlare ; F. re- 
buter. See to But. 

Reck, v, to care for, to heed, regard, consider, value 
highly ; G. rcekia ; Swed. rdca ; S. reccan. 

Reckon, v, a, to count, recount, narrate, estimate, con- 
sider ; G. rekia ; T. rechen ; B. reckenan ; S. recan : 
P. rekem, to compute, ra^A, conjecture. 

Recoil, v, n. to fly back, to shrink, to fail/ F. reenter; 
Sp. recular; It. rinculare, to go backside foremost, 
from L. cuius, 

Recovsr> v. to regain, to regain health, to restore from 
sickness; F. recouvrer; L. recupero. 

Recount, v. a. to relate in detail / F. reconier ; Sp. re- 
contar. See to Count. 

Recreant, a. apostate, false, cowardly; P. recreant, 

from L. recredens. See Miscreant. 
Recruit, v. a. to repair, to supply with new materials. 

to raise soldiers ; F. recroUre, reeroistre, from L. re- 

Red, a. having the colour of blood; A. ired; Sans. 
rudher, rata; fii», inv0f ; G. riod; Swed. rdd ; D. 
reed; S. red; T. roth; B. rood; L. rutilus. 

Reddle, s. red marl or chalk used in colouring ; from 
Red. See Ruddle. 

Rede, s, counsel, advice ; G. rad ; Swed. rad ; S. rad ; 
T. rath; B. raad. 

Rede, t;. 1. from the noun ; to advise, counsel, direct. 
2. To speak, accost ; G. rceda, rdda ; B. reden ; M. G. 
rodjan, from G. rodd, voice. 

Redoubt, v. to apprehend, to fear ; F. redoubter, from 
L. re and dubito. 

Redoubtable, a. from the verb ; formidable, terrible to 

Rkdress^ s. relief, reformation, amends ; F. redresser. 
See to Dress. 

Redshanks, s, 1. Irish soldiers with red hose. 

2. A bird with red legs; haematopus. 

Redstart, s, a bird with a red tail ; G. sltfrt ; B. start ; 
D. stiert, the tail, the rudder. 

Reb, *. I. a kind of sieve ; B. rede, ree. See Riddle. 
2. A small coin ; Sp. and Port, re, real. See Rotal. 
Reed, s, a plant or small cane, a pipe made of reed, an 

arrow; G. raus, reer ; Swed. rt^; S. reod; T. riet ; 

B. ried. 

Reef, Reff, j. 1. in sea language, the binding together 
of a part of the sail, that the wind may have less 
effect upon it; G. re^^; Swed. ref; D. reeve ; B. reef, 
what is tied together, a bunch. See Rope. 

2. A chain of rocks near the surface of the water ; Isl. 
rif; Swed. ref. See Rift. 

Reek, s, 1. smoke, steam, vapour, odour; P. raihu ; G. 

rasik, reik ; Swed. rOk ; T. ranch ; B. rook ; S. rec. 
2. A mow, a heap. See Rick. 

Reel, v, to go round, to move irregularly, to stagger, 
to wind yam; Isl. raga, rafa, rugla, rata; Swed. 
ragla; D. rave; Scot, reavel, reie. See Roll. 

Reel, s. from the verb ; a frame to wind yam on ; S. 

Reeve, Reve, s, 1. & steward or bailiff; Isl. rei^fa, 
reif a ; D. reve; Frisic redieva; from Isl. reida; 
Swed. reda ; S. rasdan, to prepare, arrange, regulate. 
See Greve. 

2. A bird, female of the Ruff. 

Refine, v. a, to purify, make elegant; F. raffiner. See 

Refit, v, a. to restore after damage, to repair; F. Jit, 
pret. of the verb faire, seems to have produced our 
verb to fit out, and thence refit; F. refaire; L. re- 

Refuse, «. a. to reject, not to accept, deny ; F. refuser ; 
Sp. rehusar ; It. recusare ; L. recuso. 

Regal, j. 1. a royal feast, a sumptuous entertainment ; 
It. regalo; F. regal; L. regalis, 

2. A royal instrument of music, a kind of organ ; It. 
regalo ; F. regal ; L. regalis. 

Regale, v, a, from the noun ; to entertain sumptuously, 
to refresh. 

Regard, s, attention, respect, look, reference; F. egard, 
regard; It riguardo. See Guard. 

Rboibisnt, s, a body of soldiers under regular discipline ; 
F. regiment; It regimento, from L. rego. 



Rboistbb, «. a record, list, registrar; It and Sp. regis* 
tro ; F. regesire ; L. B. regestum, from L. res gesUe, 

Kbolet, s. a narrow mouldings a thin ledge used by 
printers; F. reglei, from L. regula, 

Regrate^ v. a. 1. to grate^ to shock the ear. See to 

2. To scrape together^ to forestall^ to engross in order to 

retail at a high price ; F. regraler : regrat ; It. regrat* 

teritty a huckster's shop ; F. grater, &om L. corrado, 

became regraler, to profit by retail. 

Reor£T> v. a, to grieve at, repent ; F. regretier ; It. 
rigreiiare; L. B. regravito, from h, gravtio. See to 

Reguerdon, s, a reward, a recompense. See Guer- 

Rehearse, v. a, to repeat, relate aloud, recite previous- 
ly, apparently to hearsay. 

Rein, s. part of a bridle, an instrument of government ; 

F. rene; It redine, from L. retineo, retinaculum. 
Reins, s. pi. the kidneys, the loins ; L. renes ; F. reins; 

It. reni. 
Rejoice, v. to have joy, to gladden, to exult ; F. redouts- 

ser, rejouir ; Sp. regoujar ; L. B. regaviso ; L. gau^ 

deo, gaviso. 
Relay, s. horses or dogs placed on the road to relieve 

others; ¥. relais ; L. relaxalio. 
Release, v. a, to set free, quit ; F. relagcher, relacher, 
from L. relaxo ; but our word seems to partake more 

of G. erlassa ; T. erldsen, to set loose. 
Relent, v. n, to soften, feel compassion; F. ralentir; 

It raUantare, from L. lento. 
Relic, s. a remnant, a remaining portion of a dead 

body ; P. relique ; L* reliquia. 
Relict, s, a widow ; L. relicta. 
Relieve, v. a. to raise up, succour, ease pain or sorrow, 

free from endurance, change a guard of soldiers ; L. 

relew ; F. relevcr ; Sp. relevar. 
Relievo, j. from the verb ; the prominence of a picture 

or figure ; It. relievo. 
Relish, s. a taste, flavour, smack, liking; F. leche, re- 

leche. See Lick and Lickerish. 
RsLL, *. the dormouse ; B. relmuis, the fieldmouse. 
Rely, v. n. to rest upon, to depend on, to confide in, 

from re and lie, to repose. 
Remember, r. a. to retain in the memory, call to mind, 

recollect ; O. F. remembrer ; L. remenunvr. 
Remorse, s. sorrow for sin, pity ; L. remorsus ; F. re- 

Renabd, s. the fox, a slv person ; Isl. reinike, from G. 

reink; P. renk ; Swed. rasnk ; B. ranke ; S. vrenc, 

fraud ; but G. ref; Swed. rasf; P. ruhah, a fox, are 

supposed to be from reave, to rob. See Reave. 
Rend, v. to tear with violence ; G, renna, remna, rff" 

na ; Swed. rcmna ; S. rendan ; Arm. ranna. See to 

Render, v. a. to restore, repay, translate ; F. rendre ; 

Sp. rendir ; It. rendere ; L. reddere. 
Renegade, Renegado, s. an apostate, one who de- 
nies his religion ; Sp. renegado ; P. renegai, from L. 

Rennet, s. I. a beautiful small frog, of a ffold and green 

colour, found on trees in France and Italy ; F. rain« 

ette, from L. rana. 
2. A renneting apple ; F. rennette, fnmr the town of 


3. The juice of a calTs maw, used to coagnlate milk ; 
Isl. renna miolk, to coagulate milk. See Runnbt. 

Renown, s. a name much known, fame, praise ; L. re- 

Rent, s. 1. money for house or land let to another, are- 
venue, yearly payment ; F. rente ; It rendita ; L. B. 
redendum. See to Render. 

2. A laceration, break, slit. See to Rend. 

Repair, v. restore afler injury, to mend ; F. rejjMr" 

er ; It. reparare; L. reparo. 
2. To appear at, revisit, resort to ; F. repairer ; L. re- 

Repast, s. a meal, refreshment ; F. repas ; It pasto, ri- 

paslo, from L. pasco. 
Repeal, v. a. to revoke, recall, annul, abrogate; F* 

rappeller, from L. re and appello. 
Repent, v. to have sorrow for sin, to grieve ; F. repeU" 

tir ; It pentir, from L, pcenito. 
Replevin, Replevy, s. a pledge, release of goods dis- 
trained; L. B. replegium, from replegio; F. plegfir,' 

plevir, to pledge. See Plevin. " 
Reply, v. a. to return an answer, to respond ; R. repH" 

CO J F.repliquer; lu replicare. 
Report, v. a. to bring back, to echo, to sound, to spread 

a rumour ; L. reporto ; F. rapporter. 

Repose, v. to lie down, to take rest, place securely, 
confide in; F. reposer ; Sp. reposar ; It reposare^ 
L. repono. , 

Reprieve, v. a. to give a respite ; L. B. reprivo, from 
L. privo. 

Reprimand, v. a. to check, dude, reprove ; F. repri^ 
manderj L. reprimo. 

Reprisal, Reprise, s. seizure by way of recompenset 

taking back ; F. reprise ; It and Sp. represa ; L. B. 

reprensa, from L. prenso. 
Reproach, s. censure, scandal, shame; F. reproche; 

Sp. reproche; L. reprobatio ; L. B. reprobrum, from 

L. proorum. 
Reprove, v. a. to blame, check, chide ; F. reprouver ; 

L. reprobo. 
Request, s. petition, entreatv, demand; F. requeste, 

requite; It. rickiesta, from L. requisitus. 

Requite, v. a. to recompense, to pay, to quittance ; F. 
racquitter. See Quittance. 

Rescue, s, a shaking ofi*, a deliverance ; It. riscossa ; F. 
recousse, recous, from L. re excussus. 

Resemble, v. to be like, to give the likeness of^ to com- 
pare ; F. ressembler. See to Semble. 

Resent, v. a. to take ill, to consider as an affront ; F. 
ressentir; Sp. resentir ; It risentir, from L. re and 

Resort, s. an assembly, concourse, recourse, motive of 
action, a spring ; F. ressort ; L. sortior, to decide by 
lot, produced F. sortir, signifying in law, to issue sen* 
tence, put forth, go out; and F. ressortir, to have re- 
course, to appeal, to go out again. From L. sors, an 
issue or offspring, are dcriveS sort, an assembly, re- 
port, a resource. 

Resource, s, a resort, an expedient, means, a f\irther 
chance ; F. ressource, from L. re, and sors. See Re- 

Rssprrs, *. a reprieve, suspension, delay ; F. respit, r^- 
piH, fhmi L. respicio, in tiie sense of expecto ; It as- 
pettare, to wait. 

RifeST, «. I. Guiet, a cessation fVom toil, repose, sleep ; O. 
roi; Swed. ro; T. ruhe; B. rust; D. rast ; 8. rest. 


2. ft Biay^ support^ remainder; F. retie; It retio, from 
L. resto, 

Bmbtuambow, s. a small shrub, with very tough roots ; 
from rest, to stay, and Harrow; F. arrit ooeuf; L. 

Rbstif, Rbsty, a. from Rbbt ; dfsposed to stay, unwill- 
ing to move, stubborn; F. re$lif, rilif; It resiiv, 
from L. resto. 

Rbstorb, V, a. to give or bring back, to recover, to re- 
trieve; F. restorer; It ristorare; L. restauro. 

Rbsult, s. resilience, flying back, an effect, conse* 
quence, conclusion ; F. resultat ; It. resuUato, fh>m L. 

Retail, Rbtale, s. a redivision, sale by small quanti- 
ties; F. retaille; It retagUo; Sp. retaL See De- 

Retinue^ s. a train of kept servants, an attendance, a 
meiny ; F. retenu ; It rttenuti, from L. retineo. 

Rbtibb, V, to withdraw, retreat; F. retirer ; It reiirm 
are; Jj. retrako, 

Rbtbbat, s. a placi^of retirement, the act of drawing 
back from a superior force ; F. retraite ; Sp. r^irada, 
from L. reiracio, retrako. See to Retire. 

Retrench, v. a. to cut off*, to lessen, diminish ; F. re- 
trancher; It riirinciare, from L. re and trunco. 

Betbietb, v. a. to regain, to recover, refind; F. retrou^ 
vrer ; It. riirovare ; Sp. retrovar. See Trover. 

Return, v. to come or go back, to retort, repay, send 
back, transmit ; F. retoumer; It ritornare; Sp. re- 
tomar, from re and tum^ 

Rbveil, Revelly, s. a waking from sleep, a watch 
constructed to awaken, a drum beating at dawn to 
rouse the soldiers ; F. reveille, from L. re and vigilia. 

Revel, s, nocturnal carousing, a noisy feast ; F. reveilUe, 

veiUie ; It vegUa, from L. vigilia. 
Revel, v. n. 1. from the noun ; to carouse. 

3. To retract, draw back ; from L. reveUo. 
Revenge, v. a. to return an injury ; F. revenger, reven* 

cher; It vendicare, from L. vinaico. See \^nge. 

Revenue, s. yearly return of profit, income, tax ; F. 

revenu ; It rivenuto, from L. revenio. 
Reverie, Revert, s, irregular thought, a dreaming or 

musing; F. reverie, from rever, to have visions or 

dreams ; Sp. and Port, rever, to see again ; L. revi* 

dere, to reflect, review. 

Revile, v. a. to calumniate, to vilify; L. B. revilio, 
from L. re and vilis. 

Revolt, v. n, to fall off* from one to another, to turn 
against, to swerve from duty, to rebel, desert ; F. re* 
voUare; It rivoUare, from L. re, and voluto. 

Revt, v. n. in gaming, to raise the bet, to add by spite 

to the former stake ; F. renvier, from L. re and tftvi- 

deo. See to Vy. 
Reward, s, a recomjpence, a requital, a return of the 

worth or value; u. er; T. er, corresponded with L. 

re; and O. and Swed. werd, ward, was worth, value, 

compensation. See Award and Reouerdok. 
RiB> s, a bone in the side of an animal, a piece of timber 

in the belly of a ship ; G. rif; Swed. reef; D. S. and 

B.rib; T. ribbe. 
Ribald, s. a loose mean fellow ; It ribaldo ; F. ribald, 

ribaud: G. ribalder siffnified the followers of a camp 

of the vilest class ; peniaps in the sense of L. cacuke, 

from G. rceip, ordure, excrement 
Riband, Ribbon, s. a fillet of silk, a sash ; Swed. rabm 

and; F. ruban; T. band. 


Ribble, Rabble, «. the refuse or scrafuiigs, mean ttuff.^ 
See Riff Raff and Rubbish. 

Ric, in the names of persons or places, signifies rich, 
powerful, illustrious ; Alaric, all powerful ; G. Hto/- 
prik ; S. Geheelpric^ help rich, corrupted into F. 
Chilpric : Frideric, peace rich ; G. Harik, Hanrik, 
Harry, Henry, are from G. ha, han, possession, pro- 
perty, and rik. 

Rice, s. a foreign esculent grain ; Sans, riz; A* urooiz ; 
4((v^«i ; L. oryza ; Sp. arroz ; It. riso ; F. ris ; T. 

Rick, s, a heap of hay, of flax or of grain in the sheaf; 
G. roek; Swed. thh, roga; B. nSr/ S. hreac, ricg, 
from G. kreika, to heap up. 

Rickets, s, weakness of the joints ; L. B. rachitis, from 

fdxHi ti^ spine. 
Rid, v. a. to set free, clear, extricate, separate, destroy ; 

G. rida; D. redde; Swed. reda ; S. hredan; B. red" 

den; T. retten. 

Riddle, s. I. aenigma, a puasling question ; 8. rcsdels ; 
B. raadsel; T. ratzel, from G. reda, rida ; Swed. rada ; 
S. rcedan, arasdan, to explain, to divine. 

2. A kind of coarse sieve, a clearer ; S. hriddle ; Swed. 

rissel; T. reder, reuter ; B. rede, ree, from S. hredan, 

to rid : but Arm. ridell; W. rhidell, seem to be used 

as L. reticula. 
Ride, v. 1. to be carried on horseback or in carriage ; G. 

reida; Swed. rida; D. nde; T,reiten; B. njden; 

S. ridan. 

2. To be ready, to be afloat ; from G. reda. See Road. 

RiDOE, s. the risinff part of the back, a steep protube- 
rance, ground thrown up by the plough, the upper 
part of a slope; G. rygg ; D. ryg ; S. hrigg; T. fUck, 
rugge ; Scot, rigg, 

RiDOEL, RiDOLiNG, s. a male beast imperfectly castrated, 
and therefore very troublesome to the female ; Soot 
riglan. See Rio. 

Riding, s. 1. the act of travelling on horseback or in 
carriage ; from ride. 

2. A judiciary superintendance, a division of a country ; 
from G. ried, rtett ; Swed. rad ; D. ret ; S. resd, rtni, 
justice, and G. thing ; S. and Swed. thing, a convo- 
cation of the people, contracted into hing. See Trio- 
ing and Hustings. 

Ridotto, s. an assembly of music and singing, an opera ; 
It ridotto; F. reduii, from L. reduco. 

Rife, a. prevalent, abounding, plentiful; G. rifwr; 
Swed. rtf; B. ridf; S. rj^/e. 

Riffraff, s. the scrapings, rakings, refuse, the rabble ; 
It ruffa raffa; G. rnwa ; D. rive; Arm. rtvta, to 
scrape, to rub. See Kibble Rabble. 

Rifle, v. a. to rob, to pillage, to plunder ; Swed. rj/Ko ; 

T. riffeln ; B. rtjfden, frequentative of to Reave. 
Rifle Gun, s. a musket grooved within the barrel ; B. 

rw/fel ; Swed. ra^el bossa, from rojfia, to groove. 

Rift, s. an aperture, breach, deft; G. rift. See to 

Rift, v. 1. from the noun ; to cleave, split, burst 

2. To belch, eructate ; P. rugh ; G. and Swed. rapa ; L. 

Rio, s. a ridge, a ridgel, a wanton lascivious trick, a 

romp ; apparentljr from Bidge or Big, the back, and 

denoting tne leaping of cattle. 

Rig, v. a. to dress, make trim, fit out a ship with tackle; 
S. irrtgan, to cover, to doUie; but L. d. arrigo was 

R I V 


used like L. dirigo, which produced our word to dress, 
to put in order ; B. fyg, however, is a cord or rope ; 
and F.fumer, to rig a vessel, is fhmi h. funis, 

Riooisa, a. wanton, romping ; from Rio. 

Right, a, just, true, proper, equitable, l^al, straight ; 

G. reitj- D. retie ; 8 wed. rdt; S. right; B. regt; T. 

rechif L. rectus; It ritto, rizxo; P. drtnt, from L. 


RiOLBT, s, a thin fiat strip of wood. See Reolbt. 

Rill, Rillet, s. a small stream, a rivulet ; L. rimda. 
See RiNDLE. 

Rim, s, a border, edge, margin ; T. rem, ram^ rain ; Pol* 
and Russ. rama y Isl. ran. See Rand. 

Rime, s. 1. hoar frost ; G. krim ; S. hrim : Swed rim ; 

D. rim ; F. reif. 
2. A chink, cleft, small aperture ; G. rimna ; L. rtmo. 

Rind, s, bark, a husk or pellicle ; S. and T. rinde, sup« 
posed to be from G. hrina, to adhere ; but G. rend, 
the exterior part, is cognate with our word Rand, 

RiNDLE, s. a small water course ; S. rynde, from rtnnan, 
to run. 

RiNO, s. 1. any circle; G. Swed. D. T. B. ring; S. hring* 

2. From the verb ; the sound of metals, a set of bells. 

Ring, v, to strike bells, to sound, to tinkle ; Isl. hringa ; 

D. rin^e ; S. hringan ; Swed. ringa ; B. ringen ; W* 


RiNO-DOVB, s, a kind of pi|^n with a rin^ of white 
feathers on the neck ; D. rtngeldu ; T. ringTetatU>e ; B. 

Ringtail, s. a kind of kite with white feathers round 
the tail, a pygarg. 

Rinse, v. a. to wash, to cleanse ; Arm. rinsa ; F. rinser, 
from G. hrein ; Swed. ren ; D. reen ; T. rein, clean, 

Riot, s* tumult, sedition, loose mirth, debauchery ; L. 
B. riotum ; F. riate. G. rota, hriota ; Swed. ruta, sig- 
nify to run about mutinously, to indulge in debau- 
chery ; Swed. and G. rutare, a sot, a glutton. See 

Rip, V, a. to cut open, unsew, disclose, lacerate ; G. rifa ; 
Swed. ripa ; S. hrypan. 

Ripe, a. mature, fit for use, complete; S. ripe; B. ryp; 

T. reif: S. rip, riep, harvest. See to Reap. 
Ripple, Rimple, v. n. 1. to fret on the surface, to flow 

in broken waves ; B. rimpelen ; S. hrympelle, a wrinkle. 

See to Rumple. 
2. To clean flax by drawing it through a kind of rake 

for taking the grain from the stalk ; T. riffelen ; G. 

rifa, riva ; T. repe ; Isl. ripell, a harrow, a rake. 

Rise, v. to get up, grow, ascend, swell ; G. risa ; Swed. 
resa ; S. risan, arisan ; B. rusen, 

RiSEWoOD, s, brushwood, frith, branches of trees ; G. 
Kris, ris ; S. hris ; T. rise ; B. rys. A fence made with 
stakes and brandies interwoven, is called stake and 
rice in Scotland. See Frith. 

Risk, s, danger, hazard, chance; It. risckio; F. risque; 
Sp. rieseo : G. hasski ; Swed. haske, peril, from hoftta ; 
Swed. hdta, to menace, endanger. See Hazabd. 

Rive, v. to part asunder, cleave, split ; Swed. rifwa, 
from rif, rxmna ; G. rifa ; L. rima, 

Rivel, v. a. to contract into wrinkles ; S. rUlan, geri» 
fian ; B. rujjfelen, rimpelen. See Ruff and Rumple. 

RivEB, s. a large stream running into the sea; It riviera; 
F. riviere ; Sp. rio, from L. riims. 

RiTBT, s. a pin clenched at both ends to keep fast; F. 

rivet ; It. ribato ; Port ribito, from L. rehatuo, 
Rix-DOLLAB, s, an imperial dollar ; Swed. riksdaler ; F. 

rixdaler, firom G. riii ; Swed. rijke; S. ryce ; B. ryk ; 

T. reich, an empire. See Dollar. 

Roach, s. a small river-fish ; S. hreoce ; F. rosse, roug^ ; 
L. B. rassus. 

Road, s, l.a. path, a way, a journey ; S. rad; Arm. red, 
supposed to be from the verb to ride, and meamnff 
properly a horse or carriage way. Corresponding witn 

2. A place of anchorage for ships ; Swed. redd; D. reed; 
B. reede ; T. reide ; F. rade; Sp. rada : G. rada, to 
be ready. 

3. A wharf, a landing place for vessels ; G. rod; Swed. 
rod; S. rothra ; whence Rotterdam, Rotheriiithe. See 
to Row. 

Roam, v. n. tb rove, to go from place toplace ; G. ruma ; 
Isl. ryma; T. raumen; P. rumna. See to Rove and 

Roan, a. bay sorrel, sorrel grey ; P. uroon ; S. roon ; Isl. 
raudn, rusty red; It roano; Sp. ruano; F. rouan, 
are from L. ravus. 

RoAN-TREE, s. the mountain ash or wild service tree ; 
Swed. and D. runtras ; Scot rountere, from G. Swed. 
S. T. mn ; W. rhin, mystery, sorcery, religion, and 
apparently used in the Runic ceremonies. 

Roar, v. it. to make a loud noise, to bellow ; 8. rarian ; 
F. rugir ; It ruggire ; L. rugire ; G. rautr, is a bel- 

RoARY, a. dewy, moist with dew ; from L. roro. 

Roast, v, a. to dress meat before the fire, to vex, to 
tease; F. rostir, rdtir ; It. rostire; Swed. ro*ta; D. 
riste ; S. rostan; B. roosten; T. rosien: L. ustus, 
tostus, rostus, are all from L. uro, to bum, parch, 

Rob, s. inspissated juice of fruit ; P. roob ; Hind, rab ; 
Sp. robe, arope ; F. rob ; S. rope. See Sirop. 

Rob, v. a. to take by violence, plunder ; P. roolu ; G. 
rupa, rauba ; Swed. rqffva ; D. rotve; T. rauben; S. 
rtfan; B. rooven; L. rapio; F. rober; It rchare; 
Sp. robar. See to Reave. 

Robe, s. a long vest, a garment ; G. rauba, rofa ; S» 
reof, reowa ; Swed. ref; Sp. ropa; F. robe; It ro6- 
ba ; L. B. raupa, rauba. See to Wrap. 

Robins, s, of a sail, reef bands ; D. rerfbaands. 

Rocambole, s. a species of garlic ; Sp. rocambole. 

Rochet, s. I. a bishop's surplice; F. rochet; It ro- 
chetto; Arm. rocket; L. B. rochetum, from Swed. and 
T. rock : S. roce ; B. rok ; L. B. roccus. 

2. A fish ; dim. of Roach ; F. rouget ; 

Rock, ^. I. a vast mass of stone, a place of strength, a 
fort; Arm. roch; F. roc, roche; It rocca; Sp. roca; 
fdwrt ; L. rupes ; P. and K. intennutate. 

2. The roll of flax ox wool from which the thread is 
drawn, a distaff; G. and Swed. rock, rick; T. spin 
rochan ; It rocca ; Sp. rucca. 

Rook, v. to shake, to agitate, to move like a cradle, to 
lull ; Isl. hrocka, ruga ; D. rokke ; Swed. ruka, run» 
ka; F. rocquer. 

Rocket, s. I. a kind of artificial firework ; It raggio, 
raggieto ; A. racket, from L. radius. J^ 

2. A plant and its flower ; It ruchetla ; F. raquette ; 
L. eruca. 

3. A kind of garment See Rochet. 


B O U 

Bod, s. a pole> a twig, a rood, a perch ; O. rudda ; 
Swecl. rtnida; T. ruthe; B. roed ; L. rudis; fM^, 
corresponding with L. virga ; whence 6. rudgera, to 
use a rod, to stuprate. See Yard. 

Bob, s» 1, a kind of deer; G. ra; D. raa; Swed. and 
S. ra ; T. rehe ; B. ree . 

2. BoNE^ Roan, the eggs of fish ; 6. rogn ; D. rann ; 
T. rogen; F. rogne; Arm. rog. 

BoOATiON, «. a desire, prayer, the litany ; F. rogation ; 
L. rogaiio. 

BooATiON-wEBK, s, the week before Whitsunday, the 
time of a religious parochial procession, supposed to 
be adopted from the Terminalia of the Bomans, who 
at that season visited their fields, and, as at the feast 
of Bubigo, prayed that the fruits of the earth might 
be preserved from blight 

BoouE, s. a vagrant, a knave, a sturdy beggar ; F. co^ 
quin was used to signify a knave, and also a wag, as 
a term of slight tenderness ; but coquin rogue was an 
insolent knave, from L. arrogo. In £. rogue alone 
came to signify either or both terms. 

BoiST, BousT, V, It. to swagger, domineer, vociferate, 
boast, bluster ; 6. rosta ; Swed. ruiia : 6. raust ; 
Swed. roust, vociferation, from G. rodd ; Isl. raust, 

Boll, *» what is circular or rotatory, a round body, 
paper or any thing rolled up, a record or writing, a 
catalogue, a register; F. rouleau, rolle; T. rolle ; 
Arm. roll; W. rhol; Sp. rodilla, from L. rotula. 

Boll, v, from the noun; to move in a circle, to go 
round, enwrap; F. roller; T. roUen, 

BoLLY Polly, Rowly Powly, s, a sort of childish 
game, a turning dance ; F. roukr poulie, to turn a 
pulley ; It. ruollo, a waltz. 

RoMAOE, s, noise, bustle, tumult; G. romur; Swed. 
rom, clamour. 

BoHANCB, s, a fiction, fable, tale ; Sp. romance ; It. ro^ 
manza; F. rotnan, a Roman or Romanish dialect 
spoken in the south of France, part of Spain and 
luJy, into which the Troubadours translated the wild 
adventures and romantic tales of the Moors. 

BoMP, s, a rude wanton girl, rough violent play. See 

BoNDBAU, s. a kind of ancient poetry, beginning and 

ending with the same measure or strain ; F. rondeau. 

See KouNnELAY. 
BoNiOK, s. 1. the kidney ; F. rognion, from L. re/i. 
2. A gross, vulgar, scurvy woman ; from F. rogne ; It. 

rogna ; Sp. rona, the scab, the itch. See to Royne. 
RooBLE, s. a Bussian silver coin. See Boopbe. 
Rood, s. 1. a pole or perch of 16^ feet long, a quarter 

of an acre. See Ron. 
2. The cross of Christ; G. roda; S. and Swed. rod; T. 

rode, an image, was afterwards applied to the figure 

of crucifixion ; A. rayont ; Heb. reout, countenance, 

appearance, visage, from raa, to see. 
BooF, s. the top or cover of a house, or of the mouth, 

the palate ; G. rasf; S. hrof; T. raffen. 

Book, «. 1. a gregarious fVugivorous bird ; confounded, 
vulgarlv, in most languages, with the crow and ra- 
ven, which, being birds of prey, are never seen in 
flocks ; G. raek ; Swed. raak ; S. kroc. 

2. A sharper, a rapacious fellow, a cheat ; T. robe and 
It. oorvo are used in this sense. See Bavbk. 

3. The castle at chess ; P. rukh ; A. roch, a dromedary ; I 
G. rog; It. rocco; ¥*/nmue. I 

Boov, s. extent, space, place, stead ; G. Swed. S. rum ; 
D. rom; B. ruim. 

BooPEE, s, a silver Indian coin; Sans, ropya, from 
roop ; P. roo, a face, a countenance ; S. rooouhla, a 
rooble ; but, from the aversion of the Mussulmans to 
images, it now bears only a superscription. 

Boost, s. a place whereon a bird sits to sleep, repose ; 
S. hrost ; B. roest. See Rest. 

Root, *. the part of a plant in the ground, from which 
vegetables spring, the first cause, an ancestor; G. 
rot; Swed. rot; D. roed; fi^ct; Arm. rizia ; W. 
raidd; L. radix. 

Rope, s. a thick cord, a row of things strung together, 
a cluster, a bunch; G. rep; Swed. reep; S. rape] 
B. reep, roop ; It refe; T. repe. See Reef. 

RoQUELAURE, s, a sort of man's cloak ; F. roquelaure; 
Sp. roclo. See Rocket. 

Rosary, s, a form of devotion, the mass, a string of 
beads for prayer ; L. B. rosarium ; Sp. and It rwfl- 
rio ; F. rosaire, from G. and Swed. rosa, roose, wor- 

Rose, pret. of the verb to Rise. 

Rose, *. 1. a fragrant flower, the emblem of love and 

secrecy ; L. It and Sp. rosa ; F. D. S. T. and B. 

rose. It was dedicated to Venus and Isis. 

2. An erysipelas ; from its rosy colour. 

3. Water, used only in the expression, to gather a rose ; 
a pla^ on W. rhos, which signifies a rose and also ir' 

Rose noble, s. an ancient gold coin, stamped with a 
rose, and worth sixteen shillings. 

Rosemary, s. a medicinal herb; L. ros marina; It 
rosmarino ; F. romarin. 

Rosin, s. turpentine inspissated ; L. resina ; F. resine. 
Rot, *. putridity, decay, a distemper in sheep ; Isl. S. 
and B. rot ; Swed. rot. 

Rote, *. 1. a harp, a lyre; T. rotle; F. rote; L. B. 
rotta, rodda. 

2. Words uttered from memory; F. routine; L. ro- 

Bother beasts, s. black cattle ; S. hrother, oxen, kine. 
Rove, v. n. 1. to range, ramble, wander. See to Boaji. 
2. To pirate, to plunder; D. rove; B. rooven. See to 

Rover, *. 1. from the verb ; a rambler, a wanderer. 
2. Prom the verb ; a pirate ; B. zee roover, a sea robber. 
BouQE, s. red paint for the face; F. rouge; It rosso • 

L. russus. * 

Bough, a. rugged, indelicate, coarse, harsh, austere 
rude, stormy; G. hrock; S. hruhge ; Swed. nuttt'- 
B. rouw; T. rauh. ^^* 

RouNo, a. circular, without angles, plain, candid, brisk- 
F.rond; It rondo; Sp. redondo; T.runde; Swed! 
and D. rund, from L. rotundus. 

Round, v. 1. to make round, to surround, go round. 

2. To whisper, torown; G. rma ; S. runian; Chald. 

Roundelay, s, a kind of ancient poetry, a song; from 
round and lay. See Rondeau. 

Boup, *. a call, an auction by outcry, a disease in poultry 
attended with a hooping; from G. and SweeTropa- 
S. hreopan ; B. roepen. ^ * 

Rouse, ». a. to stir up to action, to excite, to wake from 
rpst, to haul in a cable; G. reisa; reisa diur, to muse 
the deer ; Swed. resa. See to Baiov. 

R U F 


RouBB^ RouBER, i. a dofle of liquor too large ; Swed. 
rus ; T. rausch ; O. £. raus, noise^ intoxication. 
See Carouse. 

RouT^ J. 1. a mixed assembly^ a clamorous multitude^ 
the common people ; It. ruota; F. roture: 6. and 
Swed. rote ; B. nA ; T. r^it ; L. B. ruiay rouia, rot- 
ta, signify an assembly of soldiers^ a conflux of peo- 
ple> nrom 6. rota, which nearly corresponds with L. 
roto. See Crowd. 

2. The defeat of an army; F. routes It roita, from L. 

3. Noise^ clamour ; either for riot, or from Isl. rauta, S. 
reotan, to roar. 

Route, *. a road, a Journey ; F. route; It. rotta; Sp. 
rauta, ruta, from L. via ruta. See Row. 

Row, s. a rank, a file, a number of things ranged in line; 
P. rahy radah, rayha ; G. and Swed. ra, rad ; S. ra, 
rasfva ; T. rah, reihe ; B. ry ; whence apparently F. 
rue; Sp. rua ; It. ruha, ruga, a row of houses, a 

Row, V. to impel with oars ; G. roa ; Swed. ro; D. roe; 
S. rowan ; B. roeijen. 

Rowel, s. a little wheel, the points of a spur turning on 
an axis, a seton ; F. rouelle ; S. rodajuela ; L. rotula, 

RowEN, s. after grass, roughings ; T. rauke grass. See 

Royal, a, regal, kingly, noble ; L. regalis ; F. rotfal ; 
It. reale; Sp. real, from L. rex, corresponding with 
Sans, raia; Heb. raah; Coptic, ro; Arm. roue; W. 
rAisiy, rXi ; I. rtogA y It re ; Sp. rey y F. rot, a king ; 
connected with G. n^i; Swed. riArey S. rice; T. 
retcA; Sans, raj, government; Coptic, pha ro, the 

RoYNB, V, a, to bite, to gnaw, to itch ; F. rogner, ron- 
ger ; Sp. ronzar ; L. rodo. 

Rub, v. to make a friction, to fret, scour, smooth, get 
throuffh difiiculties ; G. riti^a ; Swed. riftva, ruhha ; 
T. retoen, reipen ; W. rhubw. See to Scrub. 

Rubbish, Rubble, s, ruins of buildings, what is rub- 
bed or broken off, refuse. 

Rubric, s, the contents or title of a law-book, formerly 
written with red ink ; L. rubrica ; F. rubrique. 

RuBT, *. a red gem ; F. rubis ; Sp. rubi ; T. rubin ; 
from L. rubeus, rubens. ^ 

Rub, v. to make red; G. ruda ; S. rudian, reodian. 
See Red. 

Rudder, s. the machine that steers the ship; Swed. 
roder; S. rother; B. roeder; T. ruder ; D. roer. See 
to Row. 

Ruddle, s. from Rud ; red earth, oker ; G. ruduL See 

RuDDT, a, from Rud ; approaching to redness ; S. rudu. 

Rude, a. rough, harsh, ignorant, savage; F. rude; It. 

rudo; L. rudis. 
Rue, v. to grieve, lament, regret ; G. rygga ; S. reowian ; 

T. reuen. 

Rue, s. an herb ; F. rue ; L. rvto. 

Ruelle, s. a small private circle or assembly, a small 
street See Row. 

RuTF, s, a state of roughness, a linen rugose ornament 
for the neck, a bird with feathers resembling a ruff, 
the female of which is called reeve. 

Ruff, v, to trump at cards ; a vulgar word formed on 
the suppodtion that triumph was the riumph. 

Ruffian, s, a robber, a murderer, a brutal feUow ; 
Swed. Hif; S. reqf, spoliation, violation, may have 
produced our word; but It. ruffiano; T. ruffian; Sp. 
rujum ; F. ruffien, signify a whore-keeper, a pimp, a 
bully to a bawdy-house, and rt{fiana is a bawd ; ap- 
parently from L. rufus, because prostitutes at Rome 
wore fdse hair of a golden colour. 

Ruffle, v, a. 1. to ornament with something like a 
ruff, to wrinkle, to plait. 

2. From rough ; to make rugged, to irritate, fret, dis- 
turb, storm. 

Ruo, s, a rough woollen cloth for beds. 

Rum, s, the American name for spirit distilled from su- 
gar. It was called kill-devil by sailors, and thence, in 
cant, signified a parson. 

Rumble, v. n. to make a hoarse low noise ; G. rymbla ; 

Swed. rambla ; D. rumle ; T. rummelen ; D. romme- 

Rummage, s, a turning over things, a dose search ; F. 

remuage; L. renwvatio. 

Rummer, s. a large glass cup; D roetner , B. roemer; 
S. rumor, from rum, large, wide. 

Rump, s. the buttocks, the end of the back bone, the 
tail of a fowl ; S. ropp ; B. romp ; Swed. rumpa ; 
D. rumpe ; T. rumpf. See Croup. 

Rumple, v. a. to press out of shape, to corrugate, to 
wrinkle; B. rtmpel; S. hyrmpelle; T. rumpfel, a 
wrinkle. See Ruffle and Crumple. 

Run, V, n. to move swiftly, flow, become liquid, emit 
liquor, smuggle; G. renna; M. G. rinnan; Swed. 
renna ; S. rinnan ; T. and B. rennen. 

RuNDLET, Runlet, s, a small round cask. 
Rung, pret. of the verb to ring. 

RuNNET, s. the juice of a calTs maw used to make milk 
coagulate; Is], renna miolk ; S. rynning; corres- 
ponding with lopper, to run together. 

Runt, s. a dwarf ox or cow ; G. rian naut, small cat- 
tle. See Neat. 

Rush, *. 1. a plant; G. raus, ris; Swed. rusk ; S. rise ; 

T. rusch; Arm. raous. 
2. From the verb ; a run, a violent course. 

Rush, v. n. to enter or move on with violence, tumul- 
tuous rapidity ; H. rutz ; Swed. rusa ; T. ruschen ; 
S. hrysan, hrusan ; Arm. rusa ; L. ruo. 

Rusk, s. a kind of biscuit ; A. ruzg, 

Russ, s, a native of Russia ; A. rais ; Heb. rishai ; W. 
rhys ; G. hrese ; T. reise ; B. reus, a warrior, a giant. 

Russet, a. reddish brown, rustic, coarse ; F. rousset ; 

It rossato, from L. russus. 
RussETiNO, s. an apple of a russet colour. 
Rust, s. a crust grown over iron ; G. rid ; Swed. rost ; 

D. rust ; T. rost ; B. roest ; S. rust, from its reddish 

Rustle, v. n. to make a noise like silks rubbed against 

each other ; S. hristlan ; B. ryseUn, frequentative of 

Isl. hrisia; Swed. rysia. 
Rut, v. n. to copulate like deer ; B. rytan ; F. ruler, 

perhaps from G. rutur, a ram. Sans, ruti is venery. 

Rut, *. 1. The copulation of deer ; from the verb ; F. 

rut ; Arm. rut ; W. rhewydd. 
2. The track of a wheel ; Sp. rodada ; It. ruotaia, from 

L. rota. 
Ruth, s, pity, mercy, tenderness. See to Rue. 

Rye, s. a coarse kind of bread com ; Swed. rys, rog r 
S. ryge ; T. rogken ; B. rogge, ftook its roiurh beard« 



SHA8 in English the same hissing sound as in other 
lanffuaffes, and unhappily prevaib in so many of our 
woras^ mat it produces in the ear of a foreigner a 
continued sibilation. To this frequency several causes 
contribute. We have adopted it from the Oothic^ as 
the siffn of the genitive case^ and^ from the Latin and 
Frendiy to form the plural number of nouns. We 
sometimes change theliatin ex into s at the begin- 
ning of words ; as Sample for Example^ Spend for 
Expend. The Ooths^ Greeks and Ceks, in generid, 
were accustomed to prefix S to their nouns and verbs 
in the sense of our o or Is, the Welsh Ys> either to 
vary the meaning, in some sort, or produce greater 
intensity. Thus we have Bar Spar, Deep Steep, 
Heel Seel, Leazv Sleazy, Light Slight, Loum 
Slough, Melt Smelt, Neese Sneese, Piece Spice, Pixe 
Spike, Plash Splash, Pleach Splice, Quarry Square, 
Quash Squash, Rivel Shrivel, Tumble Stumble. In 
the beginning of words S has invariably its natural 
sound ; in the middle it is sometimes uttered with a 
stronger appulse of the tongue to the palate, like Z ; 
as Rose, Osier, Busy ; but ^ain the natural sound is 
retained in Loose, Rush, Desolate, for which there 
appears to be no rule. At the end of monosyllables 
it IS simply S, as in This ; sometimes Z, as m Was, 
and generally where substituted in the termination 
of verbs for eth, as Gives, Has, Blows, for Giveth, 
Hath, Haveth, Bloweth. No noun singular termi- 
nates now with S single. Therefore in words written 
with diphthongs, and naturally long, an E is added 
at the end, as House, Goose ; and wnere the syllable 
is short, the S is doubled, as Wilderness, Distress, 
anciently Wildemesse, Distresse. 

Sabbath, #. the day of rest, Sunday ; Heb. shabath, he 

Sablb, 1. #. an animal, a black fur. 

2. a. A black colour in heraldry; A. sumool ; Q.safali; 
Swed. <a6e/y T.zobel; D. sobel; L.B,2ibella; It. 
zihellini ; Sp. cebeUina ; F. sable, sebdine, 

Sabeb, s. a cimeter, a broad crooked sword ; A. self; 


Heb. Maipha ; Swed. D. and T. sabel: Sp. $ahU ; F. 

Saccadb, #. a shake or violent check given by the rider 
to his horse, by drawing both reins suddenly when 
he bears heavily on the bit ; F. saccade ; Port sacado ; 
Sp. sacudida; Lt, succuiio. 

Sack, #. 1. a large bag or pouch; A. sttq; H. 9ak ; 
9tU»H ; L. iaccus ; Arm. and I. moc ; W. Moch ; F. mc ; 
It sacco ; Sp. saco; G. sakk; Swed. sack; D. smk; 
T. sack ; B. zak ; S. scbc, Sakus is also used in Ma- 
lay, which is the lingua franca of the East 

2. A loose robe, a woman's gown ; 94yh ; L. sagum ; 
Arm. sake; F. say; Sp. sajfo, 

3. From the verb ; plunder. 

4. A sweet wine now called Canary, but formerly pro- 
duced at Xeque in Morocco. A sweet wine was 
formerly made in England from a raisin or dried 
grape, called seco in Spain, and thence named sack. 

Sack, v. a. 1. to put into a sack. 

2. To pillage, to ravage ; F. saccager ; It. saochegmre ; 
Sp. saquear, 

Sackbut, s. a musical instrument; F. saquebomU; It 
sacabuche, from sack, a bag, and A. boog ; P. book ; 
Heb. buk, a trumpet 

Sackcloth, s, haircloth used for sacks ; Heb. smk, be- 
cause made of hair. 

Sacristy, #. the vestry room of a church ; L. sacriot^. 

Sad, a. 1. sorrowful, adfflictive, melancholy; G. sat, sui, 

grief, wail, from M. G. syian ; S. sieeian ; Scot sU, 

to grieve, to sigh. 
2. Cohesive, fixed, staid ; G. seda, seta, corresponding 

with L. sedeo ; Scot to sad in Uie faith, to fix in the 

Saodlb, s. a seat on a horse's back, two loins of mutton 

not separated; Q.sadul; D.sadel; S. sadl; B. sadel; 

T. sattel; W. sadell; L. sella, sedile: G. seda, seta, 

and L. sedeo, signified to sit 

Safb, a. flree from danger; F. sauf; L. sahus. 


Safflowsb, #. bastard saffron; A.ooifoor; B. 9afflQtr$; 

L. carihamus. 
Saffron^ #. a yellow flower used medicinally ; A. zku- 

Juran, zufran, yellow ; F. tqfran ; Sp. azi0ran, 
Sao, v. to depress, hang beavy, load ; 6. and Swed. 

siga ; S. tigan ; Scot, stg. See Swag. 
Sao, #. a plant that grows in watery places. See Sbdob. 
8agb> s, 1. a wise man ; It. saggio ; F. sage ; L. tagax. 
2. An herb; F. sauge; L. salvia. 
Sago, #. the pith of a species of palm tree ; Hind, sagoo. 

Sail, i. 1. a canvas sheet, a vessel that carries sail ; O. 
sigl; Swed. segel; D. seifl; S. segl; B. seyheL 

2. A rope, a cord; Q.saU; Swed. sele; S.sal; T. sell; 

B. zeeL 
Saih, «, hogs lard, the fat of swine ; A. saman, butter ; 

L. sevum ; F. sain ; W. saim^ suet, grease. 

Sainfoin, #. an herb used for feeding cattle ; F. sain^ 
Join : L. sanctum foenum. 

Sakb, #. cause, account, regard ; P. sakhi ; 6. sak ; S. 

sac ; T. sacK ; B. zaak ; £. B. «eca. 
Sabbr, s, a kind of hawk, a small piece of cannon ; F. 

#acre ; T. sacker ; L. accipiter sacer. 
Salad, s, raw herbs for food ; F. salade ; Sp. ensalada ; 

It. in salata, from L. salitus. 
Salahandeb, s. a fabulous animal supposed to live in 

fire ; F. salamandre ; L. salamandra ; A. and P. nc- 


Salabt, 1. a periodical payment ; F. salaire ; L. B. sa^ 
lidarium, from L. soUdus, a piece of money. 

Salb, s. act of selling, vent, market ; G. sala ; B. saaU 
See to Sell. 

Salbf, 1. the root of the male orchis dried ; Turkish 

Salient, a. in heraldry, leaping, springing; F. salient; 

L. saliens, 

Salique Law, s, a charter of rights introduced by the 
Franks under Clovis> and supposed to be named from 
a small community inhabiting the banks of the river 
Saal. But 6. and F. sal signified a court of govern- 
ment ; T. saleut, seignorial property ; and this code 
was apparently a court regulation. G. smlia, from 
which we have our word to sell, signified properly 
to transfer, to deliver over : Whence G. sali ; T. sal, 
transfer, produced G. arfsal, hereditary succession ; 
T. salman, an executor ; salbuch, a register book or 
record of territorial inheritance, contracts or privi- 
leges. See Saloon. 

Sallow, s. the willow tree; F. saule ; Swed. salg; S. 
seal; L. saUx. 

Sallow, a. yellow, sickly ; B. zallon ; Isl. siueUg, tawny. 

Sallt, v. n, to rush out, make an eruption ; F. sailUr ; 

L. saUo. 
Sallt, s. dim. of Sarah ; a woman's name ; in the same 

way that L. puera produced puella. 

Salmagundi, s. a mixture of salad and pickled meats; 
It. salami condi ; F. salmagondi, from L. sal, and 

Saloon, 1. a long spacious hall; F. salon; It. saUme, 
from G. T. and S. sal; F. saUe, a hall, a court ; Upsal, 
the high court. 

Salpicon, s. cold beef cut in slices^ and eaten with salt, 
oil and vinegar ; Sp. salpicon. 

Salt, s, a well known seasoning; G. Swed« and D. salt; 
S. sealt; T. saliz; B% zouti L.sal; »Xf ; It sale; Sp. 

S A S 

sal; F.sel; W. hal; Arm. haU. ""AX^; Q.saU; L. 
salum, signified also the sea. 

Salt Cellab, s. a small vessel to hold salt ; F. saliere ; 
It. saliera. 

Saltieb, s. in heraldry, a figure in form of St Andrew's 
cross, said to represent an engine for taking wild 
beasts ; L. saUuanus ; F. sautoir, belonging to a forest. 

Saltfbtbe, s. nitre ; F. salpetre ; L. sal petra. 

Salvb, s. an emplaster, remedy, cure ; S. ^udf; T. salbe; 
D. salve, from L. sidvo. 

Salveb, s. a large plate on which any thing is present- 
ed ; Sp. salva, salvilla, from L. salvo. 

Salvo, s. a reservation, exception, plea ; It salvo ; F. 
sauf. See Savb. 

Sake, a. being of the like kind ; Sans, sam ; G. same ; 
Swed. and D. samme; S. and T. sam, from P. and 
G. sa, so. See Soke. 

Samphibe, *. an herb used for pickling ; F. Saint Pierre^ 
St Peter's wort 

Sample, s, a pattern, specimen, example, part of the 
whole ; L. exemplum. 

Sand, s. gravelly earth, stone reduced to small particles; 
G. Swed. D. S. T. and B. sand. See Sumdbb. 

Sandal, s. a loose shoe, a kind of dog; wmititiXff; L. 

Sandarak, *. the gum of a tree; A. sundaros ; P. san* 

darack ; L. sandaraca. 

Sandel-wood, Sandebs, s. a valuable Indian wood; 
Sans, and A. sunduL 

Sandeveb, s. the sulphureous salts cast up in making 
glass ; F. sain de verre ; L. sevum de vitro. 

Sap, s. 1. vital juice of plants; G. sofa; Swed. sqfwa; 
D. sqfl ; T. sapf; 8. saspe ; B. sap ; L. sapa ; Sp. 
saba ; F. seve, supposed to be from iirU. A. saah is 

2. A spade or mattock ; wum^Ut ; L. B. sappa; F. sape ; 

It zappa. 
Sap, v. a. from the noun ; to undermine, to subvert by 

Sapphire, s. a blue precious stone ; Heb. saphir ; A. 

safeir; L. sapphirus; F. saphir; It saffiro. 

Sababand, s. a Moorish dance ; A. zaraband ; Sp. zn- 
rabando; F. sarabande. 

Sabacbn, s. a disciple of Mahomet ; It Saraceno ; F. 
Sarazin; T. Saracen, from A. Sharken, an inhabitant 
of Sahara or the desert, but particularly applied now 
to that part between the Mle and the Ked Sea ; 
whence, A. sharaka, a robber. 

Sabah, s. a woman's name, a princess ; the feminine of 
Heb. sar, a lord or sovereign. See Ton. 

Saboenet, s. a fine woven silk formerly brought from 
Syria when possessed by the Saracens ; L. B. Sa^ 

Sabclb, v. to weed com ; F. sarcler ; L. sarculo. 

Sabda, Sardin, s. a small fish, a pilchard caught near 
Sardinia ; F* sardine ; It sardella. See AlNchovy. 

Sabdine Stone, s. a sardonyx, found in Sardinia. 

Sabplbb, Sabplibb, s. a packing cloth, a coarse sack ; 

F. serpillere; L. B. sarplera ; Sp. harpillera, tow, from 

L. carpo. 
Sabse, s. a fine sieve ; F. sas ; Sp. sedazo ; It. setaccio, 

from L. seta. 
Sabt, s. woodland turned into tillage. See Assabt. 
Sash, i. 1. a silk belt or ribband. It sessa, is said to 

have been uaed in this sens^ although not now to be 

S C A 

S C A 

found ; bat It corresponds exactly with the P. and 
Turk, cummerbund, and was no doubt adopted dur- 
ing the Crusades. 
2. The sliding frame of a window; F. chassis. 
Sassafras, s, an American medical shrub ; Sp. sdlsafras, 

Satan, s. the devil ; A Sheitan ; Heb. Satan, the ad- 
versary, the accuser. 

Satin, s, a sofl close shining silk, said to have been 
made at Sidon ; Heb. saden ; Sp. sedeno ; T. seiden ; 
F. satin. 

Satrap, s. a peer, a chief governor ; P. sairah ; L. *a- 

Saturday, s. the last day of the week, the Jewish sab- 
bath ; S. Sasierdag ; B. Saterdagh. T. Samstqg; F. 
Samedi, seem to be G. Siaum, the seventh or sabbatJi ; 
but Swed. Logerdag; D. Ldverdag, correspond with 
the G. name Thuatrdag, the day of ablution. Our 
word seems to be L. Satumi dies. 

Savage, a. wild, uncultivated, cruel ; F. sauvage ; It 
selvaggio ; Sp. salvage, from L. sUva. 

Savanna, s. an open meadow ; Sp. sahanna, a sheet, a 
plot, from A. saff, suff, a mat or carpet. 

Saucb, s. something eaten with food to improve the 
taste ; F. sauce; It. salsa ; L. salsus. 

Saucer, s. a small plate for a tea cup; F. saucier; 
Swed. saltser, a cup for holding sauce ; but P. cha ser 
is a tea bowl. 

Saucy, a. insolent, pert, impudent ; L. salax ; It. and 

F. salace. 
Save, v. to preserve from danger or ruin, keep frugally, 

lay up, rescue ; F. sauver ; L. salvo. 

Saunter, v. n. to loiter, to wander about idly ; L. B. 

segnitare, from L. segnitas. 
Savour, s. a taste, scent, odour; F.saveur ; Sp. sabor; 

It. saporc ; L. sapor. 

Sausage, s. a kind of meat pudding ; F. saucisse ; It 
salsiccia ; L. salsidum. 

Saw, s. a dentated instrument ; It. sega ; F. scie ; T. 
sage ; S. sige ; D. saug ; Swed. sag ; B. zaog : L. seco 
and G. sega, signified to cut 

Say, v. a, to speak, tell, utter ; G. saga ; T. sagen ; D. 
sige ; S. secgan ; B. zeggen ; Swed. sei^'a ; Coptic saji. 

Scab, s. an incrustation over a sore, a disease incident 
to sheep ; L. scabies. 

Scabbard, s. the sheath of a sword ; G. skalpur ; Swed. 
scalp, from G. skyla, to cover, defend. 

Scaffold, s. a temporary stage ; L. scamnum, scamiUum, 
scabellum; L. B. scabellatum ; F. escabeau, echafaud; 
B. schavot ; D. skaffot ; T. schaffot. 

ScAiiD. V. a. to bum with hot liquor ; Sp. escaldar ; It. 
scaldare, from L. callidus. 

Scald, a. scabby, paltry, scurvy, coming off in scabs or 
scales. See Scall. 

Scale, *. 1. a balance, properly the dish of a balance; 
G. sfcal; Swed. skal; 8. scale; D. skaal ; T. schaale ; 
B. schaal, literally a shell ; wag schaal, a weigh shell. 

2. Part of the covering of a fish ; G. skal ; Swed. skaal; 
It. scaglia ; F. ecailie. 

3. A ladder, any thing divided like steps, a line of dis- 
tances, degrees of a circle, gammut ; L. and It scala; 
F. eckelle. 

Scale, v, a. 1. To climb by ladders, to mount. 

2. To disdiarge the useless contents of emnon ; G. 

skilia ; S. scylan ; B. sheelen, to separate, disperse ; 

Scot skailing of the kirk, the empt3ang of the CQurdi. 
ScALL, s. scabbiness, the scald head ; L. B. and It. scab- 

biota ; Scot skaw ; O. F. esgale, gale, from L. sea* 

ScALLD, s. a Gothic poet, priest or bard; from gala, to 

sing, galld, enchantment ; whence sgalld, skatld and 

enchanter, which originated in song. See Bard. 

Scall ION, s. a small green onion ; Sp. ascalonia ; It 
scalogna ; L. B. asca, from the town of Ascalon, still 
famous for onions. 

Scallop, s. a pectinated shell fish ; B. schulp, schelp, 
from shell. 

Scalp, s. the skin and flesh on the scull ; B. schelp; It. 

ScAMBLE, V. to shuffle along, to move awkwardly ; D. 
skicsvoie, from skue, oblique ; It. scambilare, nam L. 

Scamper, v. n. to run with speed, to decamp ; G. skam* 
pa; Swed. skimpa, skumpa; T. schumpfen ; B. 
schampen ; It sgamhare, to run quickly and irregu- 
larly : but It. scampare ; F. escamper, ecamper, sig- 
nify properly to decamp, escape, from L. ex campo. 

Scan, v. a. to count the feet of a verse, to examine nice- 
ly ; L. scando. 

Scandal, s. calumny, infamy; oM(f>«A«f; L. scanda^ 
lum; F. scandale. 

Scant, a. sparing, scarce, short ; P. kamt ; G. skamt ; 
Scot, skimpet. 

Scantling, s. timber cut into a small size, a sam